Rome: Its Location Rome: Republican Phase: 750-500 BC Rome: Maximum Extent of Empire, AD 63
Rise of Rome Latins invaded the peninsula in 1000 BC By 800 BC, founded Rome at the lower valley of the Tiber River, central locus for control of the rest of Italy Other ethnicities migrated to the region: Etruscans, Phoenicians, Greeks Unlike the other villages, Rome encouraged other ethnic groups to migrate there
Multiethnic Contributions to Rome Phoenicians contributed maritime and commercial skills and phonetic alphabet Etruscans brought urban planning, chariot racing, the toga, bronze and gold crafting—and the arch Greeks: the pantheon of gods and goddesses, linguistic and literary principles, and aesthetic
Roman Republic: Roots Etruscans ruled the Latins but were overthrown in 509 BCGradually, monarchy gave way to government by the people (res publica)Predominately comprised the patricians (aristocrats) and the plebians (farmers, artisans, and other common folk.Slaves formed a third category as the empire expandedThe rise of the republic was a slow process
MODEL OF ROME
ORIGINS OF ROMAN ARCHITECTURE Elements of Roman architecture show very significant Greek influence. However, Roman functional needs sometimes differed, resulting in interesting innovations. The Romans were less attached to ―ideal‖ forms and extended Greek ideas to make them more functional.
Roman InnovationThe Romans were the great engineers of the ancient world.Their structures, particularly of public works, were often massive in Ruins of the Basilica of Constantine scale.
Roman Innovation The Roman ability to build massively was largely determined by their discovery of slow- drying concrete, made with pozzolana sand. This allowed not only bases, but also walls to be constructed of mainly concrete or concrete and rubble. Facings could be made of more expensive stone or inexpensive brick. The result was strong structures that could be formed in any desirable shape.
General Characteristics Special importance for the internal space Integral view of the art combining: Beauty and sumptuosity with Utility and practical sense Buildings are integrated in the urban space
General Characteristics Building systems: Lintelled: Copied from the Greeks Spaces are closed by straight lines Vaulted Taken from the Etrurian Use of arches Barrel vaults Use of domes Strong walls so that they do not use external supports
General Characteristics Materials: Limestone Concrete Mortar Arches: They used half point or semicircular arches They could use lintels above these arches Pediments were combined with them
General Characteristics: Building techniques Opus incertum Opus testaceum Opus reticulatum Mortar in theOpus spicatum Barrel Vault foundations
General Characteristics Walls were made in one of these ways: Ashlar Masonry Brick
General Characteristics Material combinations in walls:
Composite WallsNote the use of a brick outer facing and a fill of concrete and rubble.
General Characteristics Greek shapes assimilation: Architectonical orders were used more in a decorative than in a practical way Order superposition The use of orders linked to the wall created a decorative element They used the classical orders and two more: Composite Tuscan
Roman Town Planning Cities were the centre of Roman life Need for infrastructures Water and sewer system Transport and defence Public spaces and markets Psychological effect: power and control There was a need of linking them throug paved roads
Roman Town Planning The plan of the city was based on the camp It had two main axes Cardus E-W Decumanus N-S Where the two converged was the forum The rest of the space was divided into squares in which insulae or blocks of flats were built
Roman Town Planning The most important part of the city was the forum, where political, economic, administrative, social and religious activity were centred. Main buildings were in this forum In big cities there were theatres, circuses, stadiums, odeons.
Caesar Augustae (Zaragoza) plan
Roman Innovation – The Arcuated Arch Romans did not invent this form, but they used it well in bridges, within buildings, and to allow aqueducts to span rivers and gorges.
Bridges Roman engineers were true masters building them, since constructions were essential elements for reaching places and cities often situated at the bank of rivers. This location was due to defensive and infrastructural reasons -supply and drainage. They are characterised by: Not pointed arches. Constructions of ashlars masonry often with pad shape. Route of more than 5 m. wide. Route of horizontal or slightly combed surface "few curved". Rectangular pillars from their basis with lateral triangular or circular cutwaters that end before the railings.
Roman Public Water Supply The Romans transported water from far away to cities via aquaducts. Cities themselves were plumbed, providing private water for the rich and for baths and communal supplies for poorer neighbourhoods.
Aqueducts Aqueducts were built in order to avoid geographic irregularities between fountains or rivers and towns. Not only valleys were crossed by superposed cannels, but also mountains were excavated by long tunnels, pits and levels of maintenance. They were used to bring water to cities.
Roads The need to move legions and trade goods in all weather led to the development of the best roads in the world (to the 19th century).
