Greek civilisation

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Greek civilisation

  1. 1. MADE BY: 2ND YEARPRANAV DHAWANRAGHAV AGGARWALSUKRITI GULATIMEDHA ABHYANKARKANAV THAKURMANEE SINGH
  2. 2.  GREECE WAS SURROUNDED ON 3 SIDES BY SEA, WITH INNUMERABLE ISLANDS OF ARCHIPELAGO. GREEKS WERE GREAT SAILORS, AS THEY WERE SAILING TOWARDS MEDITERRANEAN IN SEARCH OF FOOD, TRADE AND ADVENTURE, THEY WERE LOOKING FOR NEW PLACES TO BUILD GREEKS CITIES AND OUTPOSTS. WHILE SAILING THEY CAME ACROSS A TRIBE OF PEOPLE LIVING ON AN ISLAND IN CRETE. THESE PEOPLE WERE THE MINOANS, THEY WERE VERY ADVANCED CIVILIZATION FOR THEIR TIMES. GREEKS HAD ABUNDANCE OF STONE ESPECIALLY MARBLE FOUND NEAR ATHENS THE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS THERE WERE MODERATE NEITHER TOO HOT NOR TOO COLD. OUTDOOR LIFE SUITED THEM . 2
  3. 3. PLAN OF THE PALACE OF KNOSSOS, CRETE 1700 – 1380 BCE 3
  4. 4. AS MAJOR CEREMONIAL ROOMS WERE LOCATED PARTIALLY UNNDER GROUND, STAIRS TO REACH THEM WERE CONSTRUCTED AROUND OPEN SHAFTS TO BRING LIGHT AND FRESH AIR TO LOWER LEVELS. THE ORIGINAL WOODEN COLUMNS AND SUPPORTING BEAMS WERE DESTROYED IN THE FIRE THAT CONSUMED THE PALACE AROUND 1380 BCERECONSTRUCTED LIGHT WELLPALACE OF KNOSSOS, CRETE LOCATED ON THE UPPER STOREY, THIS LIGHT-WELL IS LOCATED DIRECTLY ABOVE THE THRONE ROOM. THE FRESCO SHOWN HERE IS A RESTORATION AS FAR AS WE KNOW KNOSSOS WAS UNFORTIFFIED. 4
  5. 5. THE ELLABORATE ‘THRONE ROOM’ ISPROVIDED WITH A BENCH SEATING ALONGADJACENT WALLS. FRESCOS SHOW GRIFFINS INLUSH FOLLIAGE. SINCE A LUSTRAL BASINADJOINS THIS ROOM, IT IS POSSIBLE THAT THESPACE WAS USED FOR RELIGIOUS RITUALRATHER THAN ROYAL AUDIENCES 5
  6. 6. THIS FABLED CITY WAS STRATEGICALLY SITUATED TO CONTROL MAJORTRANSPORTATION ROUTES IN THE VICINITY. THE ENCLOSING WALLS ISCOMPOSED OF ROUGHLY SHAPED BOULDERS. PLAN OF THE CITADEL MYCANAE 1600 – 1250 BCE 6
  7. 7. AT MYCENAE, THE PALACEMEGARON IS THE LARGEST ROOM,ROUGHLY 40’ SQUARE. BASES FORTHE FOUR COLUMNS THATSUPPORTED THE ROOF ARE STILLVISIBLE, AS IS THE CENTRALHEARTH. THIS PART OF THE PALACEWAS BUILT IN PART ON FILL,SUPPORTED BY RETAINING WALL,AND THERE IS STILL A SPLINDIDVIEW OUT OVER THE VALLEY FROMTHE COURT IN FRONT OF THEMEGARON. TO THE NORTH, ASMALLER ROOM WITH A STUCCOEDPOOL HAS BEEN IDENTIFIED AS ABATHING ROOM.THE CITADEL OF MYCENAI WASSURROUNDED BY SMALLERSETTLEMENTS, PERHAPSCOMPRISING OF EXTENDED FAMILYGROUPS WHO LIVED IN HOUSESCLOSELYL ASSOCIATED WITH THETOMBS OF THEIR ANCESTORS. NINEOF THESE TOMBS HAVE BEENFOUND IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD. 7
  8. 8. 2 VERTICAL STONES SUPPORT A 14 TON LINTEL ACROSSTHE OPENING ABOVE WHICH IS A CORBELLED ARCH.THE SPACE OF THE ARCH IS FILLED BY A TRIANGULARSTONE WITH RELEIF SCULPTURE OF 2 LIONS WITH THEIRFOREFEET ON AN ALTAR BEARING A COLUMN OF THETREE CULT. THE LIONS’ HEADS ARE MISSING; THEY WERECARVED CEPERATELY AND ATTACHED WITH DOWELS, THEHOLES FOR WHICH ARE STILL VISIBLE. EVEN IN ITSDAMAGED STATE, HOWEVER, THE LION GATE ERIFIESCONTACT BY ITS CREATORS THE MINOAN WORLD, FORTHE COLUMN OF THE TREE CULT IS UNMISTAKABLY THESAME AS THE COLUMNS USED AT KNOSSOS. TO THENORTH STANDS A SECOND, SMALLER GATE OF THE SAMEAGE AS THE LION GATE BUT WITHOUT SCULPTURE.THERE ARE ALSO INCONSPICUOUS BACK ENTRANCES ORPOSTERN GATES BUILT TO PROVIDE ACCESS TO ACISTERN AND TO PROVIDE OUTLETS IN CASE OF ANEMENGENCY.IN ARCHITECTURAL USAGE, THE WORD ‘MEGARON’ ISGENERALLY RESERVED TO DESCRIBE A SIMPLERECTANGULAR SPACE (DOMOS) HAVING SOLID LONGWALLS WITHOUT OPENINGS AND AN ATTACHEDANTEROOM (PRO DOMOS) PRECEEDED BY A COURT.IT IS AN ELEMENTARY HOUSE FORM STILL EMPLOYEDIN MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES, AND TH PERCURSOROF THE CLASSICAL TEMPLE AND IT HAS EVEN BEEN THE LION GATE, MYCENAE, 1300 BCEUSED BY 20TH CENTURY ARCHITECTS INCLUDING LE THE CARVED LION FIGURES FLANK A COLUMN OF THECORBUSIER. TAPERED TYPE SEEN AT KNOSSOS. THE USE OF GUARDIAN BEASTS ASSOCIATED WITH ROYALTY LINKS MYCENAE WITH BOTH THE HITTITE AND THE EGYPTIAN TRADITIONS. 8
  9. 9. PLAN AND SECTION THRU THE TREASURY OF ATREUS, MYCENAE, 1330 BCETHIS CORBELLED TOMB ASSUMES THE SHAPE OF A BEEHIVE. ITS CONSTRUCTION MAY BE COMPARED TO THE TOMB AT ER-MANE AND THE PASSAGE GRAVE AT NEWGRANCE. THE FUNCTION OF THE SIDE CHAMBER IS UNKNOWN, BUT IT MAY HAVE BEEN USED FOR BURIALS. ONE OF THE BEST PRESERVED IS THE THOLOS OR BEEHIVE TOMP COMONLY CALLED THE TREASURY OF ATREUS (CA 1330 BCE). IT IS A CORBELLED STONE CHAMBER RISING 40’ IN 33HORIZONTAL COURSES FROM A CIRCULAR PLAN 48’ IN DIAMETER. 9
