Independence And Development


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Independence And Development

  1. 1. South Asia India’s Imperialism, Independence, and Development
  2. 2. Review Imperialism <ul><li>What was society like for Indians before imperialism? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did the sepoys rebel against the British? </li></ul><ul><li>How did British rule change India? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Freedom <ul><li>Great Britain passed laws limiting various freedoms and rights in India </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Indian National Congress (INC) continued to fight for self-rule. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example : Indians were prohibited from gathering publicly. </li></ul></ul></ul>Indian National Congress, 1885
  4. 4. <ul><li>Amritsar Massacre (1919) : British troops opened fire and killed or wounded nearly 1500 Indians </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Symbolizes a turning point in India’s struggle for freedom </li></ul></ul></ul>Freedom
  5. 5. <ul><li>Amritsar Massacre memorial in Amritsar, India. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Mohandas Gandhi <ul><li>Gandhi urged Indians to gain independence through non-cooperation and nonviolent means </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>While studying law in South Africa, Gandhi developed the idea of nonviolent resistance to end injustice </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Satyagraha : “truth force,” nonviolence will show your enemy the truth force </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The idea was to convert the wrongdoer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>His beliefs were rooted in both Hinduism and Christianity </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hindu: nonviolence, respect for all life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Christian: love, even for your enemies </li></ul></ul></ul>Mohandas Gandhi
  8. 8. <ul><li>Gandhi emphasized traditional Indian values and Hindu virtues (this is nationalism) </li></ul><ul><li>Through Gandhi’s means, Indian nationalists began demanding freedom after WWI </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The British began responding to nonviolence through the use of force </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The world became aware of the injustice </li></ul></ul></ul>Mohandas Gandhi
  9. 9. Independence <ul><li>Before independence, internal conflicts arose in India </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muslims demanded a separate Muslim state </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hindus distrusted the Muslims </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Great Britain tried to encourage Hindu-Muslim conflict in order to weaken the Indian National Congress </li></ul><ul><li>In 1946, open conflict began </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Britain ended its rule </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indian Independence Act (1947) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The act divided the Indian subcontinent into two separate nations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hindu India </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muslim Pakistan </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Independence
  11. 11. Independence
  12. 12. <ul><li>Partition only increased violence </li></ul><ul><li>Gandhi was assassinated in 1948 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Now commonly known as “Mahatma” Gandhi, which means “Great Soul” </li></ul></ul></ul>Independence
  13. 13. <ul><li>Parliamentary democracy : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parliament holds the most power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Political party with the most seats in parliament has control over the government </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The party leader, or Prime Minister, is seen as the real leader of the country </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A president is the head of state, but with little power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Example: England </li></ul><ul><li>Prime Minister= Tony Blair Head of State= Queen of England </li></ul><ul><li> (Labour Party) </li></ul>The New Government
  14. 14. <ul><li>India has more than a dozen political parties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Party can be based on: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caste </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Religious group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Coalition government : several parties join together to gain control if there is no clear majority winner in an election </li></ul>The New Government
  15. 15. Economy of India <ul><li>The government has promoted the development of agriculture and industry </li></ul><ul><li>Economic goals </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Free the country from economic dependence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-sufficiency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limit foreign investment and foreign control </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>¾ of India’s people live in rural areas </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most are subsistence farmers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Agricultural growth and development: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New irrigation systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Land distribution reform </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limit the size of farms </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Selling land to tenant farmers : farmers who rent from large landowners </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Green Revolution : developed new types of crops to increase their yields (1960s and 70s) </li></ul></ul></ul>Economy of India
  17. 17. Economy of India
  18. 18. Cultural Conflicts <ul><li>Dividing forces of the Indian people: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caste system inequalities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural diversity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sikh separatism : military-based monotheistic religion that wants to make a separate country </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hindu-Muslim clashes </li></ul></ul></ul>The Punjab represents part of the proposed area for the Sikh state of Khalistan.
  19. 19. <ul><li>Uniting forces of the Indian people: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hindu traditions (majority in India are Hindu) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modern communications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strong leaders who emphasize compromise </li></ul></ul></ul>Cultural Conflicts
  20. 20. Review <ul><li>Gandhi and the Indian independence movement </li></ul><ul><li>The government </li></ul><ul><li>The economy </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amristar Massacre, Satyagraha, Indian Independence Act, Parliamentary democracy, coalition government, tenant farmers, Green Revolution, Sikh separatism </li></ul></ul></ul>