• The Buddhist architecture has its root deeply implanted in the Indian soil- the birthplace of the Buddhas teachings.• The Buddhist architecture began with the development of various symbols, representing aspects of the Buddhas life (563 BCE - 483 BCE).• Indian emperor Ashoka, not only established Buddhism as the state religion of his large Magadh empire, but also opted for the architectural monuments to spread Buddhism in different places.
• The major features of this style are Stupas stambhas chaitayas viharas• these have been mere spectators of different eras quietly speaks about the phases of the Buddhist stages.
STUPA• A stupa is a mound-like structure containing buddhist relics, typically the remains of Buddha, used by Buddhists as a place of worship.• These stupas are the circular tumuli built of earth, covered with stone or brick, the plan, elevation, section and the Stupa become a cosmic symbol in response total form of which were to a major human condition: death. With the enlightenment of the Buddha, stupa all derived from circle. became a particularly buddhist symbol.
SANCHI STUPA• there are mainly three main stupas on the top of the sanchi hill which rise about 100m above the plain.• Of the three stupa the biggest one is known as the great stupa.
THE GREAT STUPA, SANCHI•The Great Stupa at Sanchi is theoldest stone structure in India andwas originally commissioned by theemperor Ashoka the Great in the3rd century BCE.•Its nucleus was a simplehemispherical brick structure builtover the relics of the Buddha.•It was crowned by the chatra, aparasol-like structure symbolizinghigh rank, which was intended tohonour and shelter the relics.•It has four profusely carvedornamental gateways and abalustrade encircling the wholestructure.
•DOME- is a solid brick-work32.32m in diameter and 12.8mhigh.•The dome has a slight ‘crushed’profile at top and wassurmounted by HARMIKA with acentral triple UMBRELLA.•The facing of the dome consistsof dry masonry composed ofhammer dressed stones laid ineven courses.•The terrace 4.87m high fromground was added thus creating aseparate and upperAMBULATORY passage 1.8m wideaccess to which was provided bya double staircase with highBALUSTRADE, on the south side Plan and elevation
•There are fourgateways known as‘TORANAS’ at thecardinal points to thecompass and are slightlystaggered from therailing enclosing stupa.•The ambulatory orpradakshina path isfenced by railing 3.35mhigh all around thestupa.•Outside the railingthere once stood thefamous ashoka pillar,the fragments of whichare noticed now to theright of southern torana
TORANA•Toranas, the entrance to theambulatory were accepted as thetraditional type of ceremonial potalsand excel the array of architecturalembellishment.•Torana consists of two square upritecolumns with capital of lion or elephantheads denoting strength.•These columns support three separatehorizontal panels between each ofwhich is a row of ornamental balusters.•These panels are supported byatlantean figures, a group ofdwarfs, lions and elephant.•The total height of this erection issomewhat 10.36m with a width of 3m
RAILING OR VEDICA•The vedica or railing consists ofupright octagonal plan 45cm indiameter spaced at 60 to 90cmfrom each other and connectedby three lens shapedhorizontals called ‘suchi’ orneedles 60cm deep beingthreaded through the holes ofthe upright.•The top horizontal bar isprovided with coping to drainout rain water.
STUPA AT AMARAVATIThe Great Stupa at Amaravati was alarge Buddhist monument built insouth-eastern India between thesecond century B.C. and the thirdcentury A.D. It was a centre forreligious activity and worship forhundreds of years.The Stupa was part of a complexof religious buildings built andpaid for by local people. Overtime, the Stupa was added to andchanged many times.
HARMIKA DOME (UPPER). The main part of the Amaravati Stupa was a solid great dome which most likely stood about This relief shows a stupa with 18 meters high. The dome was made of pale a harmika and umbrellas. green limestone which was probably painted with bright colors.
DOME (LOWER) GATEWAY There were four gateways in the railing around the Stupa. Each one of the gateways marked one of the four directions, north, south, east and west. AYAKA PLATFORM A small platform extended out from the drum at each of the gateways. Five pillars were mounted on top of each ofThe lower part of the dome was the ayaka platforms. The ayakacovered with large stone reliefs. This platform may have been used in thesection of sculpture shows different rituals which took place at thescenes from the Buddhas life. Amaravati Stupa.
PILLARFacing each gateway into the Amaravati Stupa was a group of five pillars. The pillars were mounted on a special platform called the ayaka which was part of the drum and extended out from it.
RAILING LIONAround the outer limits of the Stupa was a Lion sculptures were placed at thetall railing made of limestone. The railing gateways to the Amaravati Stupa. Lionsmarked the boundaries of the Stupa. represented power and strength and were meant to ward off evil spirits and protect the Stupa.
STAMBHAS OR LATS•These pillars are common to all the styles of Indianarchitecture. With the Buddhist they wereemployed to bear inscriptions on their shafts, withemblems or animals on their capital.•Typical Buddhist column are of two type one isbased on persepolitian type and other graeco-romantype.•Persepolitian type is a octagonal with bell shapedcapital supporting animal sculpture. The shaft ishighly polished and has a vase-shaped base.•Graeco-roman type is rectangular with shallowflutes. They are tall and slender, the height nearlysix to eight times its lower diameter. At the top is acapital usually with a fluted vase motif.