  10. 10. THIS AXIAL VIEW SHOWS THE STONE-WALLED DROMOS & THE TRIANGULAR CORBELLED RELIEVING ARCH THAT DIVERTS WEIGHT AWAY FROM THE MASSIVE LINTEL STONE. ALTHOUGH THE INTERIOR SPACE IS RELATIVELY LARGE, IT IS ALSO DARK, DERIVING ITS LIGHT ONLY FROM THE OPEN DOORWAY & TRIANGULAR TRANSOME OF THE CORBELLED ARCH ABOVE IT. THE EVEN COURSES OF ASHLAR, OR SHAPED, STONES CAN BE COMPARED TO THE IRREGULAR CYCOPEAN STONES USED ELSEWHERE AT MYCENAE.ALL THE STONEWORK, EXCEPT FOR THE STONE-WALLED DROMOS, OR ENTRANCEWAY, IS COVERED BY ANEARTHEN MOUND, WHOSE WEIGHT ADDS STABILITY TO THE DRY MASONRY. THE CORBELLED CONSTRUCTIONEMPLOYED HERE IS THE SAME TECHNIQUE USED BY PREHISTORIC MEGALITH BUILDERS IN NORTHERN EUROPE& BY EGYPTIAN MASONS AS EARLY AS THE 4TH DYNASTY. ORIGINALLY THE ENTRANCE DOORWAY WASELABORATELY DECORATED, & THERE IS EVIDENCE THAT THE INTERIOR WAS EMBELLISHED WITH BRONZEPLATES. MOST OF WHICH HAS BEEN ROBBED. 10
  11. 11. CITADEL OF TIRYNSTHE CITADEL SITS ATOP A LIMESTONE RIDGE PROTECTED BY AMASSIVE WALL OF CYCLOPEAN MASONRY THAT DATES TO THE14TH CETURY BCE. AFTER A FIRE DESTROYED THE CITADEL IN 1300BCE, THE WHOLE WAS REBUILT TO ITS PRESENTOUTLINE, INCLUDING ENCLOSURE OF THE LOWER CITADEL WITH A25’ THICK WALL. AN EARTHQUAKE & FIRE IN THE MID 13THCETURY BCE DAMAGED THE COMPLEX, LEADING TO THECONSTRUCTION OF THE BUILDINGS WHOSE REMAINS ARE VISIBLETODAY.THE SURVIVING WALLS AROUND THE UPPER CITADEL VARY FROM16’ TO 57’ IN THICKNESS. LIKE MYCENAE, THE CITADEL AT TIRYNSHAS SEVERAL POSTERN GATES THRU WHICH PEOPLE INSIDECOULD SLIP OUT UNOBTRUSIVELY. CORBELLED GALLERY, TIRYNS, 1300 BCE THESE PASSAGES BUILT WITHIN THE THICKNESS OF THE FORTIFIED PERIMETER WALLS, PROVIDED ACCESS TO GUARD CHAMBERS OR POSTERN EXITS 11 FOR EMERGENCY USE.
  12. 12. THE APPROACH TO TIRYNS HAS A MORESTRONGLY DEFENSIVE DESIGH THAN THE ROOF OF THE HOUSES BUILT INTHE ENTRANCE TO MYCENAE. AN TIRYNS WAS PROBABLY FLAT, ANDALMOST SINGLE-FILE PASSAGE BESIDE BOTH IT AND THE UPPER STOREYAND THEN BETWEEN THE WALLS MADE WERE FRAMED IN WOOD, WHICHWOULD-BE ATTACKERS VULNERABLE ACCONTS FOR THE SURVIVAL OFWELL BEFORE THEY REACHED THE FIRST OLY THE RUBBLE STONEOF THE TWO INNER GATES. BEYOND FOUNDATIONS. EXCEPT FOR THETHE SECOND GATE WAS A COURT CORT AREA, WHICH WAS PAVEDBOUNDED BY PORTICOED CHAMBERS WITH STOE, ALL THE FLOORS WERECORBELLED INTO THE MASS OF THE OF CLAY. A LARGE DRAIN EXTENDSWALL. THESE FACE THE RELETIVELLY ACROSS THE COURT AND EXITSNARROW PALAE GATE THAT OPEND UNDER THE FOUNDATION OF THEINTO A PALACE COURT WHICH EAST WALL, WHILE A LESSER DRAINCONNECTS ON THE NORTH TO A IS LOACED IN THE MEGARON’SCOLONADED COURT THEN TO THE DOMOS. THE USE OF THE SMALLPALACE MEGARON OF ROOMS OFF THE CORRIDOR HASPORC, ANTECHAMBER, AND DOMOS. AS BEEN DETERMINED FROM POTTERYAT MYCENAE, FOUR COLUMN BASES & CLAY TABLETS FOUND IN THEMSURROUND THE SUBSTANTIAL CENTRAL TO BE STOREROOMS, EXCEPT FORHEARTH, INDICATING THE LOCATION OF THE CHAMBER DIRECTLY OFF THETHE ROOF AND ITS OPENING TO LET COURT, WHICH HAD BOTH AOUT SMOKE. FRAGMENTS OF WALL HEARTH & DRAIN SO WASPAINTING DEPICTING PROCESSIONS OF PROBABLY THE KITCHEN IT ISWOMEN AND THE HUNTING OF BOARS SURMISED THAT THE HOUSEWERE FOUND IN THE EXCAVATIONS. A BELOGED TO WEALTHIER PERSONSSMALLER MEGARON LOCATED TO THE ENGAGED IN THE MANUFACTUREEAST HAS AN OUTER AND INNER COURT OF SCENTED OILS, FOR WHICHPRECEDING THE DOMOS. TIRYNS WAS MYCENAE WAS FAMAOUS. WHILEAGAIN DEVASTED BY EARTHQUAKE IN ALL MYCENAE HOUSES HADAROUND 1200 BCE MEGARON LAYOUTS, THE FORM WAS COMMON ENOUGH. 12
  13. 13.  THE GREEK TEMPLES WERE SURROUNDED BY OPEN COLONNADES IN FULL VIEW TO COMMON PEOPLE. THE GREEK TEMPLES WERE USUALLY ORIENTED TOWARDS EAST. THERE WAS NO REGULAR PRIESTHOOD. THE GREEK GODS WERE CONCEIVED IN HUMAN FORM WITH HUMAN EMOTIONS. 13
  14. 14.  THE TERM HELLENIC IS USED TO DESCRIBE THE EARLY GREEK CIVILIZATION. ESSENTIALLY A COLUMNAR AND TRABEATED STYLE. SPANS WERE LIMITED BECAUSE OF TRABEATED STYLE. IN 600BC THE USE OF MARBLE WAS LIMITED. WALLS WERE CONSTRUCTED FROM ALL KIND OF RUBBLE AND ASHLAR, NO MORTAR WAS USED. STONE WALLS WERE BEAUTIFIED WITH MARBLE STUCCO. THEY DIDN’T USED VAULTS OR DOMES. EXTERIORS OF BUILDINGS WERE DESIGNED WITH COLONNADES. 14 COLUMNS WERE MADE MORE ELEGANT AND DELICATE.
