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Chapter 4, S3 & Chapter 5

Chapter 4, S3 & Chapter 5






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    Chapter 4, S3 & Chapter 5 Chapter 4, S3 & Chapter 5 Presentation Transcript

    • American Revolution and Constitution Ch.4 S2-4 Ch.5 S1-4
    • Declaring Independence
      • Loyalists
      • Patriots
      • Second Continental Congress (1775)
          • Appointed Gge. Washington commander of the Continental Army
      • Battle of Bunker Hill
          • Deadliest of war
          • Colonial loss
    • Declaring Independence
      • Olive Branch Petition
      • Common Sense
      • Declaration of Independence (1776)
    • Declaring Independence
      • Assignment:
        • Sections 3 & 4 worksheet
        • Page 107, interpret the reasons why each of the 6 people decided to support either the colonists or the British
        • Due at end of class.
      Wilkins: Warren: Brant: Armistead: Inglis: Greene: Loyalists Patriots
    • Articles of Confederation and the Constitution Chapter 5
    • What do you need to know?
      • Differing ideas of republicanism
      • Issues debated by those making the Articles of Confederation
      • Describe the problems faced by the Confederation
    • Experimenting
      • No democracy!
      • Republic and republicanism
        • Republic: government in which citizens rule through elected officials
        • Republicanism: governments should be based on the consent of the people
    • Experimenting
      • Some believed:
      • Government can only succeed if leaders put the good of the nation before personal interests.
      • Others thought:
      • If everyone pursues own interest, the whole nation will benefit.
    • Experimenting
      • Continental Congress debates
        • Understand how and why our govt works by understanding how a different one didn’t work
        • Each colony, now state, began drawing up own constitution, each with different powers
          • Example: New Jersey women who owned land could vote!
    • Experimenting
      • Continental Congress debates
        • Representation by population or state?
          • Should each state elect the same number of reps?
          • If based on population, how to account for big and small states?
        • Decision :
        • Each state gets one vote
    • Experimenting
      • Continental Congress debates
        • 2. Can we divide power among the states?
          • Most assumed a govt cannot share power with states
        • Decision :
        • Make a confederation
        • Articles of Confederation
    • Experimenting
      • Continental Congress debates
        • 2. Can we divide power among the states?
      • All other powers
      • Declare war
      • Make peace
      • Sign treaties
      • Borrow money
      • Set standards for coins, wghts
      • Postal service
      • Handle Native Amer. issues
      State govts. National govt.
    • Experimenting
      • Continental Congress debates
        • 2. Can we divide power among the states?
          • National government had no power to enforce or interpret the laws of the Articles of Confederation
    • Experimenting
      • Continental Congress debates
        • 3. How to divide western lands?
          • Small states, like Maryland, feared big states would take all the land
        • Decision :
        • All states give up land west of Appalachians
        • Northwest Ordinance of 1787 : procedure for dividing western lands and becoming a state
    • Experimenting
      • Assignment:
        • On page 136, list the major political and economic problems with the confederation
        • On page 137:
          • #3-4
        • Due at end of class.
    • Drafting the Constitution
      • Shays’ Rebellion :
        • Farmer uprising draws attention to debt problems of America
        • The government had no power to tax and was too weak
    • Drafting the Constitution
      • Problems for the nation:
          • Lacked national unity
          • Every state must agree to make any changes
          • Debt of the war
          • No power to tax
          • Trading rights and taxes between states
    • Drafting the Constitution
      • Constitutional Convention
        • Big vs. small states
          • Madison: Virginia Plan
            • Bicameral legislature based on population
          • Paterson: New Jersey Plan
            • Unicameral legislature; one state, one vote
          • Sherman: Great Compromise
            • Bicameral legislature
            • Senate has equal representation
            • House of Reps. is based on population
    • Drafting the Constitution
      • Constitutional Convention
        • How to count slaves in representation?
          • South wanted to count slaves
          • Three-fifths Compromise
            • 3/5 of a states’ slaves would be counted as population
          • Virginia: 14,000 total; 10,000 slaves
            • 6,000 count as population
            • 20,000 ppl. in Virginia count for representatives
    • Drafting the Constitution
      • Constitutional Convention
        • 3. Division and Separation of Powers
          • Federalism : power divided btwn national and state governments
            • Enumerated powers : those given to national govt. by the Constitution
            • Reserved powers : those left to the states
    • Drafting the Constitution
      • foreign affairs
      • National defense
      • Trade btwn states
      • Coining money
      • education
      • marriage/divorce laws
      • Trade within state
      • tax
      • Borrow money
      • Pay debts
      • Establish courts
      Enumerated Reserved Both
    • Drafting the Constitution
      • Constitutional Convention
        • 3. Division and Separation of Powers
          • Three branches of government:
            • Legislative branch: makes laws
            • Executive branch: enforces laws
            • Judicial branch: interprets laws
          • Checks and balances : to prevent one branch from dominating the others (pg. 143)
    • Drafting the Constitution
      • Constitutional Convention
        • Electoral College
          • Why do we have it?
            • Many upper class ppl. feared the lower classes would not vote wisely
            • Others felt that the lower classes would vote the upper class out of power
            • Biggest reason: They felt that ppl. would vote for too many local candidates and no one would have a majority
    • Drafting the Constitution
      • Constitutional Convention
        • Electoral College
          • Each state chooses a number of electors to cast ballots based on the way the majority of the people in their district vote
    • Ratification
      • Who were Federalists and Antifederalists?
      • What were their arguments?
      • Explain the need for the Bill of Rights.
    • Ratification
      • 9 of 13 states had to agree to the Constitution before it could take effect
      Federalists : liked the Constitution as it was the balance of power was enough to protect the people and the states Antifederalists : Did not like the Constitution National government has too much power There is no provision for the rights of the individual
    • Ratification
      • Debates continued from 1788-1789
        • The Federalist :
          • Essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison & John Jay defending the Constitution
        • Letters from the Federal Farmer :
          • Antifederalist publication that listed and discussed the individual rights they felt were left out of the Constitution
    • Ratification
      • Bill of Rights
        • Was added to get the support of Antifederalists
          • Freedom of speech, press, religion
          • Right to trial by jury
          • Right to bear arms
          • No quartering of troops
    • Ratification
      • Some questions to consider:
          • Why were Americans so afraid that the national government would have too much power?
          • What is the benefit of adding the 9 th and 10 th amendments in the Bill of Rights? (pg. 149)
          • Who was excluded from “the people” in the Bill of Rights?
          • How might American history have changed if the Bill of Rights had forbidden discrimination of all kinds?
          • What are the possibilities that could have happened if the Constitution had been accepted without a Bill of Rights?
      • Assignment:
      • F/AF and Bill of Rights reading and worksheets