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Chapter 6 - World History
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Chapter 6 - World History

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  • 1. Rome & Christianity Chapter 6
  • 2. The Roman Republic
    • Myth of Rome
      • Founded by Romulus and Remus
        • Twins abandoned and raised by she-wolf
  • 3. The Roman Republic
    • Benefits of location
      • Hills
      • River
      • Peninsula
      • Alps
  • 4. The Roman Republic
    • Latins , Greeks , and Etruscans
      • Alphabet and arch
  • 5. The Roman Republic
    • After being taken over and ruled by a number of Etruscan kings, the people of Rome wanted new government
      • Republic : power rests with the citizens who have the right to vote for their leaders
  • 6. The Roman Republic
    • Social classes
      • Patricians : wealthy landowners with most power
      • Plebeians : commoners who made up majority of population
  • 7. The Roman Republic
    • Patricians
    • Inherited status
    • Make laws
    • Forced to write the Twelve Tables
      • All free citizens have right to protection of law
    • Plebeians
    • Right to vote
    • Couldn’t hold government positions
    • Tribunes : assemblies of plebeian representatives
  • 8. The Roman Republic
    • By the 1 st century B.C.
  • 9. The Roman Republic
    • Two consuls
      • Like kings
      • Ran military
      • One-year term
      • Can veto each other
  • 10. The Roman Republic
    • Senate
      • Originally only had patricians
      • Made foreign and domestic policies
  • 11. The Roman Republic
    • Tribunes & Assemblies
      • Mostly plebeians
      • Made laws for the common people
  • 12. The Roman Republic
    • Dictator
      • In times of crisis
      • In power for only 6 months
  • 13. The Roman Republic
    • Roman army
      • Responsible for much of Rome’s success
        • All landowners must serve
        • Highly organized:
          • Legions : largest military unit
  • 14. The Roman Republic
    • Page 157
      • With a partner, answer questions #1 and 2 that go with the chart “Comparing Republican Governments”
  • 15. The Roman Republic
    • By 265 B.C. Rome had conquered most of Italy
      • Latins became full citizens
      • Conquered people had all rights of citizens except the vote
    • Why do you think the Romans gave full citizens to conquered people living close to Rome?
  • 16. The Roman Republic
    • Rome’s only enemy was Carthage (pg. 159)
      • Punic Wars (264-146 B.C.):
        • Rome vs. Carthage
        • Hannibal : famous general of Carthage led a massive attack through Spain to Italian peninsula
        • Finally defeated Carthage under General Scipio
  • 17. The Roman Empire
    • What are the benefits of having a single ruler in power?
    • What are the drawbacks?
  • 18. The Roman Empire
    • Problems in Roman Republic:
        • Rich/poor gap widened
          • Poor totaled over half of population
        • Murders of Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus
          • As tribunes, attempted to give more land to the poor
          • Civil war began
        • Power-hungry military leaders
          • Recruited the poor by promising land
            • Soldiers now felt allegiance to generals, not the republic
  • 19. The Roman Empire
    • One military leader takes control
      • Julius Caesar , Crassus, and Pompey
        • Triumvirate : group of three rulers
        • Won men’s loyalty because he also fought in war
        • Served one year as consul, then governor of Gaul
  • 20. The Roman Empire
    • Becoming dictator
      • Success in Gaul gains popular support
        • Pompey feared Caesar was power-hungry, ordered him to disband his army
        • Marched to Rome and the senate declared him “dictator for life”
  • 21. The Roman Empire
    • Good absolutism?
      • Had total power, but used it to make reforms
        • Citizenship granted to provinces
        • Expanded senate
        • Created jobs
        • Increased soldiers’ pay
        • Created regions where poor could own property
  • 22. The Roman Empire
    • Many feared Caesar’s power and popularity
      • Marcus Brutus and Gaius Cassius plotted to kill him at the Senate
  • 23. The Roman Empire
    • Second Triumvirate:
      • Lepidus, Octavian , Marc Antony
        • Octavian forced Lepidus to retire and defeated Marc Antony/Cleopatra’s forces
          • Declared “ Augustus ”: exalted one
  • 24.
    • Pax Romana : 200-year period of peace
      • Stable government
        • Paid civil service
      • Stable economy
        • Agriculture- 90% of ppl worked in farming
        • Denarius- same coin throughout empire
        • Extensive network of roads
    The Roman Empire
  • 25.
