&quot;Manage things... lead people.&quot; – Admiral Grace Hopper A Huge Difference and Synergy Do you wand to be a leader or a manager? You need to make a choice as there is a huge difference. The world is full of managers and short of leaders – real leaders. Effective leadership is doing right things and putting first things first. Effective management is doing things right, discipline, and carrying it out. When managing, you are performing such activities as planning, directing, organizing, measuring, and controlling. When leading, you are involved with visioning, inspiring, coaching, energizing, and empowering. Management is much broader in scope than leading and focuses on non-behavioral as well as behavioral issues. Leading emphasizes mainly behavioral issues. To maximize your long-term success you should strive to be both a manager and a leader and to synergize their functions. Merely possessing management skills is no longer sufficient for success as an executive in today's business world. You need to understand the differences between managing and leading and know how to integrate the two roles to achieve organizational success. As a manager, you must make sure that a job gets done, and as a leader, you must care about and focus on the people who do the job. To integrate management and leadership, therefore, demands a delicate balance between a calculated and logical focus on organizational processes (management) and visioning, energizing employees, and a genuine concern for them as people (leadership). Synergy between Your Leadership and Management Roles Leadership role: to provide inspiration, create opportunities, energize people, and make key choices Management role: to make things happen and keep work on track; to supervise endless details and engage in complex interactions that are routinely part of any development To Lead or To Manage? You need both. The old proverb says that leadership is doing the right thing; management is doing things right. The difference between the two is not as sharp as the saying would suggest, and both are required for effective corporate growth: leadership risk creates opportunities while management strictness turns them into tangible results.
Effectiveness and Efficiency Growth and movement require both effectiveness and efficiency: Effectiveness is about choosing the right things to do. Efficiency is about doing these things right. The Difference Between Efficiency and Effectiveness Adapted from “Getting Things Done,” Francis Lobo, 2003 Efficiency measures the actual usage of resources versus a standard. Effectiveness measures the results achieved as against the input. Efficiency focuses on individual elements, such as labour, utilization of resources, consumption of materials, etc. Effectiveness looks at the total result and the satisfaction to the customer reflected through sales, and the price the customer is prepared to pay for the product or service. Efficiency takes analytical approach; it looks at the parts. Effectiveness takes a holistic approach; it looks at the whole. Efficiency uses norms of science and technology for measurement. Effectiveness uses the norms of market, profit, and customer satisfaction for measurement. Efficiency sees the negative side: the wastage; the losses. It is generally less than unity or less than 100%. Effectiveness sees the positive side – opportunities, the advantages. It must always be more than unity, otherwise you are making a loss and eating into your reserves. Efficiency increases effectiveness by reducing costs of goods and services; improving quality; and ensuring timely deliveries. Effectiveness increases efficiency by focusing on key requirements of the customers and the market; and providing motives for reducing waste. Efficiency has limits determined by the technology that is applied. Effectiveness has no limits.
About Lao Tzu Lao Tzu was born in app. 500 BC, in southern China in the state of Ch'u, now known as the Hunan Province. Almost nothing is known about Lao Tzu apart from what can be gleaned from the legends that surround his name. His book of spiritual reflections called the Tao Te Ching has been published in more languages than any book except the Bible. Selected Teachings of Lao Tzu Be gentle and you can be bold; be frugal and you can be liberal; avoid putting yourself before others and you can become a leader among men. Those who know don't speak, those who speak don't know. A sage is skilled at helping people without excluding anyone. Don't impose your will through manipulation of aggressive emotions and actions. What others apprise, the same you want to, what others avoid, the same you want to, that is why, you fail as others, how ridiculous it is! The Master leads by purifying people's minds, filling their bellies, weakening their ambitions, and making them become strong. Love the whole world as if it were your self; then you will truly care for all things. The Master doesn't seek fulfillment. For only those who are not full are able to be used which brings the feeling of completeness. Embrace simplicity. Put others first. Desire little. Accomplishments makes your labors good. Proper timing makes a decision good. Humanity attained unity that they might flourish. Their leaders attained unity that they might set the example. That which offers no resistance, overcomes the hardest substances. That which offers no resistance can enter where there is no space. Few in the world can comprehend the teaching without words, or understand the value of non-action. The Master never takes on more than he can handle, which means that he leaves nothing undone.
