World War Ii


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World War Ii

  1. 1. World War II Chapters 24 and 25
  2. 2. Dictators <ul><li>After WWI, many new nations had new democratic govts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Without democratic tradition, govts collapsed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fell to dictators </li></ul></ul>Joseph Stalin Benito Mussolini Adolf Hitler Hideki Tojo
  3. 3. Joseph Stalin <ul><li>Attempted to create a pure Communist state in Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State-run economy became the 2 nd largest in the world by 1937 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Totalitarian state : government controls citizens entirely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Show Trials :” Stalin attacked and executed his closest allies and officials to eliminate all challenges to his rule </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Benito Mussolini <ul><li>Fascism in Italy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mussolini took power during a time of fear and economic depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mega-nationalist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fascism : one individual holds power; stresses nationalism and places interests of the state above individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Totalitarian state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Il Duce” = the leader </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Adolf Hitler <ul><li>German soldier, joined the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (NAZI Party) </li></ul><ul><li>Called himself the Furher </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote Mein Kampf </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outlined ideas of the Nazi Party </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme nationalism and uniting all German-speaking people in one empire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Racial purification </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Territorial expansion </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Adolf Hitler <ul><li>German people turned to Hitler and the Nazi party because of the humiliation and economic depression that existed since WWI </li></ul><ul><li>Once elected, he abolished the former democratic Weimar Republic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set up the Third Reich : Third German Empire </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Hideki Tojo <ul><li>Rose through ranks of the Japanese army </li></ul><ul><li>Supported Nazi Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Called for preemptive air-strikes on China and Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><li>1941, became prime minister and ordered attack on Pearl Harbor </li></ul>
  8. 8. Great Speakers <ul><li>Things these dictators hold in common: </li></ul><ul><li>Military experience </li></ul><ul><li>They are enthusiastic, riveting speakers </li></ul><ul><li>Power-hungry </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Office” – Dwight’s Speech </li></ul>
  9. 9. Causes of WWII <ul><li>Terms of the Treaty of Versailles (WWI) </li></ul><ul><li>Failure of the League of Nations </li></ul><ul><li>Policy of appeasement </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler’s invasion of Poland </li></ul>
  10. 10. Terms of Treaty of Versailles <ul><li>Humiliated Germany </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No standing army </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay war reparations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>depression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War-guilt clause </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Failure of the League of Nations <ul><li>Japan seized Manchurian province 1931 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>League of Nations condemned Japan’s actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Japan, Germany quit League of Nations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Hitler invaded the Rhineland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>League did nothing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mussolini invaded Ethiopia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>League boycotted Italian goods </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Failure of the League of Nations <ul><li>United States wanted to remain neutral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kellogg-Briand Pact </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Isolationists vs. Internationalists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutrality Acts : banned sale of weapons to nations at war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roosevelt felt that we should stop aggressive nations </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Policy of Appeasement <ul><li>Appeasement : to concede to demands in order to maintain order </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sudetenland (Germany vs. Britain & France)-- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hitler: “I promise, this will be the last one .” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Munich Agreement : turned Sudetenland over to Germany </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Czechoslovakia </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Invasion of Poland <ul><li>Russia and Germany sign a nonaggression pact: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promise not to fight each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In return, Russia & Germany will get dibs on Poland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blitzkrieg : Sept 1, 1939 German airplanes and tanks roared across Poland in what is known as “lightning war” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fast-moving, element of surprise </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. The Beginning <ul><li>Between Sept. and May of the following year, Hitler gained Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin gained Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Finland </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Beginning <ul><li>Fall of France </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany attacked from north, Italy joined and attacked from South </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Germany occupies northern France and creates a new government </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The Beginning <ul><li>Battle of Britain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Four months of nightly bombings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hitler knew he couldn’t match Britain’s navy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newly developed radar helped Great Britain to track and shoot down over 100 German planes while only losing 26 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proved G.B. could withstand German attack; first time Hitler’s army is stopped </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. The Final Solution <ul><li>Holocaust : systematic murder of 11 million people in Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More than ½ were Jews </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. The Final Solution <ul><li>The Jewish people have been scapegoats throughout history: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Different way of life during the Roman Empire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blamed for crucifixion of Jesus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relegated to jobs nobody wanted (tax collector, etc) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blamed for the Black Death in Europe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blamed for the economic troubles after WWI </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly because of their having to be involved in certain jobs involving money </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. The Final Solution <ul><li>Hitler found it easy to blame the Jewish people because Germans were eager to accept a reason for their suffering </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When there’s a reason for it, there’s a solution for it </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. The Final Solution <ul><li>Nuremburg Laws (1935): </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Took civil rights and property away from Jews who tried to leave Germany </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forced to wear Jewish yellow star of David in public </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. The Final Solution <ul><li>Jewish refugees fled Europe after Kristallnacht : attack of Jewish homes, businesses, etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Few countries would accept the refugees because of an already surging European population </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The St. Louis was forced to return to Europe without allowing any refugees to enter the U.S. