Exploring the LEARNING in Game-Based Learning


Published on

Discover the specific elements of game environments that make them attractive as learning solutions. The session will differentiate between game format and game design and highlight elements that have an impact on learning. Motivation, constructivism, physical activity, game balance and feedback will also be explored within the context of game-based learning.

Published in: Education, Technology
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Enter room screen
  • My part in HU’s commitment to games and simulations for learning LTMS LTMS 603: Engaging with Learning Activities, Games and Simulations Games and simulations concentration Harrisburg University Work with faculty to incorporate games and simulations into the curriculum Creating a DNA/RNA game with Biotechnology faculty as a student project Creating a proposal for a university-wide, technology-based learning system that will incorporate games and simulations (looking for partners/funding) Working with university librarian on a grant funded project to create an information literacy game Center for Advanced Entertainment & Learning Technologies -Explore games and simulations and expand upon current strategies and implementations -Learning and Entertainment Evolution Forum (LEEF)
  • My part in HU’s commitment to games and simulations for learning CISC Coordinate and teach in the New Media concentration; video, web, and game development Harrisburg University Work with faculty to incorporate games and simulations into the curriculum Advise undergraduate students interested in the entertainment industry Oversee creation of web-based applications for university partners through the office of strategic markets Working with university librarian on a grant funded project to create an information literacy game Center for Advanced Entertainment & Learning Technologies -Explore games and simulations and expand upon current strategies and implementations -Learning and Entertainment Evolution Forum (LEEF)
  • Charles Objectives: Motivation Constructivism Physical Activity Game Balance Feedback
  • Charles Game format vs. game design (3 minutes) Games are not inherently fun; fun doesn’t just happen. It is carefully planned, designed, iterated upon and executed. Most games are composed of the following elements: Story (what happened before I started playing, what information do the players need to begin…) [except in abstractions; Flow, Tetris, Peggles, Bejewled, …] Character(s) / Role(s) (who are the cast of characters, what is my role in the world, …) Goal (like movies games follow a structure where the goes on a journey with the purpose of achieving a goal. In some instances the goal is unknown but is revealed to the player during the journey) Obstacle(s) (these are things that players must overcome; a level boss, mastery of a skill, proficiency in a subject area, …) Status / Feedback (reward systems) (what happens when the player overcomes an obstacle, how is advancement expressed [fireworks, gold stars, achievements, pay increase,] most often this feedback is related to what motivates the player Levels: are used to validate performance or break content into smaller chunks. Successful games and experiences are interwoven with these elements. It’s when story, challenges, rewards, and achievements are in balance that we perceive the experience as fun.
  • Charles Motivation (10 minutes) ARCS Motivation Theory - http://ide.ed.psu.edu/idde/ARCS.htm Attention Perceptual Arousal   Gain and maintain student attention by the use of novel, surprising, incongruous, or uncertain events in instruction. Inquiry Arousal Stimulate information-seeking behavior by posing , or having the learner generate , questions or a problem to solve. Variability Maintain student interest by varying the elements of instruction . (by showing multiple examples you pique the students interest and get them thinking about other related examples that might fit the proposed question) Attention examples - Media (http://financialentertainment.org/play/celebritycalamity.html) - Scenario (http://www.alleni.com/books/Resources/corndone/corndone.htm) - Variety (Demos – Legal Issues) Relevance Familiarity Adapt instruction , use concrete language, use examples and concepts that are related to the learner's experience and values to help them integrate new knowledge . Goal Orientation Provide statements or examples that present the objectives and utility of the instruction, and either present goals for accomplishment or have the learner define them. Motive Matching Adapt by using teaching strategies that match the motive profiles of the students. Relevance example (familiarity, goals and motives) - http://www.jason.org/digital_library/8239.aspx Confidence (related to levels – we’ll talk about that later) Satisfaction (Rewards - leaderboard) (related to feedback – we’ll talk about that later)
  • Andy Constructivism (15 minutes for 6-10) People construct their own understanding and knowledge through experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences. To do this we ask questions, explore, and assess what we know. Do you think that everyone in this classroom picture has the same question? Constructivism is driven by the individual learner, the prior knowledge they bring into the learning situation and how they will assimilate new knowledge with pre-existing. Everyone’s experience will be somewhat unique. Games and simulations provide a great environment for individualized learning
  • Constructivism - Gardner’s Theory of multiple Intelligences Human’s have more than just cognitive intelligence and knowledge that can be measured by standard assessments. Logical and linguistic are the two intelligences most often focused on and measured as part of standardized tests and IQ tests. In his theory, Gardner emphasizes that not all students do well in only focusing on two primary intelligences and there should be a broader vision of education, where teachers use different methodologies, exercises and activities to reach all students, not just those who excel at linguistic and logical intelligence Games and simulations provide environments where multiple intelligences can be addressed and those that are weaker in linguistic and logical intelligence can still thrive and learn (and develop their linguistic and logical competencies)
