OBJETIVESPromote national values in the people and establishrespect in the foreign peoplePromote the proper valuation of a global cultureas rich as ours.PROBLEM:‘¿How we can encourage and promote the national love?HIPOTESIS: -Using the information that the students of fifth grade ofsecondary are going to give in the project many otherstudents and people will Know something more about ourculture and in this way they will value and love it.
Our History has been changingthrough the years. First therewere many different culturesthat settled down in our countrylikeCupisnique, Chavin, Paracas, Mochica,Nazca,Wari,andChimu, this cultures are calledPre-Inca cultures because theytook place before the beginningof the Incas.
Each culture settled down indifferent cities of our countrybut here in Trujillo was theMochica culture which gaveus all our traditions andcustoms.In the 15th century this newpowerful state (the Incas)appeared and start toconquer those cultures so itbecame the most importantPeruvian culture.
When the Incas were a bigempire a group of Spanishconquerors came to our countryand destroyed this majesticempire and that’s how theViceroyalty started in Peru. The Incas got tired of Spanish abuse so they started planning liftings against the Spanish crown with José de San Martín and Simon Bolivar as principal leaders.
After a period of revolutions and civil wars wewere able to claim for our Independence. That’swhen José de San Martín proclaim our freedomon July 28 of 1821.
Etymology•¬•The word Peru is derived from Birú, the name of a localruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel. Then, it waschanged by Francisco Pizarro who asked for the Spain •.crown to gave our country the legal name of Peru.•We live in Trujillo and this name was given to our city byFrancisco Pizarro as well because of the city ubicated inSpain which has the same name.
RegionsPeru is divided into 25 regionsand it’s capital is Lima. Eachregion has an electedgovernment composed of apresident and a council, whichserves for a four-year term. La LibertadAmazonas LambayequeAncash LimaApurímac Tacna LoretoArequipa Tumbes Madre de DiosAyacucho Ucayali MoqueguaCajamarca Piura PascoCallao Puno HuancavelicaCusco San Martín HuánucoJunín Ica
GeographyPeru covers 1,285,216 km2 . It bordersEcuador and Colombia to the north,Brazil to the east, Bolivia to thesoutheast, Chile to the south, and thePacific Ocean to the west. The AndesMountains run parallel to the PacificOcean, dividing the country intothree geographic regions. The coast, to the west, is a narrow plain, largely arid except for valleys created by seasonal rivers.
The highlands is theregion of the Andes; itincludes the plateau aswell as the highest peakof the country, the6,768 m (22,205 ft)Huascarán. The third region is the rainforest, a wide expanse of flat terrain covered by the Amazon rainforest that extends east. Almost 60% of the countrys area is located within this region.
Perus longest rivers arethe Ucayali, theMarañón, the Putumayo,the Yavarí, the Huallagaand the Amazon
GovernmentPolitics of the Republic of Peru takes place in a framework ofa presidential representative democratic republic, wherethe President is both head of state and head of government, andof a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised bythe government, legislative power is vested in both thegovernment and the Congress and the Judiciary is independentof the executive and the legislature
EconomyPeru is considered aunderdeveloped country but ourstate is trying really hardly toincrease our economy and promotethe national exportation.Peruvian currency have beenthrough many changes andmodifications. For example yearsago, peruvian people used ascurrency some little coins called“Intis” which now have turned intonew coins called “Nuevos soles”.
LanguageThe main language is Spanish but there are also manyothers native languages like Quechua, Aymara, Kawkiand Jaqaru. Also there are many others that are alreadycosidered as extincted languages.
CulturePeruvian culture is primarily rooted in Amerindian and Spanishtraditions, though it has also been influenced by variousAfrican, Asian, and European ethnic groups.Peruvian artistic traditions date back to the elaborate pottery,textiles, jewelry, and sculpture of Pre-Inca cultures. The Incasmaintained these crafts and made architectural achievementsincluding the construction of Machu Picchu.
Peruvian literature has its roots in theoral traditions of pre-Columbiancivilizations. In the early 20thcentury, the Indian Movementproduced such writers as CiroAlegría, José María Arguedas, andCésar Vallejo. Peruvian cuisine is a blend of Amerindian and Spanish food with strong influences from African, Arab, Italian, Chinese, and Japanese cooking. Common dishes include anticuchos, ceviche and pachamanca.