Competing Value Model R.E.Quinn et al. Ab Reitsma 29-01-2010
Organization Flexibility Internal Environment External Environment Power & Control Human Relations Model Open Systems Model $ Rational Goal Model Internal Process Model Source: Quinn et. al., Becoming a Master Manager (2003) <ul><ul><ul><li>Effectiveness of organisations (CVM) </li></ul></ul></ul>
Organization Flexibility Internal Environment External Environment Power & Control Commitment Morale (ends) Innovation, Adaptation (means) Growth, Resource Acquisition (ends) Productivity, Accomplishment (ends) Direction, Goal clarity (means) Stability, Control (ends) Documentation, Information Management (means) Participation, Openness (means) Source: Quinn et. al., Becoming a Master Manager (2003) Human Relations Model Open Systems Model $ Rational Goal Model Internal Process Model <ul><ul><ul><li>Effectiveness of organisations (CVM) </li></ul></ul></ul>
Toward de-centralization, differentiation Toward expansion, change Toward competitive position of system Toward maximization of output Toward Centralization, integration Toward consolidation, continuity Toward maintenance of the system Toward Development of human resources Organization Flexibility Internal Environ- ment External Environ- ment Power & Control Commitment, Morale Innovation, Adaptation Growth, Resource acquisition Productivity, Accomplishment Direction, Goal clarity Stability, Control Documentation, Information management Participation, Openness Human Relations Model Open Systems Model $ Rational Goal Model Internal Process Model Source: Quinn et. al., Becoming a Master Manager (2003) <ul><ul><ul><li>Effectiveness of organisations (CVM) </li></ul></ul></ul>
Characteristics of the Four Management Models <ul><li> Rational Goal Internal Process Human Relations Open Systems </li></ul>Symbol Criteria of Effectiveness Means-ends Theory Emphasis Climate Role of Manager $ Productivity, Profit Clear direction leads to productive outcomes Goal clarification, rational analysis, and action taking Rational economic: “the bottom line” Director and Producer Stability, continuity Routinisation leads to stability Defining responsibility, measurement, documentation Hierarchical Monitor and coordinator Commitment, cohesion, morale Involvement results in commitment Participation, conflict resolution, and consensus building Team oriented Mentor and facilitator Adaptability, external support Continual adaptation an innovation lead to acquiring and maintaining external resources Political adaptation, creative problem solving, innovation, change management Innovative, flexible Innovator and broker
<ul><ul><ul><li>Effectiveness of managers (CVM) </li></ul></ul></ul>
<ul><ul><ul><li>Effectiveness of managers (CVM) </li></ul></ul></ul>
<ul><ul><ul><li>Effectiveness of managers (CVM) </li></ul></ul></ul>http:// www.handboekmanagementvaardigheden.nl /site/voor_ studenten.html
Organization Flexibility Internal Environment External Environment Power & Control Mentor Innovator Broker Producer Director Coordinator Monitor Facilitator The Evolution of Management Models Source: Quinn et. al., Becoming a Master Manager (2003) Human Relations Model Open Systems Model $ Rational Goal Model Internal Process Model Management, business-like distrust, transactional Leadership, inspiring, trust, transformational High change High complexity High change Low complexity Low change Low complexity Low change High complexity <ul><li>Mintzberg: </li></ul><ul><li>enterpreneur </li></ul><ul><li>resource allocator </li></ul><ul><li>Mintzberg: </li></ul><ul><li>spokesman </li></ul><ul><li>liaison </li></ul><ul><li>figurehead </li></ul><ul><li>negotiator </li></ul><ul><li>Mintzberg: </li></ul><ul><li>disseminator </li></ul><ul><li>monitor </li></ul><ul><li>Mintzberg: </li></ul><ul><li>leader </li></ul><ul><li>disturbance handler </li></ul>Maslow Hawthorn Y-theory Scientific management Bureaucratic org. X-theory Contingency System-thinking Machine bureaucracy Professional bureaucracy Ad-hocracy Pioneer organisation
Simple Structure Machine Bureaucracy Professional Bureaucracy Divisionalised Form Adhocracy Five Organizational Structures Designing Effective Organisations (Mintzberg)
Configuratietheorie van Henry Mintzberg <ul><li>De omgeving: turbulent of rustig? </li></ul>
Differences Between What Leaders and Managers Do MANAGERS LEADERS Deal with status-quo Deal with change Work in the system Work on the system React Create opportunities Control risks Seek opportunities Enforce organisational rules Change organisational rules Seek and then follow direction Provide a vision to believe in and strategic alignment Control people by pushing them in the right direction Motivate people by satisfying basic human needs Coordinate effort Inspire achievement and energize people Provide instructions Coach followers, create self-leaders, and empower them
Leadership Lessons of Lao Tzu Th e founder of Taoism (born app. 500 BC) <ul><li>A bad leader is (s)he who has been contemped by the people </li></ul><ul><li>A good leader is (s)he who has been worshipped by the people </li></ul><ul><li>A great leader is (s)he of which people say: … </li></ul><ul><li>'We did it ourselves.' </li></ul>