  15. 15.  THE TERM IS USED TO DESCRIBE GREEK CIVILIZATION WHEN IT WAS INFLUENCED BY THE MIDDLE EAST. THE ARCHITECTURE HAD A RELIGIOUS CHARACTER AFTER 4TH CENTURY B.C PUBLIC BUILDINGS APPEARED TOWN PLANNING AND CIVIC SENSE DEVELOPED. ARCHES STARTED APPEARING ON WALL OPENINGS. 3 ORDERS WERE USED. 15
  16. 16. HELLENISTIC CITIESGREEK CITY PLANNING WAS NOT ALWAYS AS ASYMMETRICAL & EVOLUTIONARY IN FORM AS THE AGORA INATHENS. THE GREEKS WERE PERFECTLY CAPABLE OF PRODUCING REGULAR, ORTHONONAL TOWN PLANS ANDFREQUENTLY EMPLOYED THEM FOR COLONIAL CITIES, AS MAY BE SEEN AT PAESTUM (POSEIDONIA), WHICH ASTREET PATTERN FROM THE MID- SEVENTH CENTURY BCE THAT PRODUCED HUGE, ELONGATED, RECTANGULARBLOCKS.WHILE MANY CITIES GREW ORGANICALLY OVER TIME, OTHERS WERE REBILT, OFTEN AFTER SUFFERING WARDAMAGE, ACORDING TO THE NEW, MORE REGULAR TOWN PLANNNING PRINCIPLES. SUCH WAS THE FACE IN THE5TH AND 4TH CENTURIES BCE, WHEN A NUMBER OF TOWNS WERE PROVIDED WITH GRID BLOCKS & CAREFULLYCONSIDERED OPEN SPACES AND ORTHOGAL AGORA. 16
  17. 17. 17 THE GREEK ORDERS
  18. 18. THE LANGUAGE OF ARCHITECTURE: THE THREE ORDERS OF COLUMNS USED IN GREEKARCHITECTUREVITRUVIUS, THE ROMAN ARCHITECT WHOSE FIRST – CENTURY BCE TREATISE WAS BASED IN PARTON EARLIER, NOW LOST, GREEK TEXTS, NAMES THREE SUCH ORDERS :1 ) THE DORIC2) THE IONIC &3) THE CORINTHIAN.THE DORIC , THE STURDIEST, WAS BASED ON THE PROPORTIONS OF A MAN.THE IONIC, WAS LIGHTER IN CHARACTER TO REFLECT THE PROPORTIONS OF A WOMANTHE CORINTHIAN, SLENDEREST OF ALL, HAD A HIGHLY DECORATED CAPITAL TO SUGGEST THEFORM AND PROPORTIONS OF A YOUNG MAIDEN.THE DORIC ORIGINATED ON THE MAINLAND OF GREECE, WHILE THE IONIC DEELOPED ON THEISLANDS OF THE AEGEAN AND THE COAST OF ASIA MINOR. THE CORINTHIAN ORDER ONLYAPPEARED LATER.EACH ORDER HAS ITS OWN PARTICULAR COMBINATION OF ELEMENTS. THE DORIC COLUMN HASNO BASE AND HAS THE SIMPLEST CAPITAL ATOP THE FLUTED SHAFT; ITS ENTABULATURECONSISTS OF A PLAIN ARCHITRAVE AND ALTERNATING METOPES AND TRIGLYPHS IN THEFRIEZE, WHICH IS CROWNED WITH A CORNICE. 18
  19. 19. THE DORIC ORDER AS FOUND ON THE PARTHENON, ATHENS THE DORIC’S CLEAR ARTICULATION OF ELEMENTS CATCHES SUNLIGHT IN AN EVER-CHANGING PLAY OF SHADE AND SHADOW ACROSS THE CARVED SURFACES. THIS MAY BE ONE REASON IT HAS ENDURED EVEN TO THE PRESENT AS AN EXPRESSIVE PART OF WESTERN ARCHITECTUREGCAD MONA CHANDRA 19
  20. 20. BUILDERS OF THE EARLY DORIC TEMPLES MADE USE OF LOCALLY AVAILABLE MATERIAL, MOST OFTEN LIMESTONE. THIS IMPOSED STRUCTURAL LIMITATIONS ON THE LENGTH OF SPANS FOR LINTELS AND THE DIAMETER OF COLUMNS NEEDED TO SUPPORT THE HEAVY TILE ROOF. IONIC TEMPLES USED MARBLE, A SUPERIOR STONE, AND THUS HAD A MORE SLENDER PROFILE. AT PAESTUM IN SOUTHERN ITALY, THE TEMPLE OF HERA IN THE FORMER COLONIAL CITY OF POSEIDONIA IS ONE OF THE MOST SUBSTANTIAL OF SURVIVING ARCHAIC TEMPLES. BUILT IN ABOUT 550 BCE, IT HAS STURDY DORIC COLLUMNS. THE COLUMN SHATS SWELL, THEN DIMINISH, AS THEY RISE TO THE BULBOUS ECHINUS MOULDING THAT FORMS THE CAPITAL. THIS CHANGE IN SOLUMN DIAMETER IS CALLED ENTASIS, AND IT WAS THOUGHT TO BE COMPARABLE TO THE MASCULAR STRENGTH OF AN ARM OR LEG, EXPRESSING VISUALLY THE PHYSICAL LOAD SUSTAINED BY THE SHAFT. EACH FLUTE IS THE COLUMN HAS A PRECISE EDGE, AN ARRIS, WHERE THE CURVED SECTIONS OF ADJACENT FLUTES INTERSECT, AND THESE ARRISES RUN ABSOLUTELY STRAIGHT UP THE SHAFT ON EVERY COLUMN. ABOVE THE ECHINUS IS A FLAT SQUARE BLOCK, THETEMPLE OF HERA AT PAESTUM 550 BCE ABACUS, WHICH PROVEDES THE TRANSITION FROM THE CYLINDRICAL FORM OF THE COLUMN TO THETHE END ELEVATION OF NINE STURDY COLU,NS, WITH RECTANGULAR AND LINEAR ARCHITRAVE ABOVE. JOINTSENTASIS, CAPITAL WITH FLATTENED ECHINUS PROFILES,AND SUBSTANTIAL ABACUS BLOCKS, ALL SUPPORTING AN BETWEEN LIMESTONE BLOCKS ARE EASILY SEEN ATENTABLATURE. NOTICE HOW SHADOWS CAST BY FLUTING PAESTUM, AND THE LLIMITED SPANNING CAPABILITY OFON THE COLUMN SHAFTS ENHANCE THE SENSE OF THE STONE IS REFLECTED IN THE CLOSE COLUMN SPACING .VOLUME 20