ASHOKA PILLARS•The authentic examples of these pillars are those which king Ashoka set up tobear inscriptions conveying to his subjects the leading doctrines of the new faithhe had adopted, Buddhism. These are sturdy, finely proportional and properlybalanced religious sign posts•The pillar at sarnath more than 15m high hasa group of four addoresed lions with flowingmanes, surmounting the capital.•These lions originally supported a massivemetal wheel with 24 spokes called ‘wheels ofthe law’.•The capital more than 2m high resembles theshape of a inverted bell or lotus bub withseries of fluted petals.•Above the capital is the abacus which iscircular, having broad edge carves withornamental borders, containing four figure ofanimals alternate with the four small wheels
CHAITYAS•Chaityas or ‘sacred spots’ are thetemples as well as assembly hallscreated out of the particular demandsof buddhist religion. These becamenecessary to accommodate those whocongregated to pay their homage.•These have a small rectangular door-way which opens to a vaulted hall, withapsidal end and divided longitudinallyby two colonnades forming a broadnave in the centre and two side aisles.•At end is a stupa also carved in naturalrock with enough space around it forcircumambulation•The roof is usually semi-circular. 1-stupa, 2-nave, 3-aisles, 4-entry
CHAITYA AT KARLIThe entrance of the chaitya is very grand and consists of three doorways set underneath agallery.The chaitya hall is 38.5m long and 13m wide with a vaulted roof rising to a height of 13.7m.The roof is supplemented by a series of wooden ribs which are closely spaced.The hall is divided by two rows of columns forming a broad nave in the centre.Each column is 1.22m in diameter and 7.32m high, with bell shapes capital which supports apair of kneeling elephants carrying male and female riders and those of horses and tigers inthe rear.The shaft is octagonal in shape and has a vase-shapes base.At the end is a stupa, caved in natural rock, with railing and inverted stepped pyramid or teeat the top.A beautiful ‘lat’ surmounting with four addorsed lions is erected at the entrance of thechaitya.
FEATURES Detail of wooden frame for windowFacade of chaitya hall at karli Richly carved pillars Couples on elephant
Section in perspective of rock-cut chaitya hall at karli
ELEPHANTA CAVES•The cave temple of Shiva, located onElephanta Island in Bombay Harbor, wasexcavated out of the rock sometime in the 6thcentury.•The Elephanta caves are a network ofsculpted caves located on Elephanta island.•The island has two groups of caves in the rockcut architectural style.•The primary cave numbered as Cave 1 is arock cut temple and consists of a mainchamber, two lateral chambers, courtyards,and subsidiary shrines.•Inside, it contains a square linga shrine. Theinterior of the cave is decorated with a dozenlarge relief sculptures of the great god Shiva inhis fierce and kindly aspects.•On the eastern part of the island, on theStupa Hill, there is a small group of caves thathouse Buddhist monuments
Main cave•The main cave, also called the Shivacave, Cave 1, or the Great Cave, is 27meters (89 ft) square in plan with ahall (mandapa).•At the entrance are four doors, withthree open porticoes and an aisle atthe back. Pillars, six in eachrow, divide the hall into a series ofsmaller chambers.• The roof of the hall has concealedbeams supported by stone columnsjoined together by capitals.•The central Shiva shrine is a free-standing square cell with fourentrances, located in the rightsection of the main hall. The main cave blends features such as massive•Smaller shrines are located at the figures of the divinities, guardians, and squareeast and west ends of the caves. The pillars with custom capitals with Gupta artisticeastern sanctuary serves as a characteristics, like the depiction of mountainsceremonial entrance. and clouds and female hairstyles.
MAIN CAVE SHRINE•The central shrine is a free-standingsquare cell, with entrances on each of itssides. Each door is flanked by twodvarapalas (gate keepers).•The linga, the symbol of Shiva in unionwith the yoni, and the symbol of Parvatitogether symbolize the supreme unitythat is deified by the shrine.The height of the eight dvarapalas variesfrom 14.833–15.167 feet (4.521–4.623 m)Hindu cave No 2 is located to the south-east is destroyed, interior has been damaged bywater. to the south there is cave No 3 damaged by stagnant water. To the north cave No 5it has been abandoned soon after the start of construction. The 173 m high Stupa Hill is located in the eastern part of island. It contains two caves with Buddhist monuments and also cisterns from 3rd century AD or earlier. One of two caves is not complete. In the other cave there is stupa made in bricks.
VIHARAS OR MONASTERIES•These are the residential places of the buddhist priests.They consist of a main-hall entered by a door-way.They also contain the assembly hall, dining chambers.•From the halls deep into the rocks, cells are provided formeditation.The shrines contains beautiful figures of Buddha and thewalls of the antechamber depict the stories based onBuddhas life and fine frescoes as in case of Ajanta.•Some great structural viharas were about 60m highcovered with glazed tiles.Pillars were richly chiseled in the form of dragons.Beams were painted in red and rafter with all colors ofrainbow.•Viharas were literally the pleasure gardens of monasticprecincts.•Some of the important Buddhist viharas are those at Plan of rock cut viharaAjanta, Ellora. Nasik, Karle, Kanheri, Bagh and Badami.