World History- Imperialism

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World History- Imperialism

  1. 1. Africa Imperialism
  2. 2. Imperialism <ul><li>Major kingdoms developed over time </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning in the early AD years, Africa had a steady stream of outside traders and explorers </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brought new ideas and tools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Religions: Christianity, Islam, Judaism </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. European Imperialism <ul><li>Circa 1450, Prince Henry “The Navigator” of Portugal sent ships to explore the West Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They brought gold and Africans back with them </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It began the trade between Europe and Africa </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>With new colonies in the Americas, Europeans needed workers </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>European Motives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raw materials/ natural resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial Revolution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diamonds of South Africa </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rubber from rainforests in Central Africa </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political rivalries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To be the best and have the biggest empire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Great Britain vs. Spain vs. Portugal vs. France </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Belief in European superiority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Racism , Social Darwinism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnocentrism: &quot;The White Man's Burden&quot; by Rudyard Kipling </li></ul></ul></ul>European Imperialism
  5. 5. European Imperialism <ul><li>Other Factors Involved </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technological superiority </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Steam engine and railroads allowed easier travel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quinine to protect Europeans from malaria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>African diversity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Made it easy to encourage rivalries between different groups </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The Atlantic Slave Trade </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Middle Passage : the second leg of the Atlantic slave trade in which horrible injustices were committed against Africans who were to be sold as slaves </li></ul></ul></ul>European Imperialism PBS: The Atlantic Slave Trade
  7. 8. The Scramble for Africa <ul><li>European colonial rivalries spurred the meeting of the Berlin Conference (1884) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Split Africa into regions owned by European countries (page 99) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 10. A New Conference? <ul><li>Does Africa need a new Berlin Conference? </li></ul>
  9. 11. Resistance to Imperialism <ul><li>Africans continually fought of European imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>South African resistance </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zulus: trained warriors who fought off British soldiers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boer Wars : Fights between Dutch settlers (Boers), British, and Zulus for diamonds and gold </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Both Dutch and Zulus eventually absorbed into British empire </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>Effects of Imperialism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased tensions among tribes and societies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of traditional culture and communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of lives, particularly from slave trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>African diaspora : scattering of people and culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resulted in the spread of African culture to new regions of the world, especially Europe and the Americas </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>European Imperialism
  11. 13. Independence <ul><li>Nationalism grew out of European imperialism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>European boundaries put African tribal rivals under the same governments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nationalists called for a movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pan-Africanism : movement to unite all Africans based on common heritage </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>WWII weakened European countries (1945) </li></ul><ul><li>African independence movements were able to gain strength </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>During the 1950s and 1960s many new independent African nations were created </li></ul></ul></ul>Independence
  13. 15. Implications <ul><li>African nations have struggled to maintain stable governments and stable economies </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Europeans gave no government training to Africans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extracting and selling natural resources </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 16. The Middle East Imperialism
  15. 17. End of the Ottomans <ul><li>Challenges to the Ottoman Empire: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imperialism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>European imperialism began to play a strong role in the break up of the Ottoman Empire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ottoman rulers began acting more Western than Middle Eastern </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ottoman-ruled regions began nationalist movements </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>Ottomans attempted to reform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modernized the government and army </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created secular schools to teach western ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This plan backfired… </li></ul>Ottoman Reforms
  17. 19. European Imperialism <ul><li>The empire began breaking into numerous independent states around the 19 th century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Those states later came under the control of European countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Egypt- Great Britain </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 20. <ul><li>One of Egypt’s great rulers during British imperialism was Muhammad Ali </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He promoted: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modernization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Growth of cash crops </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Western reforms </li></ul></ul></ul>Egypt and Imperialism