  21. 21. THE IONIC HAS A BASE SUPPORTING ITS FLUTED COLUMN SHAFT AND A CAPITAL WITH VOLUTES (SCROLLS). ITS ENTABULATURE IS ALSO COMPOSED OF AN ARCHITRAE AND FRIEZE. THERE IS REGIONAL VARIATION IN THE IONIC : ALONG THE COAST OF ASIA MINOR, THE FRIEZE IS USUALLY TREATED AS THREE STEPPED BANDS OF MASONRY. WHILE ON THE MAINLAND OF GREECE THE FRIEZE OFTEN FEATURES CONTINUOUS SCULPTED RELIEF. A CORNICE OFTEN WITH DENTILS CONCLUDES THE ORDER. THERE WAS ALSO GENERAL CONVENTIONS REGULATING THE PROPORTIONS OF THE PARTS, THE OVERALL HEIGHT, AND THE COLUMN SPACING, WHICH THE ANCIENT GREEKS ADJUSTED ACCORDING TO PARTICULAR CIRCUMSTANCES. ITALIAN ARCHITECTS OF THE RENAISSANCE 2000 YEARS LATER CODIFIED THE PRACTICE INTO A SET OF MATHEMATICAL RATIONS BASED ON THE COLUMN’S DIAMETER AT THE BASE, BUT MEASUREMENTS OF SURVIVING TEMPLES PROVIDE NO EVIDENCE THAT THE GREEKS EVER REDUCED TEMPLE DESIGN TO A SINGLE FORMULA. THE ORDERS OF ARCHITECTURE WERE THUS AT ONCE SPECIFIC AND FLEXIBLE, NOT A RESTRICTION FOR DESIGNERS BUT AN EXPRESSIE MEDIUM THAT COULD BE ADAPTER TO PECIFIC CIRCUMSTANCES.THE IONIC ORDER AS FOUND ON THE THE ORIGINS OF THE ORDERS REMAIN OBSECURE. VITRUVIUSNORTH PORCH OF THE MAINTAINS THAT THE ORDERS WERE DERIVED FROM EARLIERERECHTHEION, ATHENS. ARCHITECTURE IN WOOD, A MATERIAL THAT WE KNOW WAS ONCETHE IONIC’S DECORATIVE FLOURISHES MAYRELFECT INFLUENCE FROM ORIENTTAL USED FOR TEMPLES. EVEN AFTER WALLS AND COLUMNS WERESOURCES. ALTHOUGH THE ENTABLATURE IS BUILT IN STONE, WOODEN BEAMS CONTINUED TO BE USED FORSIMPLER THAN THE DORIC’S ITS CAPITALS FRAMING THE ROOF, SO THESE HAVE NOT SURVIVED.AND BASES ARE SUBJECT TO CONSIDERABEARTISTIC INTERVENTION 21
  22. 22. CORINTHIANCAPITAL, THOLOS, EPIDAUROS360 – 330 BCELAVISH CORINTHAIN CAPITALS LIKETHIS COMBINED IONIC VOLUTESWITH THE LEAVES OF THEACANTUS PLANT, WHICH IS STILLCOMMONLY FOUND IN THEMEDITERRANEAN AREA. ONLYPENTELIC MARBLE OR OTHERSTONE WITH SO FINE A GRAINALLOWS FOR THE CARVING OFSUCH FINE DETAIL. 22
  23. 23. PLAN OF THE PARTHENON COMPLEXTHE ACROPOLIS IS A PLATEAU RISING ABRUPTLY ABOVE THE PLAIN OF THE CITY. FROM THE EARLIESTTIMES, THE ROUTE TO THE PANATHENAIC WAY FROM THE CIVIC COMMERCCIAL CENTER ( THE AGORA)TO THE ACROPOLIS TRAVERSED A WINDING STEPPED PATH UP THE WESTERN ESCARPMENT. AS MOSTGREEK TEMPLES FACE EAST, THIS MEANS THAT THE INITIAL VIEW THAT ONE HAS IS OF THE BACK SIDESOF THE BUILDINGS. IT HAS A DIGNIFIED SYMETRICAL ENTRANCE WAY AMID ASYMMETRIESACCOMMODATING A FRAGMENT OF THE ORIGINAL MYCENAEYAN FORTIFICATION WALL AND AGRADIENT CHANGE THRU THE DEPTH OF THE BUILDING. 23
  24. 24. 24
  25. 25. THE ACROPOLIS, ATHENS 479BCE(FROM THE ENTRANCE SIDE)THE REMAINS OF THE PROPYLAEA TOTHE LEFT AND THE TINY TEMPLE OFATHENA NIKE IN THE CENTER STANDOUT IN THE FOREGROUND WITH THEGABLE END OF THE PARTHENONVISIBLE ON THE RIGHT. VIEW FROM BELOW OF THE ACROPOLIS, ATHENS THE PARTHENON TEMPLE SITS ON THE HIGHTST GOUND AND STILL DONINATES THE MODERN CITY. PART OF THE ERECHTHEION IS VISIBLE AT THE EXTREME LEFT, WHILE THE TEMPLE OF ATHENA NIKE STANDS AT THE FAR RIGHT SIDE. IN THE RIGHT FOREGROUND REMAIN THE RUINS OF THE RAMS AND STAIRS THAT LED TO THE PROPYLAEA. THE PARTHENON IS FIRST SEEN AT AN ANGLE & THRU A SCREEN OF COLUMNS 25
