World History - Chapter 5

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  • 1. Classical Greece Chapter 5
  • 2. What comes to mind when you think of ancient Greece?
  • 3. Geography
    • Seas influenced Greece
      • Greeks became skilled sailors
      • trade for natural resources
    • Mountainous land
      • cover 3/4 Greece
      • small, independent communities developed
      • land transportation was difficult
  • 4. Geography
    • Climate
      • mild temperatures support outdoor life
  • 5. Mycenae
    • Mycenaeans : Group of Indo-Europeans that settled in southern Greece
    • Contact with Minoans
        • adapted Minoan writing system
        • Minoan designs on vases
    • forms base of Greek culture
  • 6. Mycenae
    • Trojan Wars
        • Mycenaeans (Greeks) fought a 10 year war against the city-state of Troy
        • recent archaeological finds suggest it could be a true story
  • 7. Mycenae
    • Mycenaeans replaced by Dorians
        • no written records exist from 1150-750bc
        • we know little about the Dorians
  • 8. Mycenae
    • Spoken stories became popular
      • Homer : Greek storyteller
        • wrote epics : narrative poems that celebrate heroes
  • 9. Mycenae
    • Greek myths
      • sought to understand the mysteries of nature and power of human passion
      • live on Mt. Olympus
        • Zeus : ruler of the gods
        • Athena : goddess of wisdom and guardian of cities (Athens)
  • 10. Section 2 Review
    • City-states of Greece
      • Polis
      • Acropolis
      • Monarchy
      • Aristocracy
      • Oligarchy
  • 11. Section 2 Review
    • Athens
      • Democracy
        • limited or more accepting at different times depending on ruler
  • 12. Section 2 Review
    • Sparta
      • Military state
      • Helots
      • Values of pride, bravery, strength
  • 13. Section 2 Review
    • Persian Wars
      • Phalanx
      • Battle of Thermopylae
      • Battle of Salamis
      • Delian League
  • 14. The Golden Age of Athens
  • 15. The Golden Age
    • Pericles and Athens
      • Three goals:
        • Strengthen democracy
        • Hold/strengthen empire
        • Glorify Athens
  • 16. The Golden Age
    • Strengthen democracy
      • Paid more public officials
      • Increased number of citizens serving in govt.
      • Direct democracy : citizens rule directly
  • 17. The Golden Age
    • 2. Strengthen empire
      • Took over Delian League
        • Used the League’s money to strengthen Athens’ navy
        • Dominated other members
  • 18. The Golden Age
    • 3. Glorify Athens
      • Used League money to buy gold, ivory, marble
      • Paid artists/architects to create sculptures and buildings
  • 19. Art and Drama
    • Classical art :
      • Graceful, beautiful, strong, perfect
      • Greek values in art:
        • Harmony
        • Order
        • Balance
        • Proportion
        • idealistic
  • 20. Art and Drama
    • Drama
      • Greek built the first theaters
        • Tragedy : serious drama about love, hate, war, betrayal
          • Heroes have a tragic flaw
          • Darth Vader
        • Comedy : crude humor and slapstick
          • made fun of politics and Athenians
          • SNL
  • 21. Modern Examples of Greek Stories and Epics
  • 22. Art and Drama
    • Historians
      • Herodotus : wrote first book of history on Persian Wars
      • Thucydides : wrote works on basis that history repeats itself
  • 23. Athens vs. Sparta
    • Peloponnesian War:
      • Sparta declared war on Athens
  • 24. Greek Philosophers
    • Beliefs of the philosophers:
      • The universe is orderly, made up of unchanging laws
      • We can understand the universe by using logic and reason
  • 25. Greek Philosophers
    • Sophists
        • Question traditional beliefs
    • Socrates
        • Question yourself, your values and actions
    • Plato
        • The Republic : philosopher-kings rule over a perfect society
    • Aristotle
        • Basis of scientific method for questioning the world and human belief
  • 26. Alexander the Great
    • King Philip II of Macedonia
      • Macedonians thought they were Greek
      • Greeks did not
      • Philip II invaded Greece and ended Greek independence forever
  • 27. Alexander the Great
    • Philip II murdered
      • Alexander, his son, declared himself the new king
      • Becomes known as “Alexander the Great” for his accomplishments
  • 28. Alexander the Great
    • Defeating Persia
      • Taught by Aristotle, inspired by the Iliad
      • Alexander first proved he could defeat the Persians in the battle of Granicus River
      • Page 144
  • 29. Alexander the Great
    • Moving South
      • Persian King Darius III was scared
        • Offered Alexander all Persian lands west of Euphrates
      • Alexander refused peace and marched into Egypt
        • Founded Alexandria
  • 30. Alexander the Great
    • Moving East
      • Near ancient Nineveh, Alexander used the phalanx formation to cause Darius III to flee the battle
        • Marked the end of the Persian Empire
  • 31. Alexander the Great
    • Alexander’s Defeat
      • Pursued Darius
        • Found him dead near the Caspian Sea
      • Continuing east, armies experienced hardship
      • Once defeating an army in the Indus Valley, Alexander agreed to return home
  • 32. Alexander the Great
    • Alexander’s Defeat
      • At Babylon, Alexander died from illness
    • The Legacy
      • Empire split into three kingdoms
        • Antigonus
        • Ptolemy
        • Seleucus
  • 33. Alexander the Great
    • The Legacy
      • Hellenistic culture :
        • Blending of Persian, Egyptian, Indian, and Greek cultures