ReligionThe Peruvian government is closely allied with the CatholicChurch. So we can say that it is the main religion in ourcountry, anyway thanks to the freedom of religion there aremany people who believe in many other and different religionslike moslems protestants and even atheistics.
Tipical Dances• Marinera: This is a really elegantdance which represents flirting betweenthe man and the woman.• The Huayno is a dance from themountains from Peru, the origin of thisdance is from Inca and Pre Inca time.• The Huaylash is another dance fromthe mountains from Peru, it looks a bitlike a funny tap dance and it’s arepresentation of agricultural tasks.• The Diablada is a typical dance fromthe Southern Part of Peru, it started like arepresentation of the evil and the goodspirits during colonial times and thendeveloped into a colorful dance withcostumes with evil heads.
•The dance of the scissors is anIndian dance originating in theregion of Ayacucho, ,•There are also many Afro Peruviandances, called “negroides” ,that began in Colonial times whenthe Spanish brought slaves to SouthAmerica.•There are many more dances likesome from the Amazon Region ofPeru and we could say that everycity has a different dance.
PERUVIAN WRITERS WHO ARE RECOGNIZED ALL OVER THE WORLD: Mario Vargas Llosa : Was born in Peru; in Arequipa and isconsidered the best Latin Americanwriter. An important distinction he hasreceived is the 1994 Miguel deCervantes Prize.He is a pride for most Peruviansbecause he was awarded the2010 Nobel Prize in Literature.Becoming into the first Peruvian whohas awarded a prize like this.
César Vallejo MendozaCésar Vallejo was born in Santiago deChuco.He published "The Black Heralds. By charging the freedom travels backto Lima and publishes "Trilce" and otherworks.He leads a life full of hardships close.Die one Friday on April 15, 1938.
José Carlos MariáteguiJosé Carlos Mariátegui was born inMoquegua.In 1919 he created the newspaper LaRazón where university reform and supportworkers struggles.Then he published his "Seven InterpretativeEssays on Peruvian Reality." A year later, hefounded the Confederation of Workers ofPeru.He died in Lima on April 16, 1930.
Claudia Llosa : Was born in Lima, studied in Newton College and received a degree in communication studies in the University of Lima.In 2009 Llosa finished her second film The Milk ofSorrow which was shortlisted for the 59th Berlin InternationalFilm Festival. It was the first Peruvian film nominated forthe Golden Bear award, and won the main award. OnFebruary 2, 2010 Llosas The Milk of Sorrow was nominatedfor the Academy Award in the Best Foreign Film Category.
National symbols of PeruPeruvian Flag :The flag of Peru was adoptedby the government of Peru in1825. It is a vertical tree-bandwith red outer bands and asingle white middle band.Depending on its use, it maybe defaced with differentemblems, and has differentnames. Flag day in Peru iscelebrated on June 7, theanniversary of the Battle ofArica.
National anthem:This anthem was adopted in 1821.Seven compositions were enteredto produce this nationalanthem, and on the prefixedday, they were reviewed andplayed. General José de SanMartín chose master JoseBernardo Alcedo musicalproduction without no doubt. Thebeautiful voice of lady RosaMerino, was the first to intone theanthem, from the original versesfrom the poet Don José de laTorre Ugarte.
Coat of arms: This coat, consists of three elements: the top left section shows the vicuña, representing the fauna of Peru; the tree in the top right section is the cinchona tree, representing the national flora; and the bottom cornucopia with coins spilling from it, on a red field, represents the mineral resources of the country.
HISTORY OF THE FLAG OF PERUThe story says that the generalJose de San Martín wassleeping, so he had a dream.In this dream he could saw thisflock of bird which wings werered and it’s breasts were white.In that moment, San Martíndecided the color of our flag:red and white.
Meaning of thecolors:Many people say that thewhite represents peaceand the red is the bloodfrom the fighters whomade everything for ourfreedom.