  26. 26. THE PERSIANS CONTROLLED MESOPOTAMIA & THE IONIAN GREEK AREAS AROUND THE AGEAN SEA IN ASIA MINOR FROM THE MIDDLE OF THE 6TH BCE. IN 480 BCE THE PERSIANS ATTACKED THE GREEK PENINSULA AND DESTROYED ATHENS BUT WERE FINALLY DEFEATED BY THE GREEK NAVY. ATHENS THEN DEVELOPED AS THE LEADING CITY ON THE MAINLAND . IT UNITED WITH IONIAN CITIES TO BETTER ITS MIGHT. A CONSIDERABLE PORTION OF MONEY WAS SPENT ON REBUILDING THE RAVAGED ATHENIAN ACROPOLIS, WHICH HAD BEEN A MILITARY, POLITICAL, AND RELIGIOUS SANCTUARY SINCE MYCENAEN TIMES. THE 4 BUILDINGS ERECTED THERE AFTER 479 BCE USHERED IN THE MATURE PHASE OF GREEK ARCHITECURE KNOWN AS THE CLASSICAL PERIOD (479 – 323 BCE)THE PARTHENON ATHENS, 448 – 432 BCETHIS IS HOW THE PARTHENON APPEARS TO SOMEONE LEAVING THE PROPYLAEA ANDLOOKING SOUTHEAST. AS IS THE CASE WITH MANY GREEK TEMPLES, THE BUILDING ISSET SO THAT THE VIEWER LOOKS UP TO IT AND SEES TWO SIDES AT ONCE. 26
  27. 27. THE PARTHENON, ATHENS EXTERIOR OF THE CELLA WALL, AND ACTUAL USE OFIT WAS THE LARGEST AND MOST FAMOUS OF THE GREEK THE IONIC ORDER IN THE WESTERNTEMPLES, DEDICATED TO ATHENA POLIAS, PATRON GODESS OF OPISTHODOMOS (BACK ROOM) THAT HOUSED THETHE CITY. AFTER THE PERSIANS DESTROYED THE 0LD TEMPLE OF TREASURY, WHERE 4 IONIC COLUMNS SUPPORT THEATHENA, A NEW PERIPTERAL TEMPLE, DESIGGNED BY THE ROOF. THE USE OF 8 COLUMNS ACROSS THE GABLEARCHITECTS IKTINOS AND KALLIKRATES WAS BUILT OF THE END, UNUSUAL IN DORIC, HAS CONNECTIONS TOFINEST MARBLE FROM MOUNT PENTELIKOS (PENTELIC MARBLE). THE EARLIER IONIC TEMPLES. BEHIND THEM ATIT WAS BUILT ON THE SAME SITE AS THE PREVIOUS EACH END STAND SIX PROSTYLE COLUMNS, ORTEMPLE, WITH ENLARGEMENTS AND PROBABLY MADE USE OF COLUMNS IN FROM OF THE EAST AND WEST WALLS.COLUMN DRUMS AND METOPES CARVED FOR THE OLDER ENTASIS , WHICH WAS RATHER HEAVY HANDED INTEMPLE. IT IS A DORIC TEMPLE, 8 COLUMNS WIDE X 17 THE TEMPLE OF HERA AT PAESTUM , WAS USEDCOLUMNS DEEP, BUT IT INCORPORATES IONIC SUBTLY HERE TO CREAT A SENSE OF REPOSE.ATTRIBUTES, INCLUDING SLENDER COLUMN PROPORTIONS, A MINUTE ADJUSTMENTS IN THE HORIZONTAL ANDCONTINUOUS FRIEZE AROUND THE VERTICAL LINES OF THE STRUCTURE ENHANCE THE PERCEPTION OF ORTHOGONAL GEOMETRY: THE STYLOBATE ( THE PLATFORM FROM WHICH THE COLUMNS RISE) IS ACTUALLY CONVEX UPWARD; THE COLUMNS INCLINE IMPERCEPTIBLE AWAY FROM THE VIEWER; AND THE CENTRAL AXES OF THE COLMNS ARE NOT VERTICAL BUT LIE ALOND RADII EMANATING FROM A POINT OVER 6800’ ABOVE THE GROUND. THE COLUMNS ARE NOT THE SAME DIAMETER – THE END ONES ARE LARGER – NOR ARE THEY EQUIDISTANTLY SPACED; THE CORNER ONES ARE CLOSER TOGETHER. 27
  28. 28. SCULPTED FIGURES ADORNED BOTH THE OUTSIDE AND THE INSIDE OF THE PANTHENON. THE 2 END PEDIMENTS WEREFILLED WITH OVER – LIFESISE FIGURES REPRESENTING, ON THE EAST, THE BIRTH OF ATHENA WHINESSED BY THEDOGS, AND ON THE WEST , THE CONTEST BETWEEN ATHENA AND POSEIDON FOR CONTROL OF ATHENS. THE METOPESCONTAINED RELIEF SCUPLTURES DEPICTING STRUGGLES BETWEEN GREEKS AND AMOZONS. GREEKS AND TROJANS, GODSAND GIANTS, AND LAPITHS (PEOPLE OF THESSALONIA) AND CENTAURS (CREATURES COMBINING THE UPPER TORSOS OFMEN WITH THE B ODIES OF HORSES), ALL COMMEMORATING THE TRIUMPH OF GREEKS CIVILIZATION OVERBARBARIANISM. 28
  29. 29. PLANS OF THE PROPYLAEA (437BCE)& TEMPLE OF ATHENA NIKE (425 BCE)THE PROPYLAEA DEFINED THE ENTRANCE TO THEACROPOLIS, WHILE THE SMALER TEMPLE OF ATHENA NIKESTOOD ON THE FORWARD PROJECTION, VISIBLE AT AN ANGLE TOTHOSE ENTTERING THE ACROPOLIS. EVOLOVED FROM EALIERFORTIFIED GATEWAYS, THE PROPYLAEA HAD BECOME ANARCHITECTURAL DEVICE FOR MARKING THE TRANSITION FROMPROFANE TO SACRED SPACE AND FOR CONTROLLING VIEWSTOWARD THE ERECTHEION AND PARTHENON.A CONTINNUOUS FRIEZE RAN AROUND THE OUTSIDE OF THECELLA WALLS BEHING THE COLONNADE, PROTRYAING A SACREDPROCESSION OF ATHENIANS