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Early Civilizations, Hinduism, Buddhism


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  • I quite like your ppp but some data is absolutely superficial and inaccurately interpreted. Please do kindly review the following - for example. The caste system that you have presented is the way shallow minded, illeterate and fundamentalist people interpret. You will find in the holy scripture Bhagavad Geeta the apt explanation about the original four-fold classification of human kind, based on their mental/intellectual make up (not inherited). The Bhagavad Gita says this about the

    [41] The works of Brahmins, Ks.atriyas, Vaishyas, and Shudras are different, in harmony with the three powers of their born nature.
    [42] The works of a Brahmin () are peace; self-harmony, austerity, and purity; loving-forgiveness and righteousness; vision and wisdom and faith.

    [43] These are the works of a Ks.atriya (): a heroic mind, inner fire, constancy, resourcefulness, courage in battle, generosity and noble leadership.

    [44] Trade, agriculture and the rearing of cattle is the work of a Vaishya (). And the work of the Shudra () is service. Chapter 18.
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  • 1. South Asia Early Civilizations and Major Religions of South Asia
  • 2. Early Civilizations
    • Two major early civilizations in India:
      • Indus Valley
      • Aryan
  • 3. The Indus Valley Civilization
    • A highly developed civilization
      • Carefully planned and organized cities
      • Well-organized governments
        • Taxes in the form of food to support cities
    • Most people were farmers
  • 4.
    • Arose around 3000 BC and lasted 1500 years
      • Mysteriously disappeared
    • Archaeologists are trying to unravel the mystery of this society
      • Decipher : determine the meaning of something
    • Possible reasons for civilization’s decline:
        • Climate changed
        • No longer able to produce food
        • Aryan migration
    The Indus Valley Civilization
  • 5. The Aryans
    • Nomadic, war-like society settles in Indus Valley
      • Polytheistic
      • Begin farming, herding
  • 6.
    • Vedas : oral religious traditions
      • Later written in Sanskrit
      • The basis for Hinduism
    • Varna : four social classes of Aryans
        • Priests
        • Warriors
        • Merchants
        • Servants/Peasants
      • Became the Indian caste system
    The Aryans
  • 7. Review
    • Indus Valley
      • Very organized
      • Farming society
      • Mysteriously disappeared
    • Aryan Civilization
      • Nomad, war-like
      • Polytheistic, Vedas
      • Varna – social organization (7 elements of culture)
  • 8. Major Religions of South Asia
    • Hinduism
    • Buddhism
  • 9. Hinduism Beliefs and Traditions
  • 10. Hinduism
    • Chief religion of India
    • No real founder known
    • It’s a way of life
  • 11. Hinduism
    • Sacred texts
      • Vedas – scriptures/hymns that explain Hindu teachings
      • Upanishads
        • Help explain the ideas of the Vedas
  • 12. Hinduism
    • “ The Vedas are the ancient scriptures or revelation (Shruti) of the Hindu teachings. They manifest the Divine Word in human speech. They reflect into human language the language of the Gods, the Divine powers that have created us and which rule over us.” The hymn sections are the oldest. The Upanishads were added at a later date and explain the hymns. “The Vedas were compiled around the time of Krishna (c. 3500 B.C.), and even at that time were hardly understood. Hence they are very ancient and only in recent times has their spiritual import begun to be rediscovered or appreciated even in India.  Like the Egyptian teachings they are veiled, symbolic and subtle and require a special vision to understand and use properly.”
  • 13. Hinduism– Beliefs
    • Brahman : the single supreme force of the universe
        • Only a few people can fully understand it
        • Many gods are worshiped as part of the Brahman
        • Nameless, formless, unlimited
          • Names and faces given to certain aspects of the Brahman:
    Brahma, creator Vishnu, protector Shiva, destroyer
  • 14. Hinduism– Beliefs
    • Sect : religious group
        • various religious groups for each god