  19. 21. Egypt & Imperialism <ul><li>Britain and France fought to gain control of Egypt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They wanted control of the Suez Canal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Links the Red Sea with the Mediterranean Sea </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 22. Republic of Turkey <ul><li>Turkey became independent, however its new ruler was “western” through and through </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ataturk : Became President of Turkey in the 1920s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adopted policies of westernization and modernization </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 23. <ul><li>Western style clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Separation of church and state </li></ul><ul><li>Secular public schools </li></ul>Republic of Turkey Even language reform. Turkey Video
  22. 24. Arab Nationalism <ul><li>After the break up of the Ottoman Empire, Britain and France got control of many Arab lands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arab nationalists demanded self-rule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of oil made Europeans reluctant to leave the Middle East </li></ul></ul>
  23. 25. <ul><li>The empire was officially dissolved after WWI (1919), when its ally, Germany, was defeated </li></ul>End of the Ottomans
  24. 26. End of the Ottomans Ottoman Empire at its height
  25. 27. End of the Ottomans
  26. 28. South Asia British Imperialism in India
  27. 29. Dutch and British <ul><li>The Dutch and British gained trading posts in Southeast Asia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>East India Companies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Silk, spices to Europe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Textiles, foods, etc. to SE Asia </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 30. British in India <ul><li>British encouraged disunity among local Indian leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian grievances with British </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outlawed Indian traditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indian princes didn’t like being told what to do </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High taxes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conversion to Christianity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 31. British in India <ul><li>British train sepoys </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indian troops serving in the British army </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Causes of the Sepoy Rebellion </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rifles greased with pork or beef fat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Required to fight in foreign lands </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 32. British in India <ul><li>Effects of imperialism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British imports pushed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Local industries declined </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Had to raise cash crops to afford to live </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved healthcare and sanitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Railroads </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schools built </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Development of an educated an Indian middle class </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 33. Push for Independence <ul><li>Indian middle class wants: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>liberty and freedom from Great Britain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To keep Indian cultural traditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Indian nationalists formed groups </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indian National Congress (INC) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pressured for self-rule </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 34. Freedom <ul><li>Great Britain passed laws limiting various freedoms and rights in India </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Indian National Congress (INC) continued to fight for self-rule. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example : Indians were prohibited from gathering publicly. </li></ul></ul></ul>Indian National Congress, 1885
  33. 35. <ul><li>Amritsar Massacre (1919) : British troops opened fire and killed or wounded nearly 1500 Indians </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Symbolizes a turning point in India’s struggle for freedom </li></ul></ul></ul>Freedom
  34. 36. <ul><li>Amritsar Massacre memorial in Amritsar, India. </li></ul>
  35. 37. Mohandas Gandhi <ul><li>Gandhi urged Indians to gain independence through non-cooperation and nonviolent means </li></ul>
  36. 38. U.S. Imperialism Ch. 27 S.5 and Ch. 28 S.3
  37. 39. East Asia Spheres of Influence in China
  38. 40. Before and After
  39. 41. Imperialism <ul><li>During the age of imperialism, the Qing dynasty declined and the Industrial Revolution increased the strength of European nations </li></ul>
  40. 42. <ul><li>Great Britain wanted to get involved with China </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British began trading opium in China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Chinese became addicted </li></ul></ul>Imperialism
  41. 43. Imperialism
  42. 44. <ul><li>Opium Wars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Chinese government asked Great Britain to stop the trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The British refused </li></ul></ul>Imperialism
  43. 45. Imperialism <ul><li>Opium Wars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>European victory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Superior military technology </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 46. Imperialism <ul><li>Opium Wars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Treaty of Nanjing : ended the Opium wars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Chinese were forced to accept British terms of surrender </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spheres of influence : areas in which a foreign country has special economic privileges </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 47. Imperialism
  46. 48. Reform in China <ul><li>The Chinese wanted reform, with the hopes of kicking other nations out of China </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn the western way of life to control foreigners </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rebellions and unrest lasted for half a century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many were supportive of reform, others resisted it </li></ul></ul>
  47. 49. Reform in China <ul><li>The Boxer Rebellion : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of a movement known as the “Righteous and Harmonious Society Movement” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fought against foreign influence in China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The rebellion was easily crushed by a coalition of foreign armies </li></ul></ul></ul>
  48. 50. Independence <ul><li>China became a republic in 1911 (western reform) </li></ul>

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