BRINGING GIFTS TOATHENA, POSSIBLY AS A THANK OFFERING FOR VICTORY OVERTHE PERSIANS & ATHENA AND THE OTHER GODS ARE SHOWNRECEIVING THE OFFERINGS.THE CELLA OF THE PARTHENON WAS ONE OF THE LARGESTCELLAS BUILT IN CLASSICAL GREECE. IN THE CELLA IS A LARGECULT STATUE OF THE GODESS ATHENA WITH A NIKE (GODESS OFVICTORY) IN HER RIGHT HAND AND A SHIELD RESTING AT HERLEFT. THE STATUE HAD WOODEN ARMATURE FINISHED WITH WIDE INTERHIGHLY VALUED MATERIALS. IVORY WAS USED FOR ALL EXPOSED COLUMNATION IN TPARTS OF THENA’S BODY; HER DRAPERY, ARMOR, AND HELMET CENTERWERE PREPRESENTED IN GOLD; AND PRECIOUS METALS WEREUSED FOR EYES AND FOR DECORATING HER ROBES ANDARMOUR.BEING A VERY LARGE SPAN OF 40’, SOME SCHOLARS SPECULATETHAT THE CELLA WAS OPEN TO THE SKY, BUT THAT WOULDREDUCE THE DRAMA OF THE SUN PENETRATING TO THE STATUEON THE DAY OF ATHENA BIRTH AS THE PARTHENON IS SOORIENTED. 13th september 2010 29
  30. 30. THE SMALL TEMPLE OF THE ATHENA NIKE WITH ITS REFINED DETAILING AND SMALL SIZE MADE IT A MODEL FOR GARDEN TEMPLES IN THE 18TH CENTURY. THE ERECHTHEION IS BUILT ON THE SITE OF THE MYCENAEAN PALACE THAT WAS ALSO REGARDED AS THE LOCATION OF THE CONTEST BETWEEN ATHENA AND THE GOD POSEIDON. MYTH HAS IT THAT IN A COMPETITION TO DECIDE WHO SHOULD BE NAMED AS THE PATRON OF THE CITY, POSEIDON STRUCK HIS TRIDENT ON A ROCK AND CREATED A SPRING WHILE ATHENA BROUGHT FORTH AN OLIVE TREE. UNDER THE TEMPLE IS THE ‘SEA OF ERECHTHEUS, A SALT-WATER SPRING THAT MADE THE SOUND OF THE SEA AND HAD A ROCK BEARING THE MARK OF POSEIDON’S TRIDENT. THE ERECHTHEION KNITS TOGETHER THESE ASSORTED STRANDS OF SITE-SPECIFIC HISTORY WHILE DEFERING TO THE DOMINANCE OF THE PARTHENON. THE TEMPLE IS BUILT ON 2 DIFFERENT LEVELS TO ACCOMMODATE THE UNEVEN SITE. THE EASTERN PORTICO, DISTINGUISHED BY ITS SLENDER IONIC COLUMNS LED TO ATHENA’S SANCTUARY, WHILE THE NORTH PORCH, ITS STYLOBATE 10’ LOWER, GAVE ACCESS TO POSEIDON’S SHRINE THROUGH AN EVEN MORE ELONGATED IONIC PORTICO. 4 IONIC COLUMNS PARTIALLY ENGAGED IN THE WALL, EXTEND ACROSS THE WEST FASCADE TO THE SOUTH, WHERE THEVIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE ERECHTHEION, ATHENS 421 – 407 BCE ROOF OF THE SPLENDID PORCH FACING THE PARTHENON IS SUPPORTED BY THE 6 CARYATID MAIDENS BELIEVED TOTHE ENTRANCE TO POSEIDON’S SHRINE IS MADE THROUGH THE PORTICO REPRESENT THE WOMEN OF A NEIGHBOURING STATEON THE LEFT. THE HEIGHT OF ITS IONIC ORDER RESULED FROM CHANGES TAKEN CAPTIVE FOR HELPING THE PERSIANS IN THE WARHERE IN THE SITE’S TERRAIN. THIS VARIATION OF THE IONIC ORDER AGAINST ATHENS.BECAME MUCH ADMIRED BY 18TH CENTURY NEO-CLASSICAL ARCHITECTS 30
  31. 31. THE ERECHTHEION421 – 407BCETHIS VIEW FROM THE SOUTHEAST SHOWS THE IONIC COLMNS OF THE ENTRY TOATHENA’S SHRINE (RIGHT) AND THE PORCH DISPLAYING THE CARYATID MAIDENS (LEFT).IN THE LEFT FOREFROUND ARE THE REMAINS OF THE OLD TEMPLE OF ATHENAPOLIAS, DESTROYED BY THE PERSIANS, ON WHICH THE CARYATIDS GAZE IN PERPETUITY. 31
  32. 32. THE PARTHENON LATER BECAME A CHURCH AND ITSSTATUE WAS SMASHED.AFTER THE TRUKS OCCUPIED GREECE, IT BECAME AMOSQUE.BY 1687 IT WAS BEING USED AS A MUNITIONSSTORAGE, AT WHICH TIME IT WAS BOMBARDED BYTHE VENETIANS. THE DIRECT HIT RIPPED OUT THECELLA WALL AND DISLODGED MANY SCULPTURESSOME OF WHICH WERE CARRIED OFF BY THEVENETIANS. SOME OF THE SCULPTURES ARE NOWHOUSED IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM, BUT THE GREEKGOVERNMENT IS EAGER TO HAVE THEM BACK. AMAJOR RESTORATION PROJECT ON THE ACROPOLISTOOK PLACE AS PART OF THE PREPERATION FOR THE2004 OLYMICS IN ATHENS.ATHENS WAS LATER CONQUERED BY THE KING PHILIPOF MACEDONEA IN 338BCE, WHOSE SON WASALEXANDER THE GREAT. ALEXANDER CONQUEREDMANY LANDS FROM EGYPT TO THE INDUS, BUT THEARCHITECTURAL STYLE PROPOGATED BY HIM WASIONIC WHICH REFLECTED AN ORIENTALEXUBERANCE. HE ADOPTED ORIGINAL ASPECTS OFTHE PERSIAN COURT AND SO HIS STYLE IS CALLED‘HELLENISTIC’ AND NOT ‘GREEK’ 32