  • Constructivism – social learning People learn and learn about learning by interacting and collaborating. For true learning to happen, it must happen outside one’s own mind. People create their own meaning Test that meaning out in the group Adapt and adjust their interpretation based on the feedback from group (partly observation) Adjust their learning (based on feedback and observation) Social Learning (observation) http://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2008/08/video-games.aspx In another paper, researchers Constance Steinkuehler, PhD, and Sean Duncan, MA, of the University of Wisconsin at Madison looked at how game-based learning can supplement textbooks and science labs in fostering scientific thinking. They analyzed a random sample of nearly 2,000 discussion posts in November 2006 where participants talked about various game-related topics. Scientific thinking can be learned in virtual worlds, said Duncan. The majority of participants (86 percent) shared their knowledge to solve problems and more than half the participants (58 percent) used systematic and evaluative processes indicative of scientific reasoning. "These forums illustrate how sophisticated intellectual practices to improve game play mimic actual scientific reasoning," said Duncan. "Gamers are openly discussing their strategies and thinking, creating an environment in which informal scientific reasoning practices are being learned by playing these online video games." Cisco (Eriked27pa) https://learningnetwork.cisco.com/community/connections/games Discussion and documents
  • Constructivism – Learning by Teaching I saw someone quote recently on twitter that the person who learns the most from the instructional design process is the instructional designer. Learning by Teaching Game design as instructional strategy Quest2Learn - 6th-12th grade school launched in fall 2009 http://q2l.org/ Harrisburg University – http://caelt1.harrisburgu.edu/theacademy/ (Teach communication, project management, etc. under the umbrella of game design) Gameferences - http://www.innomgmt.com/ Challenges (time, reflection, connection) Learning by teaching = social learning, part of self reflection, part of individualized learning
  • Constructivism - Instructor’s Role From sage on stage to guide on side (move from teacher to facilitator) No longer didactic lecture to cover subject matter, but someone to help learners come to their own understanding. Instructors and learners learn from each other in a constructivist environment Facilitators play a major role in game-based learning through the debrief and making connection between playing and learning
  • Charles Physical Activity (15 minutes) Impact Console Games Wii Kinect Alternate Reality Games (w/example) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vov1bqpdCh8 Augmented Reality Games (w/example) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1WAb3iuPqoo Firefighter http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1z_MlHZKM9M&NR=1 QR Codes (w/example)
  • Charles Flow and Cycles of Expertise This concept that the brain can get overwhelmed is accounted for in game design by leveling. There are two design concepts related to leveling that we can apply to learning design to improve our learning ROI. Flow: Combination and balance of use of existing skills (ability) with acquiring new skills (challenge) that keeps the person engaged. Otherwise, if something is too challenging it’s frustrating. If it’s too easy, it’s boring. Goal: stay on the line or a little above or a little below. Cycles of Expertise: Learners practicing skills until they are nearly automatic, then having those skills fail that cause the learners to think again and learn new skills. (Pacing) Analogous to riding a bike. When you’re learning or experiencing something new you’re biking up hill. When you’re using something you know you’re biking down hill. An example of these strategies in a game would be: 1 st Level = pretty easy (Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?) 2 nd Level = knowledge + some new challenges 3 rd Level = knowledge, but need to apply it a little faster 4 th Level = knowledge + some new challenges Final Level = Cumulative application (really, really hard, but really fun and engaging) How is most learning structured? Module 1: new stuff Module 2: more new stuff Module 3: more new stuff Module 4: more new Module 5: Summary Assessment: too easy What’s important? In an unpaced model everything is new and everything is important . . . So nothing is. In a pacing model it’s easier to pick out the new stuff and change your attention when it occurs. Purpose of talking about brain strain/ cognitive load and how well-designed games and simulations address these issues is to consider these techniques in all learning situations. We can improve learning ROI by implementing game and simulation techniques whether or not the learning solution is considered a “game” or “simulation”
  • Charles Game Balances Zone of Proximal Development = is the difference between what a learner can do without help and what he or she can do with help Similar to the concept scaffolding; where the instructor assists the student through the process of learning, tapering their instruction until the learner proves mastery. We often think of a parent/child relationship where the adult guides the child focused questions and positive interactions, until they are ready to tackle the challenge independently. In games and simulations this is also exhibited via tutorials. Not your standard run of the mill static slideshow, but instead highly interactive, fun tutorials. Good tutorials are: Less text Interactive Not front loaded This will overload the player This is boring (player rush through) Instead deliver instruction when needed during the normal course of game play Fun Are created during the development process and not after
  • Andy Feedback (w/example highlighting at least one of these) (10 minutes) In game Status (indicators) http://www.jason.org/public/digital_labs/LandformDetectives/LandformDetectives.html Constructive feedback (step-by-step and debrief) Non-example: http://www.my3mg.com/6n97d Example: http://www.alleninteractions.com/demos/manpower/course/baseLoad.swf Juicy feedback Tactile—The player can almost feel the feedback as it is occurring on screen. Feedback is not forced or unnatural within the game play. Inviting—It’s something the player desires to achieve, as the player interacts with the game, they want the feedback and work to get the positive feedback . The player is given just the right amount of power and rewards. Repeatable—The feedback can be received again and again if the goals, challenges or obstacles are met. Coherent—The feedback stays within the context of the game. It is congruent with on screen actions and activities as well as with the storyline unfolding as the interactions occur. Continuous—It is not something that the player has to wait for, it occurs as a natural result of interacting within the context of game environment. Emergent—It flows naturally from the game, it unfolds in an orderly and well sequenced fashion. It feels like it belongs within the context of the environment, it is not distracting. Balanced-The player knows they are receiving feedback and they are reacting based on the feedback but they are not overwhelmed by the feedback or thinking of it as direct feedback. Fresh—The feedback is a little surprising contains some unexpected twists and is interesting and inviting. The surprises are welcomed and congruent with the continuous feedback. Around game Instructor support (debrief) Social support (social learning, peers, other players, instructor, etc.)
