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  • 1. Ch. 12 Reconstruction American History
  • 2. Unresolved Legacies
    • Reconstruction : (1865-1877), the time period following the Civil War
  • 3.
    • Two questions to answer:
        • What will replace slavery?
          • What will freedom mean for ex-slaves?
        • How to reconstruct the South?
          • How will it be decided?
    Unresolved Legacies
  • 4. The Meaning of Freedom
    • We’re free, now what?
        • There is still a deep-seeded racism in America
      • Family: finding family throughout the South
      • Politics: get the right to vote
        • Use the power of the minority to gain rights
      • Education: 3 R’s vital to future generations
      • Religion: ability to practice in public
        • A mixture of Christian and African traditions
      • Land: Sherman’s Field Order
        • Abandoned lands in the South handed over to ex-slaves (“40 acres and a mule”)
  • 5. The Meaning of Freedom
    • Freedman’s Bureau : government organization created to help blacks achieve their goals
  • 6. What will replace slavery?
    • Sharecropping :
        • Landowners divided the land and gave each workers a few acres, seeds, and tools in return for a share of the harvest
    • Tenant farming :
        • Rent land in return for cash
        • Had to buy tools on credit, but freedmen couldn’t pay them back or save money
  • 7. What will replace slavery?
    • Cotton is replaced
        • Tobacco is the new cash crop
        • Try to diversify the economy
    • Carpetbaggers:
        • Name given to Northerners who moved South during Reconstruction
        • Seen negatively by many Southerners
  • 8. Obstacles
    • Obstacles to Real Freedom:
        • Racism
        • Black codes : discriminatory laws that restricted African Americans’ lives
          • Same as slavery in many ways
        • Many people all over the nation opposed the far-reaching acts of Congress to give African Americans more freedom
          • Ku Klux Klan – Southern vigilante group that whipped and murdered former slaves
  • 9. Obstacles
    • Goals of the KKK:
        • Destroy Republican party
        • Throw out new state governments
        • Control African American labor
        • Prevent African Americans from exercising their rights
  • 10. How to Reconstruct?
    • There were two types of Reconstruction:
      • Presidential
      • Congressional
    • Lincoln had begun Reconstruction at the end of the war
        • Was very lenient to the South
        • Congress was not happy with his policies, wanted to take over
  • 11. Presidential Reconstruction
    • Andrew Johnson : Lincoln’s successor
        • Johnson allowed many Southern states to re-enter the Union by passing Reconstruction bills
          • Declare its secession illegal
          • Swear allegiance to the Union
          • Ratify the 13 th Amendment
  • 12. Presidential Reconstruction
    • Congress becomes upset with Johnson
      • He provided no help for former slaves:
        • Land rights
        • Voting rights
        • Protection under the law
    • Congress reacts in two ways:
      • Expand the Freedman’s Bureau
      • Pass Civil Rights Act of 1866
    • Johnson vetoed both acts
  • 13. How to Reconstruct?
    • Radical Republicans : opposed moderate Reconstruction
        • Radical abolitionists
        • Thaddeus Stevens : leader of the RR’s
  • 14. Congressional Reconstruction
    • Congress takes matters into its own hands
    • 14 th Amendment : all persons born or naturalized in the U.S. are citizens and are entitled to equal protection under the law
  • 15. Congressional Reconstruction
    • Elections of 1866-
        • The Radical Republicans gain control of Congress
    • 3. Reconstruction Act of 1867
      • Undid everything by Lincoln and Johnson
        • Required new state constitutions for Southern states
        • Required right to vote for African American men
        • Must ratify the 14 th Amendment
  • 16. Congressional Reconstruction
    • President Johnson impeached
      • For firing a cabinet member without the Senate’s approval
      • Found not guilty
  • 17. Congressional Reconstruction
    • Republican Ulysses S. Grant elected to the Presidency in 1868
    • 15 th Amendment (1870)- cannot deny the right to vote based on race
    • Public works programs created to rebuild the South
  • 18. Obstacles to Reconstruction
    • Panic of 1873
        • Country begins to deal with the financial troubles of Reconstruction and political scandals
        • Financial failures occurred because investors were too optimistic
          • A 5 year depression resulted