  33. 33. PLAN OF THE TEMPLE OF PLAN OF THE TEMPLE OF APOLLOPLAN OF THE TEMPLE OF EPICURIUS, BASSAI 430 BCEHERA,OLYMPIA 600 – 590 BCE HERA, PAESTUM 550 BCE ALL THREE OF THE GREEK ORDERS WERE USEDTHE ORIGINAL WOODEN COLUMNS OF THIS TEMPLE REPRESENTS ONE OF THE HERE. DORIC COLUMNS FORMED THE EXTERNALTHIS EARLY GREEK TEMPLE WERE REBUILT EARLIEST EXAMPLES OF THE DORIC ORDER. IT COLONNADE, IONIC COLUMNS WERE PARTIALLYIN STONE,PERHAPS TO PROVIDE BETTER IS UNUSAL IN HAVING AN ODD NUMBER OF ATTACHED TO THE CELLA WALL AND A SINGLESUPPORT FOR THE HEAVIER ROOF TILES COLUMNS ACROSS THE SHORT SIDE, PLACING CORINTHIAN COLUMN WAS PLACED ON THETHAT REPLACED THATCH A COLUMN IN THE CENTER WHERE ONE CENTRAL LONGITUDINAL AXIS. LIGHT SHONE ON WOULD EXPECT AN INTERCOLUMNAR SPACE THE CULT STATUE FROM AN OPENING IN THE FOR CENTRAL AXIAL ENTRY EAST WALL 33
  34. 34. SANCTUARY OF ASKLEPIOS AT EPIDAUROS THE CORINTHIAN ORDER WAS EMPLOYED ON A SUBSTANTIAL SCALE IN THE THOLOS AT THE SANCTUARY OF ASKLEPIOS AT EPIDAUROS (360 – 330 BCE), A CIRCULAR BUILDING APPROXIMATELY 72’ IN DAIMETER, KNOWN NOW FORM ITS FOUNDATIONS AND REASSEMBLED FRAGMENTS PRESERVED ON SITE. EPIDAUROS WAS DEDICATED TO THE GOD ASKLEPEOS, THE SON OF APOLLO, AND BOTH GODS WERE NEREATED HERE IN A LARGE COMPLEX DEDICATED TO HEALING THRU EXERCISE, DIET, AND MEDICAL CARE. THE THOLOS IS BUT A SMALL PART OF A SITE THAT INCLUDED A STADIUM, GYMNASIA, A THEATRE, ALTARS, FOUNDATINS AND BATHS, TEMPLES, AND ACCOMMODATION FOR PATIENTS. ITS EXTERNAL COLONNADE WAS COMPOSED OF 26 NOS DORIC COLUMNS, AND THERE WERE 14 FREESTANDING CORINTHIAN COLUMNS IN THE INNER CIRCULAR COLONNADE FITTED INTO A BLACK & WHITE RHOMBOIDAL FLOORING PATTERN. THE CEILING HAD ORNATE COFFERSFLOOR PLAN (LOWER HALF) & REFLECTED CEILING PLAN WITH FLORAL DECORATIONS. HOW EXACTLY THIS BUILDING(UPPER HALF), THOLOS, EPIDAUROS 360 – 330 BCE WAS USED IS NOT KNOWN. IT HAS BEEN SUGGESTED THATPARTS OF THE BEAUTIFULLY DETAILED CEILING COFFERS THE UPPER STORY MATCHES THAT FOR A SHELTER OF AHAVE SURVIVED AS INDICATIONS OF THE EXQUISITE TOMB AND THAT THE CIRCULAR CORRIDORS EVIDENTHELLENISTIC DETAILING FROM THE FOUNDATION REMAINS WERE EVOCATIE OF PASSAGE THRU THE UNDERWORLD TO THE TOMB OF ASKLEPIOS. 34
  35. 35. THEATER EPIDAUROS,350-200BCETHE THEATRE AT EPIDAUROS IS EXCEPTIONALLY WELL PRESERVED AND BEAUTIFULLY SITED IN THE LANDSCAPE, LOOKING OUT TODISTANT HILLS. TRADITION ASSIGNS ITS DESIGN TO POLYKLEITOS, ARCHITECT OF THE THOLOS, BUT NOT ALL SCHOLARS AGREE WITHTHIS ATTRIBUTION. THE THEATER WAS BUILT IN 2STAGES, THE LOWER 5000 SEATS IN 34 TIERS DATING FROM 350 BCE, WHITH THEUPPER 23 TIERS BEING ADDED IN THE SECOND STAGE.5TH CENTURY ATHENIANS CONSTRUCTED THE THEATER OF DIONYSOS ON THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE ACROPOLIS HILL, USING THERISING EMBANKMENT TO PROVIDE SUPPORT FOR A CONCENTRIC SEATING FOCUSED ON THE CIRCULAR ORCHESTRA, A FLAT AREAFOR DANCING. BEHING THE ORCHESTRA WAS A BACKDROP STRUCTURE, THE SKENE, & THE ARE DIRECTLY IN FRONT, THEPROSKENION, WAS A RAISED PLATFORM FROM WHICH ACTORS DECLAIMED THEIR LINES. (NOTE H OW THIS TERMINOLOGYCONTINUES TO BE USED TODAY; THE FRAMING ARCH OVER THE STAGE OF TODAY’S THEATERS IS KNOWN AS THE PROSCENIUM,WHILE THE ORCHESTRA SEATS ARE THOSE PLACED DIRECTLY IN FRONT OF THE STAGE). SEVERAL DOORS SET IN THE SKENE SERVEDAS ENTRANCES & EXISTS AS NEEDED IN THE DRAMA, AND ACTORS SPOKE LINES FROM THE GODS FROM THE ROOF O FTHE 35BUILDINGS.
