Imperialism To Development

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Imperialism To Development

  1. 1. Latin America Imperialism, Independence, Development
  2. 2. Imperialism <ul><li>Spain and Portugal were competing for land in the Americas (1400-1600s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Treaty of Tordesillas : drew a “line of demarcation” (p. 459) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Spanish rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set up colonies to enrich the homeland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exported tons of gold and silver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plantations: bananas and sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Natives were forced to mine and farm </li></ul></ul></ul>Imperialism
  4. 4. <ul><li>Encomiendas: the right to demand labor and/or taxes from natives </li></ul><ul><li>Haciendas : large plantations </li></ul><ul><li>Natives began dying too quickly from disease and being overworked </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Spanish turned to African slave labor </li></ul></ul></ul>Imperialism
  5. 5. A Sugar Hacienda (1823)
  6. 6. Imperialism <ul><li>Portuguese rule in Brazil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar and slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects of Portuguese imperialism can still be found today </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Class system </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peninsulares : officials sent from Spain to rule </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creoles : American born descendents of Spanish </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mestizos : mixed European, Indian descent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Native Americans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Free Africans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves </li></ul></ul></ul>Imperialism
  8. 8. <ul><li>Roman Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Missionaries converted many natives </li></ul></ul>Imperialism
  9. 9. <ul><li>During the 18 th century, the European Enlightenment spread to South America through the Spanish and Portuguese </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ideas of natural rights to life, liberty, and property </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People had the right to rebel against unjust rulers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Creoles believed that they did the most for the colonies and should be in charge of them </li></ul>Independence
  10. 10. <ul><li>Simon Bolivar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creole who fought to liberate Venezuela, Ecuador, Colombia, and Peru from Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also freed Bolivia, which was later named after him </li></ul></ul>Independence
  11. 11. <ul><li>Jose de San Martin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberated Argentina and Chile </li></ul></ul>Independence
  12. 12. <ul><li>Both Mexico and Brazil fought long, bloody wars for independence during the early 19 th century </li></ul>Independence The 1810-1821 Mexican war for independence was initiated under father Miguel Hidalgo y Costillo. He sought a united front of Mexicans against the Spaniards. The multiple class, race, and ethnic coalition which Hidalgo envisioned is depicted the the mural by the radical 20th Century artist, Juan O'Gorman
  13. 13. Development <ul><li>Following the wars of independence throughout Latin America, many countries faced overcoming colonial legacies </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>In order to develop, Latin American people have had to unite and work toward common goals, however, that has been difficult. </li></ul>Development
  15. 15. <ul><li>Obstacles to Stability in Latin America: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographic barriers and border disputes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remnants of the social class system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No experience in setting up and running own governments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caudillos : military leaders who have seized the opportunity presented by weak governments to gain power and rule as dictators </li></ul></ul>Development
  16. 16. Review <ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Treaty of Tordesillas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encomiendas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Haciendas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peninsulares </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creoles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Wars for independence </li></ul><ul><li>Obstacles to stability and development </li></ul>

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