Roads The roads were made with strong foundations Different materials were put into different layers To meassure the distance they created the Milliarium or stones located in the sides Section of a Roman paved road
Roman Roads Spanned the Empire
Ports and Lighthouses Roman ships and those for commercial trade should travel from port to port with the speed and security adequate to the life of a great Empire. In these ports every necessity for the execution of the usual works in a port ensemble should be found: gateways with stores and bureaux, shipyards for stationing ships, roads for taking ships to earthly ground, drinkable water fountains and machinery for loading and downloading merchandises. Indeed, a system of indication was necessary in order to mark the right access and exit to the port i.e. lighthouse
Religious: Temple It copied the Greek model It has only one portico and a main façade It tends to be pseudoperiptero The cella is totally closed It is built on a podium Instead of having stairs all around, it only has them in the main façade
Religious: Temple There were other kind of temples: Circular: similar to the Greek tholos Pantheon: combined squared and circular structures and was in honour of all gods.
The Maison Caree @ Nimes
The Maison Caree @ NimesRomans needed interior space for worship, whereas the Greeks worshipped outside.Their solution was to extend the walls outward, creating engaged columns, while maintaining the same basic shape.
The Maison Caree @ Nimes It was built c. 16 BC. The Maison Carrie is an ancient building in Nimes, southern France; it is one of the best preserved temples to be found anywhere in the territory of the former Roman Empire. The temple owes its preservation to the fact that it was rededicated as a Christian church in the fourth century, saving it from the widespread destruction of temples that followed the adoption of Christianity as Romes official state religion.
The Maison Caree @ Nimes Architecture The Maison Carrée is an example of Vitruvian architecture Raised on a 2.85 m high podium, the temple dominated the forum of the Roman city, forming a rectangle almost twice as long as it is wide, measuring 26.42 m by 13.54 m. It is a hexastyle design with six Corinthian columns under the Pediment at either end, and pseudoperipteral in that twenty engaged columnsare embedded along the walls of the cella Above the columns, the architrave is divided by two recessed rows of petrified water drips into three levels with ratios of 1:2:3. Egg-and-dart decoration divides the architrave from the frieze. The frieze is decorated with fine ornamental relief carvings of rosettes and acanthus leavesbeneath a row of very fine dentils
The Maison Caree @ Nimes Architecture A large door (6.87 m high by 3.27 m wide) leads to the surprisingly small and windowless interior, where the shrine was originally housed. This is now used to house a tourist oriented 3-D film on a series of heroes that arose through Nîmes history. No ancient decoration remains inside the cella
The Pantheon The Pantheon is a building in Rome, Italy, commissioned by Marcus Agrippa as a temple to all the gods of Ancient Rome The name comes either from the statues of so many gods placed around this building, or else from the resemblance of the dome to the heavens. The building is circular with a portico of three ranks of huge granite Corinthian columns (eight in the first rank and two groups of four behind) under a pediment. A rectangular vestibule links the porch to the rotunda, which is under a coffered, concrete dome, with a central opening (oculus) to the sky Almost two thousand years after it was built, the Pantheons dome is still the worlds largest unreinforced concrete dome
The Pantheon The magnificent interior space of the Pantheon was achieved by: Employing a dome over a drum. Coffering the dome to reduce weight. Placing an occulus to allow light to enter.
The Temple of Fortuna Primigenia The Temple of Fortuna Primigenia was a massive structure, made possible by concrete construction.
The Temple of Fortuna Primigenia
Baths of CaracallaRoman baths were the recreation centers of Roman cities, incorporating pools, exercise facilities and even libraries.They could serve hundreds or thousands at a time.
Baths of Caracalla The entire bath building was on a 6 metre (20 ft) high raised platform to allow for storage and furnaces under the building The libraries were located in exedrae on the east and west sides of the bath complex. The entire north wall of the complex was devoted to shops. The reservoirs on the south wall of the complex were fed with water from the Marcian Aqueduct. The "baths" were the second to have a public library within the complex. Like other public libraries in Rome, there were two separate and equal sized rooms or buildings; one for Greek language texts and one for Latin language texts The baths consisted of a central 55.7 by 24 metre (183x79 ft) frigidarium (cold room) under three 32.9 meter (108 ft) high groin vaults, a double pool tepidarium(medium), and a 35 meter (115 ft) diameter caldarium (hot room), as well as two palaestras (gyms where wrestling and boxing was practised). The north end of the bath building contained a natatio or swimming pool.