  36. 36. PLAN OF THE THEATER EPIDAUROS,350 – 200 BCEVIRTUALLY EVERY GREEK CITY HAD ITS OWN THEATER THAT COULD ACCOMMODATE A GOOD PORTION OFTHE POPULATION, AS ATTENDING FRAMATIC PERFORMANCES WERE ENCOURAGED TO PROMOTE CIVIC 36VALUES
  37. 37. HIPPODAMUS OFMILETUS, PUPIL OF PYTHAGORA, ISOFTEN REGARGED AS THE FATHEROF CITY PLANNING. HIPPODAMUSDID NOT ‘INVENT’ THE GRID PLAN ASIT HAD EXISTED FROM EARLIERTIMES. HIS CONTRIBUTION SEEMSTO HAVE INVOLVED CONSOLIDATING& ARTICULATING THERELIGIOUS, SOCIAL & COMMERCIALELEMENTS OF THE CITY CENTERWITH REGULAR BLOCKS OF HOUSESADJUSTED TO FIT THE PARTICULARCIRCUMSTANCE OF THETOPOGRAPHY. HIPPODOMUS’SBIRTHPLACE WAS THE LEADING CITYOF IONIA. AFTER ITS DESTRUCTIONBY THE PERSIANS IN 494BCE , THECITY WAS REBUILT WITH A PLAN OFRECTANGULAR RESIDENTIAL BLOCKSAND AN ORTHOGONAL AGORA. 37
  38. 38. STOA OF ATTALOS, ATHENS 159 – 132 BCETHIS BUILDING WAS CONTRIBUTED TO THE CITY BY ATTALOS OF PERGAMON. IT IS RECONSTUCTED FORM, IT AND THE HEPHASTEION ARETHE ONLY STRUCTURES FORM ANTIQUITY REMAINING IN THE ATHENIAN AGORA. THE COLUMN FILE ORGAIZATION OF THE STOA CAN BETRACED BACK TO EGYPTIAN COMPLEXES SUCH AS THE TEMPLES OF QUEEN HATSHEPSUT & MENTUHOTEP.TOWN PLANNING WENT BEYOND SPECIFYING THE LOCATION OF THE CIVIC BUILDINGS, THE LAYOUT OF STREETS, AND THEPOSITIONING OF OPEN SPACES, TO ENCOMPASS DESIGN OF TYPICAL SINGLE – FAMILY HOUSES FOR AN ESTIMATED POPULATION OF15,000 TO 20,000. HOUSES WERE CONSISTENTLY ORIENTED WITH THEIR MAJOR ROOMS OPENING TO THE SOUTH, AND THEMEGARON FORM ALREADY FAMILIAR FROM MYCENAEAN TIMES WAS USED AGAIN AS THE BASIC LIVING UNIT OF THE HOUSE.DURING HELLENISTIC PERIOD BOTH ARCHITECTURE & T.P. BECAME MORE ELLABORATE AND THEATRICAL. 38
  39. 39. PLAN OF PAESTUM (POSEIDONIA) 7TH CENTURY BCETHIS GREEK COLONIAL CITY WAS LAID OUT WITH ELONGATED BLOCKS ON THE ORTHOGONAL PATTERN. ACROSS THE CENTER WATHE PULIC SECTOR, WITH COMMERCIAL STRUCTURES, GOVERNMENT BUILDINGS, & TEMPLES, INCLUDING THE TEMPLE OF HERA.THIS SITE WAS SUBMERGED BY THE SEA DURING THE MIDDLE AGES BUT IS LOCATED AGAIN ON DRY LAND TODAY 39
  40. 40. THE HIGH PLINTH ON WHICH THE ALTAR STOOD BECAME THE LOCATION FOR A FRIEZE OVER 300’ IN LENGTH &SCULPTED WITH SCENES OF BATTLES BETWEEN GODS AND GIANTS, AN OBVIOUS ALLUSION TO THE RECENT BATTLES WITHTHE CELTS.INTERWINED WINGS, ARMS, AND WRITHING SNAKE BODIES CREATE A DYNAMIC COMPOSITION. EVEN THE HAIR ON THEGODS’ HEADS AND BEARDS FALLS IN ANIMATED COILS. THE HIGHLY DRAMATIC FRIEZE CONTRASTS WITH THE ELEGANTCOLONNADED BUILDING ABOVE, AND IT ALSO COMPLEMENTS THE EUQALLY DRAMATIC SITE, AN ARCHITECTURAL TOURDE FORCE THAT HAS LITTLE OF THE RESTRAINT AND SUBLIMATED FLEEING THAT GOVERNED THE DESING OF THE 40ATHENIAN ACROPOLIS.
  41. 41. WHILE ARCHAELOGY ON MINOAN SITE IN CRETE HAS NOT YET ESTABLISHED A SATISFACTORY PICTURE OF MINOAN DESIGN THINKING. EVIDENCE DOES SUGGEST SOME KIND OF EXPERIENTIALLY BASED PLANNING, OR PERCEPTUAL THINKING, AS OPPOSED TO ABSTRACT, GEOMETRIC ORDERING, OR CONCEPTION THINKING. THE MAINLAND MYCENAEANS INVENTED THE MEGARON, WITH ITS TWO SPATIAL UNIT PLAN OF PRODOMOS AND DOMO. THE MEGARON ANTICIPATED THE CLASSICAL GREEK TEMPLE PLAN, WITH ITS 3 SPATIAL UNITS : PRONAOS, NAOS OR CELLA AND OPISTHODOMUS.THE APPROACH TO THE PARTHENON WAS ALONG A ROUTE WITH CONSTANTLY CHANGING ORIENTATIONS, CULMINATING IN ANOBLIQUE VIEW OF THE FREE STANDING TEMPLE THROUGH THE COLUMN SCREEN OF THE PROPYLAEA. SUCH A FLUID SYSTEM OFMOVEMENT, COMPARABLE TO MINOAN DESIGNS, GAVE WAY IN THE HELLENISTIC PERIOD TO GEOMETRIC REGULARITY, AXIALITY,AND RIGOROUSLY ORGANIZED BUILDING ENSEMBLES AND ENVIRONMENTS. AND THIS NEW TYPE OF PLANNING WAS LATERAPPROPRIATED BY REPUBLICAN ROME. IN THE 19TH CENTRY, THE CLASSICAL LANGUAGE OF ANCIENT GREEK ARCHITECTUREWOULD REAPPEAR THROUGHOUT EUROPE IN THE FORM OF THE GREEK REVIVAL. THE END 41

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