Chapter 13


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Chapter 13

  1. 1. Migration and Industrialization Chapter 13
  2. 2. Migration and Industrialization <ul><li>Photograph pages 406-407 </li></ul>
  3. 3. “ The West”
  4. 4. Themes of Western Settlement <ul><li>The American Dream </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Native Americans, White settlers, Immigrants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cultural Diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cowboys </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic Opportunity </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Western frontier, railroads </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Women in America </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Played a crucial role in western settlement </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Native Americans, Whites, and the West <ul><li>Great Plains Indians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of horse and buffalo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Horses  better hunting/mobility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buffalo  clothing, food, tepees, tools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lived in communal family groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Land was held in common, not owned </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hunting/gathering </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>White settlers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to claim and own as much land as possible in the West </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Filthy mining camps became boomtowns </li></ul></ul></ul>Native Americans, Whites, and the West
  7. 8. The Government and Native Americans <ul><li>The government attempted to get tribal treaties defining tribe boundaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most tribes refused to sign the treaties </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sand Creek Massacre : U.S. military attacked a Cheyenne tribe that had previously surrendered and lived in peace </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Custer’s Last Stand: George Armstrong Custer went to attack the Cheyenne at the Little Bighorn River </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Custer underestimated the number of natives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Custer and his men were dead in 20 minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American people were outraged by Custer’s defeat and demanded revenge </li></ul></ul>The Government and Native Americans
  9. 10. Skeletal remains of horses in the battlefield one year after Custer’s Last Stand. (1877)
  10. 11. <ul><li>New tactics for forcing natives to surrender </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Killing the buffalo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many tribes began to starve </li></ul></ul></ul>The Government and Native Americans
  11. 12. <ul><li>Assimilation : Native Americans expected to give up ways of life and beliefs for white culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dawes Act : split reservation land into a number of acres given to individual natives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attempt to assimilate natives into white culture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Never fully worked </li></ul></ul></ul>The Government and Native Americans
  12. 13. Navajo children outside a Methodist mission. (~1905)
  13. 14. The Ghost Dance <ul><ul><li>The dance was performed with the belief that the white people would disappear and the buffalo would return </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many white officers were frightened by the dance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attempted to arrest Sitting Bull (Sioux leader), however a shootout occurred, resulting in the death of Sitting Bull </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 15. The Ghost Dance <ul><li>Battle of Wounded Knee : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A group of Sioux were taken to Wounded Knee camp and asked to hand over their weapons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When the natives refused, the military men fired and killed 300 of 350 natives </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li>The Battle of Wounded Knee ended the era of Indian wars </li></ul>
  16. 18. American Migration <ul><li>Homestead Act (1862): 160 acres of land free to anyone who would live on it and cultivate it for 5 years </li></ul><ul><li>Exodusters : African-Americans who moved from the South to Kansas after being freed </li></ul><ul><li>Pacific Railroad Act (1862): gave land and loans to railroad companies </li></ul>
  17. 22. American Migration <ul><li>Transcontinental Railroad </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Union Pacific and Central Pacific Railroad Companies met in Utah in 1869 to complete the first trans. railroad </li></ul></ul>
  18. 24. The Legend of the American Cowboy Chapter 13
  19. 25. Cowboys <ul><li>Original cowboys were Aztec prisoners of the Spanish, as well as the Spanish ranchers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All of what is known of the American cowboy was heavily influenced by the Mexican ranchers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spurs, clothing (chaps, boots, etc), stirrups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Language: rodeo, bronco, corral </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 29. The Cowboy <ul><li>American influence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pointed toe of boots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bandanna </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>guns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Importance of the cowboy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>demand for beef in cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ship cattle on newly built railroads </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>page 391, “The Cowboy’s Life” </li></ul>
  21. 30. The End of the Wide Open West <ul><li>overgrazing </li></ul><ul><li>natural disasters (drought, blizzards, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>invention of barbed wire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>led to the fencing off of the frontier </li></ul></ul>
  22. 31. Populism – The People’s Party Chapter 13
  23. 32. Development of Populism <ul><li>As a result of the hardships farmers faced (weather, debt due to rising shipping costs, etc), they felt they needed some political representation </li></ul><ul><li>The Grange : a group of farmers who took action on the political reforms they wanted </li></ul>
  24. 33. Populist Party <ul><li>Populist (People’s) Party —formed to help lift the burden of farmers and other workers </li></ul>
  25. 34. Populism <ul><li>Supported a number of reforms </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in the money supply </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Graduated income tax </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Federal loan program </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elect U.S. senators by popular vote </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secret ballot </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8 hour workday and restrictions on immigration </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 35. Populist Ideas <ul><li>Free silver : a movement to get U.S. money backed more by silver than gold </li></ul>William Jennings Bryan
  27. 36. Populist Ideas <ul><ul><li>Bimetallism : gold or silver given in exchange for paper money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There was more silver than gold, making more money </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More money=more expensive goods and services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Good for farmers, bad for consumers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Populism ended because many consumers feared the free silverites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goods would be more expensive </li></ul></ul>
  28. 37. Legacies of Populism <ul><li>Showed that people could organize and have political impact </li></ul><ul><li>And brought certain reforms to the limelight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These are brought up again in the early 20th century </li></ul></ul>