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Imperialism To Today
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Imperialism To Today


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  • 1. The Middle East Western Influence, Development, and Today
  • 2. End of the Ottomans
    • Challenges to the Ottoman Empire:
      • Imperialism
        • European imperialism began to play a strong role in the break up of the Ottoman Empire
      • Reforms
        • Ottoman rulers began acting more Western than Middle Eastern
      • Nationalism
        • Ottoman-ruled regions began nationalist movements
  • 3. European Imperialism
    • The empire began breaking into numerous independent states around the 19 th century
      • Those states were then put under the control of European countries
        • Example: Egypt- Great Britain
  • 4. Egypt & Imperialism
    • Britain and France fought to gain control of Egypt
      • They wanted control of the Suez Canal
        • Links the Red Sea with the Mediterranean Sea
  • 5.
    • The French initially controlled the canal in the mid-1800s
    • The British gained protection of it as a “neutral zone” during an Egyptian civil war before WWI
      • Gave Egypt “self rule”
    • After WWII, the British agreed to leave Egypt and left the canal in the hands of the Egyptian government
    Egypt & Imperialism
  • 6.
    • One of Egypt’s great rulers during British imperialism was Muhammad Ali
      • He promoted:
        • Modernization
        • Growth of cash crops
        • Western reforms
    Egypt and Imperialism
  • 7.
    • Ottomans attempted to reform
      • Modernized the government and army
      • Created secular schools to teach western ideas
    • This plan backfired…
    Ottoman Reforms
  • 8.
    • The Young Turks (ca 1909)
      • Arab nationalist group that wanted to end western influence in the empire
      • Took over the empire and ruled harshly
  • 9.
    • The empire was officially dissolved after WWI (1919), when its ally, Germany, was defeated
    End of the Ottomans
  • 10. End of the Ottomans Ottoman Empire at its height
  • 11. End of the Ottomans
  • 12. Republic of Turkey
    • Turkey became independent, however its new ruler was “western” through and through
      • Ataturk : Became President of Turkey in the 1920s
        • Adopted policies of westernization and modernization
  • 13.
    • Western style clothing
    • Separation of church and state
    • Secular public schools
    Republic of Turkey Even language reform. Turkey Video
  • 14. Arab Nationalism
    • After the break up of the Ottoman Empire, Britain and France got control of many Arab lands
      • Arab nationalists demanded self-rule
      • Importance of oil made Europeans reluctant to leave the Middle East
  • 15. Conflict Over Palestine
    • Zionism : movement in the 1920s and 1930s to reestablish a Jewish nation in Palestine
        • Jews had been expelled by Romans
      • Palestinian Arabs promoted anti-Semitism as the Jewish people migrated back into the region
  • 16. Conflict Over Palestine Zionists
  • 17. Conflict Over Palestine
    • The problem with Zionism…
      • Green = Arab
      • Red = Jewish
    • Arab nationalism begins to make it a cultural conflict, rather than a political one
  • 18. Arab-Israeli Conflict
    • Palestine is divided in 1947 to include a Jewish state and an Arab state
        • Blue = Jewish
        • Tan= Arab
        • White= Neutral (Jerusalem)
    • In 1948, war erupts
  • 19.
    • In 1967, Israel captures and occupies the Arab lands of the Gaza Strip and the West Bank
    Arab-Israeli Conflict
  • 20.
    • Palestinian refugees flee to Lebanon
      • They set up the Palestinian Liberation Organization in order to attack Israel
    Arab-Israeli Conflict
  • 21.
    • In 1982, Israel heads off a PLO attack by invading Lebanon
    Arab-Israeli Conflict
  • 22. Peace Efforts
    • Many Arab nations refuse to recognize Israel as a nation and support terrorist activities against it
    • Israel won’t allow a Palestinian state to be created
    • Numerous world leaders have tried to bring an agreement to the table
  • 23.
    • Latest Updates:
        • Israel ended its occupation of the Gaza Strip in 2005
        • Recent tensions between Israel and other Arab countries like Lebanon and Iran have caused skirmishes amongst the Arabs and Israelis
        • Israel Video
    Peace Efforts
  • 24.
    • Iran and modernization
        • Its goal is to make itself “comparable to the most developed countries in the world.”
        • Today we have nuclear issues with Iran
            • President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
    Development in the Rest of the Middle East
  • 25.
    • The Cold War (1950s-1980s)
      • U.S. and Russia rivalry in the Middle East
        • M.E. countries accepted aid from both nations
      • Russia invaded Afghanistan in 1979
    Development in the Rest of the Middle East
  • 26.
    • The Cold War (1950s-1980s)
      • Russia was attempting to support a communist government in Afghanistan
      • The U.S. fought Russia by supplying Afghan rebels with weapons
        • One of the rebels was Osama Bin Laden
        • When Russia withdrew, many of the U.S. and recovered Soviet weapons were used by the organization known as Al-Qaeda
        • Video: Osama Bin Laden
    Development in the Rest of the Middle East
  • 27.
    • Iran-Iraq War (1980-88)
      • Tensions between Iraq and Iran regarding the border
    Development in the Rest of the Middle East
    • Saddam Hussein invaded Iran
      • Want to control the oil market
    • The U.S. aided Iraq, but secretly sent weapons to Iran
    • A UN ceasefire was needed to end the war
  • 28.
    • Persian Gulf War (1991)
      • Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait, claiming it belonged to Iraq
    Development in the Rest of the Middle East
    • The U.S. and UN fought the Iraqis until Iraq was forced to surrender
    • The UN left weapons inspectors in Iraq to make sure no chemical or biological weapons were being made
  • 29. Development in the Rest of the Middle East
  • 30. Development in the Rest of the Middle East
    • Development
      • Governments have promoted industry, especially oil
      • Oil has made some nations very wealthy, while others are in need of economic support
  • 31. Development in the Rest of the Middle East
  • 32.
    • In 1960, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) was created
      • Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela were the original members
        • Controls major oil reserves and prices
        • Affects the global economy
    Development in the Rest of the Middle East
  • 33.
    • Development
      • The growth of cities has created conflict among young generations and older traditional parents
    Development in the Rest of the Middle East A photo from a video series that promotes career development for young Arab women. An older woman in traditional Arabic dress.
  • 34. Islamic Fundamentalism
    • A “cultural knee jerk”
    • It is a movement that sees westernization as a force undermining Islamic society
  • 35.
    • Goals of Islamic Fundamentalists :
      • Use the Shariah as law
        • Shariah : Islamic law derived from the Koran
      • Give all political power to religious leaders
      • Return to the values of the Koran
      • Complete separation of men and women in public
    Islamic Fundamentalism
  • 36.
    • Islamic Fundamentalism and Terrorism
        • The War on Terror is still only a political war
        • We are fighting against a group of terrorists who associate themselves with this religious sect of Islam
        • The “Battle for Islam”
    • HOWEVER, don’t get the two mixed up:
    • Islamic Fundamentalism, Feared and Misunderstood
    Islamic Fundamentalism
  • 37. Review
    • End of the Ottoman Empire
      • Imperialism, Failed Reforms, Nationalism
      • Egypt as an Imperial Case Study
      • The Republic of Turkey after the Ottomans
    • Development
      • Arab Nationalism
        • Arab-Israeli Conflict
      • Iran and Modernization
  • 38.
    • Development
      • The Cold War and Osama Bin Laden
      • Saddam Hussein: Iran-Iraq War and Persian Gulf War
      • Oil
      • Traditional vs. Modernization
    • Islamic Fundamentalism
      • As a part of Arab nationalism
      • Its role (or lack there of) in terrorism