  • This was put together by a graduate student – Nancy Konopka for a presentation on games and simulations for learning It is yet another representation of how games support learning principles and educational outcomes
  • There are several attributes of games that are particularly useful for learning such as (a) contextual bridging, (b) high time-on-task, (c) motivation and goal orientation, even after failure, (d) providing learners with cues, hints and partial solutions to keep them progressing, (e) personalization of learning, and (f) infinite patience.
  • Games allow a “safe environment” for learners to role-play, meet challenges, experiment with solutions, and reflect on the outcomes of their actions.   Learning outcomes data show that playing games stimulates changes in the brain that promote learning.   Although critics say it has been slow in coming, there is now a growing body of recent evidence demonstrating that game-based learning has a significant positive influence on K-12 test scores. Games are readily adaptable to the learning of 21 st Century Competencies, including critical thinking, teamwork, problem solving, collaboration and information literacy. The learning ROI from games is also impacted/connected to the way we’re learning the brain works. Brain Based Research Brain plasticity (5-10 years) – before then thought that the brain was rigid and that you had an infinite amount of brain cells 2008 study: five days of learning technology showed physical evidence of a rewired brain. Continuous partial attention causes stress and an addictive outcome occurs. The brain begins to thrive on perpetual connectivity. Eventual results in brain strain (errors in work, judgment). In learning, this is somewhat relative to cognitive load (not overloading working memory so that schema acquisition and building can occur). Cognitive load theory more related to use of media and screen design. This brain strain is not as prevalent with games (well-designed games) Well designed games engage multiple senses and multiple intelligences that address the need for social elements in learning, a balance between leveling and completion and time for consolidation (reflection)
  • Enter room screen
  • Exploring the LEARNING in Game-Based Learning

    1. 1. Exploring the LEARNING in Game-Based Learning USAWC Tuesday, March 22, 2011
    2. 2. Andy Petroski Director of Learning Technologies Assistant Professor of Learning Technologies Harrisburg University Harrisburg University LTMS CAE&LT
    3. 3. Charles Palmer Exec. Director Center for Advanced Entertainment and Learning Technologies Associate Professor of New Media Computer and Information Science Harrisburg University Harrisburg University CAELT CISC
    4. 4. Physical Activity Game Balance Contructivism Motivation Feedback
    5. 5. story character goal obstacles feedback levels      
    6. 6. Motivation A ttention R elevance C onfidence S atisfaction Example : The biology instructor uses an image of a beating heart to introduce a web-based instruction lesson on the circulatory system. Example : In a paper-based math lesson, the instructor reminds the students of a math equation they learned in a previous lesson
    7. 7. Constructivism
    8. 8. Constructivism
    9. 9. Constructivism
    10. 10. Constructivism
    11. 11. Constructivism
    12. 12. Physical Activity
    13. 13. Game Balance Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi Challenge Skill Flow Channel
    14. 14. Game Balance Pre-Existing Knowledge Beyond Reach at Present (without help) Zone of Proximal Development
    15. 15. Feedback
    16. 16. Games in Education
    17. 17. Game Attributes & Learning <ul><li>(a) contextual bridging , (b) high time-on-task , </li></ul><ul><li>(c) motivation and goal orientation , even after failure , </li></ul><ul><li>(d) providing learners with cues, hints and partial solutions to keep them progressing , </li></ul><ul><li>(e) personalization of learning , and </li></ul><ul><li>(f) infinite patience </li></ul>
    18. 19. Exploring the LEARNING in Game-Based Learning USAWC Tuesday, March 22, 2011