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. The Final Solution <ul><li>The Final Solution also affected these groups of people: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gypsies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jehovah’s Witnesses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>homosexuals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mentally ill </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physically disabled </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Terminally ill </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Any “non-Aryan” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. The Final Solution <ul><li>German SS (security squadron) : </li></ul>
  25. 25. The Final Solution <ul><li>Began in Poland with the Jewish population </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ghettos : segregated areas where Jews were forced to relocate </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. The Final Solution <ul><li>Concentration camps : labor camps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work to death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Die of starvation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be killed for being too weak </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. The Final Solution <ul><li>Final stage was to create death camps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Auschwitz : largest death camp </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. The Final Solution <ul><li>Methods of execution: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hanging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poison gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Injected by poison </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shot </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bodies were burned in crematoriums to hide evidence and reduce the smell </li></ul>
  29. 29. The Final Solution <ul><li>Some camps experimented on prisoners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Without anesthesia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Japan also created similar camps for the Chinese of Manchuria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar experiments, but even more sinister </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. The Final Solution <ul><li>Among those who survived: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elie Wiesel, Night </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Travels the country giving talks on Holocaust and segregation awareness </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. The U.S. in the war <ul><li>Neutrality Acts of 1939 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Roosevelt convinced Congress to include a new “cash and carry” provision that would allow the U.S. to provide weapons to allies as long as they paid in cash and used own ships </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. The U.S. in the war <ul><li>Axis Powers </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Germany, Italy, Japan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ensured a two front war if the U.S. were to enter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Allies </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>United States, Britain, Russia, France </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>And any country who fought the Axis Powers (26) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. The U.S. in the war <ul><li>Pearl Harbor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan needed oil, but U.S. would not end its embargo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peace talks ensued </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roosevelt received decoded message telling Japanese to reject all peace proposals </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. The U.S. in the war <ul><li>Pearl Harbor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bombers attacked the harbor for 1 ½ hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nearly entire U.S. Pacific fleet was wiped out </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. The U.S. in the war <ul><li>D-Day </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Operation Overlord” June 6, 1944 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest land-sea-air operation in U.S. army history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freed France by September </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. The U.S. in the war <ul><li>V-E Day (Victory in Europe Day): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May 8, 1945 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pushed east from France, Soviets west from Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberated concentration camps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rather than surrender, Hitler shot himself and had his wife, Eva Braun, swallow poison </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ordered that their bodies be burned </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third Reich surrendered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>President Roosevelt died one month earlier </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. The U.S. in the war <ul><li>Yalta Conference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stalin agreed to join war against Japan </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. The U.S. in the war <ul><li>V-J Day (Victory in Japan Day) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aug. 14, 1945– ended WWII </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. battles way across the Pacific Ocean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Battle of Midway, Guadalcanal, Okinawa, Iwo Jima </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Midway was a turning point in Pacific war </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Okinawa and Iwo Jima opened way for invasion of Japan, but too risky </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manhattan Project: making of the atomic bomb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>J Robert Oppenheimer </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 39. The U.S. in the war <ul><li>V-J Day (Victory in Japan Day) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aug. 14, 1945– ended WWII </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>August 6 th , Enola Gay dropped bomb on Hiroshima, Aug. 9 th , on Nagasaki </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. The U.S. in the war <ul><li>Nuremburg Trials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>German leaders were put on trial for their part in the various war crimes of WWII </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 of 24 were hanged (of original defendants) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>200 more later convicted and jailed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many others went free </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First time in history leaders held responsible for war crimes </li></ul></ul>