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  1. 1. Islam Teachings and History of the Religion
  2. 2. The Beginning <ul><li>Muhammad </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Born in Mecca in 570 AD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often meditated in the hills near the city </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One day, the angel Gabriel came to him and spoke, giving him teachings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Koran : the words the angel Gabriel spoke to Muhammad, the holy book of Islam </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Beginning
  4. 4. The Beginning <ul><li>Muhammad was forced to leave in 622 AD for his teachings </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Went to Yathrib (Medina today) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hejira : Muhammad’s migration from Mecca to Medina, marked the beginning of the expansion of Islam </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gathered an army in Medina </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>He returned to Mecca in 630 and took over the city </li></ul>
  5. 5. Teachings of Islam <ul><li>The Five Pillars of Islam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proclaim belief in one God, Allah, and his prophet Muhammad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pray 5 times a day, facing Mecca </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charity to the poor and elderly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast during the month of Ramadan (holy month) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hajj : pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in life </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The 6 th pillar? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jihad : has at least two meanings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An inner battle to achieve peace </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An outer battle to defend Islam </li></ul></ul></ul>Teachings of Islam
  7. 7. <ul><li>The Koran and its teachings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The book must be handled carefully </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People of the Book : Jews and Christians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muslims are required to treat them with tolerance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Share all the Jewish prophets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muslims believe Jesus was a prophet, but not the messiah </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muhammad is the last prophet, and all that he said was fully correct </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Teachings of Islam
  8. 8. Teachings of Islam <ul><li>The Koran and its teachings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslims must live lawful, moral lives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone is equal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Islam borrows much from Judaism and Christianity, while adding its own elements </li></ul>
  9. 9. History of Islam <ul><li>Caliph : leader of Islam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Politics and religion are one in Islam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sunnis and Shiites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These two sects stem from a disagreement about the caliph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who should become caliph after Muhammad? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Sunnis and Shiites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shiites : Believed Muhammad’s son-in-law, Ali, was the successor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only descendents of Ali could be caliph </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunnis : Believe any true Muslim can be caliph </li></ul></ul>History of Islam
  11. 11. <ul><li>Early Islamic dynasties sent armies throughout the Middle East, converting along the way </li></ul>History of Islam
  12. 12. <ul><li>Umayyad Dynasty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A period of cultural discrimination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital was Damascus, Syria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arab culture flourished </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Religion and arts encouraged </li></ul></ul></ul>History of Islam
  13. 13. <ul><li>Abbassid Dynasty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious and cultural tolerance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital at Baghdad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>peace </li></ul></ul>History of Islam
  14. 14. <ul><li>Throughout history, a respect for learning allowed Islamic civilization to grow and prosper </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Islam was the major rival to Western Civilization by the time of imperialism </li></ul></ul>History of Islam
  15. 15. Spread of Islam
  16. 16. <ul><li>Foreign Invaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The borders of the Muslim empire were always changing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Starting in the year 1000, waves of foreign invaders flooded the Middle East, but were never able to fully take over the civilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strong Muslim armies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most invaders were either already Muslim, or converted to Islam </li></ul></ul></ul>History of Islam
  17. 17. <ul><li>Seljuks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turkish Muslims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lived in the Iranian Plateau </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Captured Baghdad and weakened the current Byzantine empire </li></ul></ul>History of Islam
  18. 18. <ul><li>Mongols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Came from Central Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Took Baghdad from the Seljuks and destroyed it in 1258 AD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continued to raid the Muslim civilization for 100 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many eventually converted to Islam and blended into Middle Eastern culture </li></ul></ul>History of Islam
  19. 19. <ul><li>The Crusades </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crusade : holy war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christian Pope called a crusade against Muslims in 1095 AD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The goal was to capture Palestine, “the holy land” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There were 6 crusades </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some were successful, others failed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Had only a limited effect on the Middle East </li></ul></ul>History of Islam
  20. 21. <ul><li>Ottoman Empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turkish speaking Muslims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunnis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Captured Constantinople in 1453 to end the Byzantine Empire; renamed the city Istanbul </li></ul></ul>History of Islam
  21. 22. History of Islam <ul><li>Ottoman Empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sultan : Ottoman leader with absolute power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Millets : non-Muslim communities </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>Safavid Empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In present day Iran </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shiites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rivals to the Ottomans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islamic Republic of Iran today is mostly Shiite </li></ul></ul>History of Islam
  23. 25. Islam in 750 AD
  24. 26. Islam Today
  25. 27. Review <ul><li>Beginning of Islam: Muhammad </li></ul><ul><li>Teachings of the Koran </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 Pillars of Islam: a 6 th pillar? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>History and Spread of Islam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Umayyad and Abbassid Dynasties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seljuks, Mongols, Crusades </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ottoman and Safavid Empires </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary: Koran, hejira, hajj, jihad, People of the Book, caliph, Sunni, Shiite, crusade, sultan, millets </li></ul>