World History- Imperialism
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World History- Imperialism

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World History- Imperialism Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Africa Imperialism
  • 2. Imperialism
    • Major kingdoms developed over time
    • Beginning in the early AD years, Africa had a steady stream of outside traders and explorers
        • Brought new ideas and tools
          • Religions: Christianity, Islam, Judaism
  • 3. European Imperialism
    • Circa 1450, Prince Henry “The Navigator” of Portugal sent ships to explore the West Africa
        • They brought gold and Africans back with them
        • It began the trade between Europe and Africa
    • With new colonies in the Americas, Europeans needed workers
  • 4.
    • European Motives
      • Raw materials/ natural resources
        • Industrial Revolution
        • Diamonds of South Africa
        • Rubber from rainforests in Central Africa
      • Political rivalries
        • To be the best and have the biggest empire
        • Great Britain vs. Spain vs. Portugal vs. France
      • Belief in European superiority
        • Racism , Social Darwinism
        • Ethnocentrism: "The White Man's Burden" by Rudyard Kipling
    European Imperialism
  • 5. European Imperialism
    • Other Factors Involved
        • Technological superiority
        • Steam engine and railroads allowed easier travel
        • Quinine to protect Europeans from malaria
        • African diversity
          • Made it easy to encourage rivalries between different groups
  • 6.
    • The Atlantic Slave Trade
        • The Middle Passage : the second leg of the Atlantic slave trade in which horrible injustices were committed against Africans who were to be sold as slaves
    European Imperialism PBS: The Atlantic Slave Trade
  • 7.  
  • 8. The Scramble for Africa
    • European colonial rivalries spurred the meeting of the Berlin Conference (1884)
        • Split Africa into regions owned by European countries (page 99)
  • 9.  
  • 10. A New Conference?
    • Does Africa need a new Berlin Conference?
  • 11. Resistance to Imperialism
    • Africans continually fought of European imperialism
    • South African resistance
        • Zulus: trained warriors who fought off British soldiers
        • Boer Wars : Fights between Dutch settlers (Boers), British, and Zulus for diamonds and gold
          • Both Dutch and Zulus eventually absorbed into British empire
  • 12.
    • Effects of Imperialism
      • Increased tensions among tribes and societies
      • Loss of traditional culture and communities
      • Loss of lives, particularly from slave trade
      • African diaspora : scattering of people and culture
          • Resulted in the spread of African culture to new regions of the world, especially Europe and the Americas
    European Imperialism
  • 13. Independence
    • Nationalism grew out of European imperialism
      • European boundaries put African tribal rivals under the same governments
    • Nationalists called for a movement
      • Pan-Africanism : movement to unite all Africans based on common heritage
  • 14.
    • WWII weakened European countries (1945)
    • African independence movements were able to gain strength
        • During the 1950s and 1960s many new independent African nations were created
    Independence
  • 15. Implications
    • African nations have struggled to maintain stable governments and stable economies
        • Europeans gave no government training to Africans
        • Extracting and selling natural resources
  • 16. The Middle East Imperialism
  • 17. End of the Ottomans
    • Challenges to the Ottoman Empire:
      • Imperialism
        • European imperialism began to play a strong role in the break up of the Ottoman Empire
      • Reforms
        • Ottoman rulers began acting more Western than Middle Eastern
      • Nationalism
        • Ottoman-ruled regions began nationalist movements
  • 18.
    • Ottomans attempted to reform
      • Modernized the government and army
      • Created secular schools to teach western ideas
    • This plan backfired…
    Ottoman Reforms
  • 19. European Imperialism
    • The empire began breaking into numerous independent states around the 19 th century
      • Those states later came under the control of European countries
        • Example: Egypt- Great Britain
  • 20.
    • One of Egypt’s great rulers during British imperialism was Muhammad Ali
      • He promoted:
        • Modernization
        • Growth of cash crops
        • Western reforms
    Egypt and Imperialism
  • 21. Egypt & Imperialism
    • Britain and France fought to gain control of Egypt
      • They wanted control of the Suez Canal
        • Links the Red Sea with the Mediterranean Sea
  • 22. Republic of Turkey
    • Turkey became independent, however its new ruler was “western” through and through
      • Ataturk : Became President of Turkey in the 1920s
        • Adopted policies of westernization and modernization
  • 23.
