Chapter 8 - American History

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Chapter 8 - American History

  1. 1. Reforming American Society American History Chapter 8
  2. 2. Religion Sparks Reform <ul><li>Second Great Awakening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After 1790, religious movement that stressed the individual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Salvation is not predetermined </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individual responsibility to improve themselves and society </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revival : meeting to awaken religious faith through passion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>African American churches: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Offered hope of salvation from slavery </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Transcendentalism : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Henry David Thoreau </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ralph Waldo Emerson </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasized the truth found in nature, personal emotion, and individual conscience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Utopian communities : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Optimism led people to try to create “utopias,” or perfect societies </li></ul></ul></ul>Religion Sparks Reform
  4. 4. <ul><li>Reforming Prisons </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dorothea Dix, persuaded Congress to improve conditions at prisons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prisons held mentally ill patients, as well as criminals </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Improving Education </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tax-supported schools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare students to become good citizens </li></ul></ul></ul>Religion Sparks Reform
  5. 5. Women and Reform <ul><li>Cult of domesticity : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Housework and childcare considered the only proper activities for married women </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Young, unmarried women often worked in factories </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Women reform: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abolition: the call to outlaw slavery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temperance movement: effort to prohibit drinking of alcohol </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Healthcare </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Women and Reform <ul><li>Women’s rights movement </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seneca Falls Convention: first woman’s rights meeting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Sojourner Truth </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Changing Workplace <ul><li>Industry changes work </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cottage industry  early factories </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prices go down, unskilled workers able to perform machinery tasks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Lowell, Massachusetts </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unmarried farm girls were workers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Could play lower wages </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Changing Workplace <ul><li>Lowell, Massachusetts </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6-8 girls shared a housing room </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Work 13 or more hours a day </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fed bread and gravy for dinner </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1834, wage cuts prompted a series of strikes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>National Trades’ Union </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One of earliest attempts for workers to organize strikes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Better working conditions, better pay </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supreme Court will back the strikers, Commonwealth vs. Hunt </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Changing Workplace <ul><li>Immigration </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1845-1854, 3 million new immigrants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most were German or Irish </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Great Potato Famine </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Irish were discriminated against </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor and Roman Catholic </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>

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