Basilica The Latin word basilica w as originally used to describe a Roman public building, usually located in the forum of a Roman town Basilica were first built to house audience facilities for government officials. When Christianity became the state religion, this kind of building was adapted to Christian worship.
Basilica The Roman basilica was a large roofed hall erected for transacting business and disposing of legal matters. Basilicas often contained interior colonnades that divided the space, giving aisles or arcaded spaces on one or both sides, with an apse at one end (or less often at each end), where the magistrates sat, often on a slightly raised dais. The central aisle tended to be wide and was higher than the flanking aisles, so that light could penetrate through the clerestory windows The oldest known basilica, the Basilica Porcia, was built in Rome in 184 BC by Cato the Elder during the time he was Censor. Other early examples include the basilica at Pompeii (l
BasilicaA large nave is flanked by side aisles behind a row of supporting piers.An Apse draws attention in the direction of the altar.
Public Entertainment Public spectacles – be they gladiatorial combat or theatrical – were given public venues. Theatres and arenas were built to hold multiple thousands of people and were engineered so as to allow quick and effective entry and exit.
Colosseum The Colosseum, or the Coliseum, originally the Flavian Amphitheatre is an elliptical amphitheater in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy, the largest ever built in the Roman Empire. It is considered one of the greatest works of Roman architecture and Roman engineering. its construction started in 72 AD under the emperor Vespasian and was completed in 80 AD under Titus Capable of seating 50,000 spectators, the Colosseum was used for gladiatorial contests and public spectacles such as mock sea battles, animal hunts, executions, re-enactments of famous battles, and dramas based on Classical mythology.
Colosseum Architecture The Colosseum is roughly elliptical in shape, with its long axis, oriented WSW-ESE, which measures 188 m and the short one 156. The building stands on a base of two steps; above it there are three floors of arcades built in travertine stone and a fourth storey with windows. There were eighty arches on every floor, divided by pillars with a half column The ground floor half columns are doric in style, those of the second floor are ionic and those of the upper floor Corinthian
Colosseum Architecture The arches are 4.20 m. (13’9") wide and 7.05 m (23’1") high on the ground floor, while on the upper floors they are only 6.45 m (21’2") high. Including the cornices between the floors and the attic, the overall height of the building is 48,5 m The arena where the shows took place measures 76 by 44 metres, it had a floor made with wooden planks covered with yellow sand taken from the hill of Monte Mario. All around the top there were the sockets for 240 wooden beams which supported the awning (velarium) that covered the spectators from the sun and was manoeuvred by a unit of sailors of the imperial fleet, stationed nearby
Roman InnovationEntertainment – Ampitheater at Nimes
Roman Public Water SupplyPont de Garde Aqueduct, Nimes
Houses: Insulae There are urban houses In order to take advantage from the room in cities, buildings up to four floors were constructed. The ground floor was for shops -tabernae- and the others for apartments of different sizes. Every room was communicated through a central communitarian patio decorated with flowers or gardens.
Houses:Domus It was the usual housing for important people in each city. It was endowed with a structure based on distribution through porticated patios: the entry -fauces- gives access to a small corridor -vestibulum-. It leads to a porticated patio -atrium-. Its center, the impluvium, is a bank for the water falling from the compluvium. At both sides -alae- there are many chambers used as rooms for service slaves, kitchens and latrines. At the bottom, the tablinum or living- room can be found, and close to it, the triclinium or dining-room. This atrium gave also light enough to next rooms. At both sides of the tablinum, little corridors led to the noble part of the domus. Second porticated patio peristylium, was bigger and endowed with a central garden. It was surrounded by rooms -cubiculum- and marked by an exedra used as a chamber for banquets or social meetings.
Houses: Villa Houses far from cities, were thought for realizing agricultural exploitations - villae rustica-, or else as places for the rest of important persons -villae urbana-. Entertaining villa was endowed with every comfortable element in its age as well as gardens and splendid views. Country villae got stables, cellars, stores and orchards apart from the noble rooms.
Palaces There were the residence of the emperor They consisted of a numerous series of rooms Their plan tended to be regular
Diocleciano’s Palace at Splitz
Conclusion Romans were imperialists first and republicans second Even the Republican era was one of conquests in the Italian peninsula—much like manifest destiny in the United States during the 19th century Much of the themes emphasize war and conquest The arts mostly had a practical side Toward the end of the era, wealth mattered more than duty that had marked Rome’s earlier years The insecurity of the latter years also opened the populace to new ideologies: mystical cults, revivals of older beliefs from Egypt—and Christianity