    • Roman values
        • Gravitas : Strength, loyalty, usefulness, power, and discipline
    The Roman Empire
  • 26. Assignment
    • Sections 3-4 worksheet
    • Extra Credit (10 pts):
      • Re-read pages 164-165 and read 166-167
      • Write a short story (one page) set in Rome. Choose a character and a problem.
        • A person may be unable to afford the luxuries required for a business banquet
        • A charioteer may need to win an important race
        • A poor child gets lost coming home from the Coliseum
        • A family is separated when Vesuvius erupts
  • 27. Christianity Development, Teaching, and Spread of the Religion
  • 28. Rise of Christianity
    • This religion grew out of Jewish traditions.
      • Jewish prophets predicted that a messiah , or one anointed by Yahweh, would be sent to deliver the Jews from foreign rule
    • Jesus, founder of Christianity
  • 29. Rise of Christianity
    • Gospels : written by the followers of Jesus, tell about the life of Jesus
  • 30.  
  • 31. Rise of Christianity
    • Roman officials worried about Jesus’ popularity
      • They considered him to be a rebel
    • Jesus was sentenced to die by crucifixion
  • 32. Teachings of Jesus
    • Monotheism
      • Believed in the Jewish God and the Ten Commandments
    • Placed less emphasis on law
      • More emphasis on compassion, forgiveness, and equality of all people
    • Taught with parables : short stories with simple moral lessons
  • 33. Teachings of Jesus
    • Bible: the holy book of Christianity
      • Includes all prophets of Torah and most books of the Torah
      • Adds the New Testament, which includes the Gospels and other books by Jesus’ followers
  • 34.
    • Compared with Judaism, Christianity spread over far distances in a very short time
    • This was due to a few factors:
      • Judaism is mostly an ethnic religion
      • Missionaries and martyrs
      • Appeal of Christianity
    Spread of Christianity
  • 35. Spread of Christianity
    • Followers of Jesus were called “Christians”
      • Christ= Savior= messiah
    • Missionaries were able to spread Jesus’ teachings by taking advantage of a peaceful time in the Roman empire, and also good roads were available
  • 36.
    • Eventually, enough people were involved in Christianity that the Roman empire began to respond
        • Christians were persecuted for not believing in the Roman gods
        • Many Christians became martyrs : people who suffer or die for their beliefs
    Spread of Christianity
  • 37.
    • Widespread persecution continued until 313 AD
      • Emperor Constantine ended persecution of Christians with an Edict of
      • tolerance
      • He converted on his deathbed
    Spread of Christianity
  • 38. ASSIGNMENT
    • In-class:
      • Emperor’s Edict
    • Homework:
      • Sections 4 and 5 worksheets
  • 39.
    • How have people responded to difficult economic times and political uncertainty?
        • Panic
        • Pessimism
        • Anxiety
        • Anger/blame
    Fall of the Roman Empire
  • 40.
    • 180 AD is the end to Pax Romana
      • Economic problems:
        • Reached limit of expansion, lacked new resources
        • Raised taxes
        • Inflation : drop in value of money and rise in prices
        • Low harvests
          • Overworked soil
          • Warfare destroyed land
    Fall of the Roman Empire
  • 41.
    • 180 AD is the end to Pax Romana
      • Military and Political Problems:
        • Roman soldiers lost allegiance to Rome
        • Mercenaries : foreign soldiers who fought for money
        • People were less patriotic
    Fall of the Roman Empire
  • 42.
        • Severely limited personal freedoms
        • Doubled size of Roman army
        • Set fixed prices on goods to control inflation
        • Claimed descent from Roman gods
        • Split the empire in two
          • Greek East
          • Latin West
    Fall of the Roman Empire Emperor Diocletian’s reforms:
  • 43.
    • Emperor Constantine’s Reforms
      • Re-united East and West
      • Moved the capital from Rome to Byzantium
        • Why this city? (pg. 175)
        • Renamed Constantinople
        • Shifted power of empire to East
    Fall of the Roman Empire
  • 44.
    • Fall of the West
      • Germanic invasions
        • Attila the Hun
        • “ barbarians” sacked Rome in 410 and 476 AD
      • Romulus Augustulus was the last emperor of Rome
    Fall of the Roman Empire
  • 45.
    • East becomes the Byzantine Empire
    Fall of the Roman Empire