    Ganges River Goddess Her sect prays to her and her healing powers. Also, many pray to thousands of local gods and goddesses.
  • 15. Hinduism– Beliefs
    • Atman : the essential self
        • Also, part of the Brahman
        • Nonviolence
          • Every living thing has an atman
  • 16.
    • Moksha : freeing your atman/soul from your body
        • The ultimate goal of all Hindus
        • Your atman is reunited with the Brahman and you will have true peace.
    Hinduism– Beliefs Brahman atman
  • 17.
    • How does a Hindu achieve moksha?
      • Caste system : strict social classes
        • Handed down from the Aryan varna
        • A Hindu must reach the top of the caste system in order to achieve moksha
        • How do you get to the top?
    Hinduism– Beliefs Priests, “brahman” Traders, merchants Commoners, peasants Untouchables
  • 18. Hinduism– Beliefs
    • How does a Hindu achieve moksha?
      • Karma : every deed in a person’s life affects a person’s fate in a future life
        • Reincarnation : rebirth of the soul
        • Karma determines where you are reincarnated in the caste system
      • Good Karma = higher in caste system
      • Bad Karma = lower in caste system
  • 19. Hinduism– Beliefs
    • How does a Hindu achieve moksha?
      • Dharma : duties and obligations of your caste
        • Doing your dharma will get you good karma
  • 20.
    • To achieve moksha, you must do your dharma to get good karma and be reincarnated into a higher caste.
    Hinduism– Beliefs Brahman atman
  • 21.
    • Hinduism
    Hinduism– Beliefs
  • 22.
    • Hinduism
      • Chief religion of India
      • Two sacred texts
    • Vocabulary
    • caste system
    • karma
    • reincarnation
    • dharma
    • Brahman
    • atman
    • sect
    • moksha
  • 23. Buddhism Beliefs and Traditions
  • 24. Buddhism
    • Siddhartha Gautama, founder
      • He was a reformer who tried to limit the power of the brahman, or priest, caste in India
  • 25.
    • Siddhartha lived a life of luxury in northern India
  • 26.
    • His parents did not allow him out of the palace because they did not want him to see or experience the suffering of the world.
  • 27.
    • One day, he snuck out of the palace.
    • Outside of the palace walls he saw people with no homes, no food. He saw sick people and suffering.
  • 28.
    • Realizing the reality of human suffering, Siddhartha left his life of wealth and set out to find the cause of human suffering.
  • 29.
    • By meditating under a tree and concentrating all of his efforts, he reached “enlightenment” and understood the cause and cure of human suffering.
  • 30.
    • Siddhartha became known as “Buddha,” or “Enlightened One.”
    • The Buddha decided that he would leave his life of meditation to teach others the way to end suffering.
  • 31.
    • The Four Noble Truths
      • Suffering is universal
      • The cause of suffering is want/desire
      • The only way to end suffering is to end desire
          • Nirvana : condition of wanting nothing
      • The way to achieve nirvana is to follow the Eightfold Path
          • Compassion for all creatures, kindness, truthfulness, meditation
  • 32.
    • Two main Buddhists sects have emerged
      • Theravada : monastic life to reach nirvana, Buddha is a great teacher
      • Mahayana : worship Buddha as a god, more popular
  • 33.
    • Ultimate goal of Buddhism:
      • End suffering by achieving nirvana. Once you are in the condition of wanting nothing, you will be Enlightened, or understand the universe and cause of human suffering
    Buddhism– Beliefs
  • 34.
    • Similarities with Hinduism
      • 1. Belief in reincarnation
      • 2. Belief in nonviolence
    • Differences with Hinduism
        • Buddhists deny the existence of gods
        • Priests are not necessary, you must seek nirvana on your own
        • Buddhists reject the caste system
    Buddhism– Beliefs
  • 35.
    • A similar religion, often confused with Buddhism:
    • Jainism : also grew from an effort to end the power of the brahman caste in India and to end suffering
        • Ahisma : nonviolence for any living creatures
          • vegetarians
  • 36.
    • Buddhism
  • 37. Review
    • The Buddha
      • Four Noble Truths
    • Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism
    • Similarities between Hinduism and Buddhism
    • Differences between Hinduism and Buddhism
    • Jainism