    • Western style clothing
    • Separation of church and state
    • Secular public schools
    Republic of Turkey Even language reform. Turkey Video
  • 24. Arab Nationalism
    • After the break up of the Ottoman Empire, Britain and France got control of many Arab lands
      • Arab nationalists demanded self-rule
      • Importance of oil made Europeans reluctant to leave the Middle East
  • 25.
    • The empire was officially dissolved after WWI (1919), when its ally, Germany, was defeated
    End of the Ottomans
  • 26. End of the Ottomans Ottoman Empire at its height
  • 27. End of the Ottomans
  • 28. South Asia British Imperialism in India
  • 29. Dutch and British
    • The Dutch and British gained trading posts in Southeast Asia
      • East India Companies
        • Silk, spices to Europe
        • Textiles, foods, etc. to SE Asia
  • 30. British in India
    • British encouraged disunity among local Indian leaders
      • Indian grievances with British
        • Outlawed Indian traditions
        • Indian princes didn’t like being told what to do
        • High taxes
        • Conversion to Christianity
  • 31. British in India
    • British train sepoys
        • Indian troops serving in the British army
    • Causes of the Sepoy Rebellion
        • Rifles greased with pork or beef fat
        • Required to fight in foreign lands
  • 32. British in India
    • Effects of imperialism
      • British imports pushed
        • Local industries declined
        • Had to raise cash crops to afford to live
      • Improved healthcare and sanitation
      • Improved transportation
        • Railroads
      • Schools built
        • Development of an educated an Indian middle class
  • 33. Push for Independence
    • Indian middle class wants:
        • liberty and freedom from Great Britain
        • To keep Indian cultural traditions
    • Indian nationalists formed groups
        • Indian National Congress (INC)
        • Pressured for self-rule
  • 34. Freedom
    • Great Britain passed laws limiting various freedoms and rights in India
        • The Indian National Congress (INC) continued to fight for self-rule.
        • Example : Indians were prohibited from gathering publicly.
    Indian National Congress, 1885
  • 35.
    • Amritsar Massacre (1919) : British troops opened fire and killed or wounded nearly 1500 Indians
        • Symbolizes a turning point in India’s struggle for freedom
    Freedom
  • 36.
    • Amritsar Massacre memorial in Amritsar, India.
  • 37. Mohandas Gandhi
    • Gandhi urged Indians to gain independence through non-cooperation and nonviolent means
  • 38. U.S. Imperialism Ch. 27 S.5 and Ch. 28 S.3
  • 39. East Asia Spheres of Influence in China
  • 40. Before and After
  • 41. Imperialism
    • During the age of imperialism, the Qing dynasty declined and the Industrial Revolution increased the strength of European nations
  • 42.
    • Great Britain wanted to get involved with China
      • British began trading opium in China
      • The Chinese became addicted
    Imperialism
  • 43. Imperialism
  • 44.
    • Opium Wars
      • The Chinese government asked Great Britain to stop the trade
      • The British refused
    Imperialism
  • 45. Imperialism
    • Opium Wars
      • European victory
        • Superior military technology
  • 46. Imperialism
    • Opium Wars
      • Treaty of Nanjing : ended the Opium wars
        • The Chinese were forced to accept British terms of surrender
          • Spheres of influence : areas in which a foreign country has special economic privileges
  • 47. Imperialism
  • 48. Reform in China
    • The Chinese wanted reform, with the hopes of kicking other nations out of China
      • Learn the western way of life to control foreigners
    • Rebellions and unrest lasted for half a century
      • Many were supportive of reform, others resisted it
  • 49. Reform in China
    • The Boxer Rebellion :
      • Part of a movement known as the “Righteous and Harmonious Society Movement”
      • Fought against foreign influence in China
        • The rebellion was easily crushed by a coalition of foreign armies
  • 50. Independence
    • China became a republic in 1911 (western reform)