MANCO CAPAC AND MAMA AYAROCLLO LEYEND: BROTHERS
Cultures of Perú Over the course of 1400 years, pre-Inca cultures settled along the Peruvian coast and highlands.The first Peruvian civilizationsettled in Huantar , Ancash inaround 1000 BC. The power ofthe civilization, based on atheocracy, was centered in theChavin de Huantar temple,whose walls and galleries werefilled with sculptures of ferociousdeities with feline features.
The Paracas culture (700 BC) rose to power along the south coast, and was to craft superb skills in textile weaving.The north coast was dominated bythe Mochica civilization (100 AD).The culture was led by militaryauthorities such as the Lord of Sipan.The highlands saw the rise of theTiahuanaco culture (200 AD), based inthe Collao region (which covered parts ofmodern-day Bolivia and Chile).
The Nazca culture (300 AD) were able to tame thecoastal desert by bringing water through undergroundaqueducts. They formed an agricultural calendarwhich even today baffles researchers.The Wari culture (600 AD) introduced urban settlementsin the Ayacucho area and expanded its influenceacross the Andes.The refined Chimu culture (700 AD) crafted gold andother metals into relics and built the mud-brick citadelof Chan Chan, near the northern coastal city of Trujillo.The Chachapoyas culture (800 AD) made the bestpossible use of arable land and built their constructionson top of the highest mountains in the northern cloudforest.
TURISTIC PLACES IN PERUPeru is a country in western of South America. This country hasrich natural resources and many great places to visit. Check outthe list below the most popular tourist attractions in Peru.ARQUEOLOGICAL PLACES:1. Chan ChanIs an archaeological site. It is Located west of Trujillo, ChanChan is an impressive set of ruins of an ancient city. Wasadded as a Unesco World Heritage Site in 1986.
2. Chavín de Huántar Chavín de Huántar is an archaeological site containing ruins and artifacts constructed. It is located 250kilometers north of Lima.Chavín de Huántar has been designated aUNESCO World Heritage Site.
3. Machu PicchuMachu Picchu isthe site of anancient Inca city,high in the Andes ofPeru. It was built inthe classical Incastyle, with polisheddry-stone walls.
4. Nazca linesThe Nazca Lines are a series of ancientgeoglyphs located in a town on Peru SouthernCoast. The Nazca Lines was declared a WorldHeritage Site by UNESCO in 1994.
LAKES AND NATIONAL PARKS:1. Titicaca LakeLake Titicaca is a lake located on the borderbetween northern Bolivia and southern Peru. It isconsidered the highest commercially navigablebody of water in the world.
2. Huascarán National ParkThis is located in the Cordillera Blanca range ofPeru. It was also pronounced as Natural Heritage ofHumanity and recognized as Reserve of Biosphere.
3. Manú National ParkIt is a biosphere reserve located in the isolatedregion of Madre de Dios, is one of the mostdiverse areas in Peru and South America. The parkwas declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in1987.
4. Paracas NationalReservationThe Paracas NationalReserve is located inIca, Peru and consistsof the ParacasPeninsula. ParacasNational Reserve is apopular nature reserveon the Southern Coastof Peru. Paracas is alsoa very popular beachresort destination.
Peruvian CuisineThe cuisine of Peru is among the most diverse in theworld, as evidenced by the fact that we have thelargest number of dishes in the world and according toseveral understandings, peruvian cuisine reached alevel equivalent to French food, China and India.Peruvian culinary arts are constantly evolving, so it isimpossible to establish a complete list ofrepresentative dishes.
Main featuresThe kitchenhas been the meetingpoint ofdiverse cultures, thanks tothe inclination of the mixture that has characterizedthe history ofPeru. Rice is a food that accompanies many dishesfrom this popular country .
Main Ingredients -Potato, more than 2,500 registered varieties of native potatoes in the Andean region. -Sweet Potato, with about 150 varieties.
Hot peppersare grown almostexclusively in Peru. Cherimoya, which is of Peruvian origin.
Achiote, a fruit seed originall from Peru and Mesoamerica, is used as food flavoring and as a natural dye in cosmetics in the world.Corn grain of Peru isvery large component of manytraditional dishes, plus a variety:purplecorn, is unique in the world.
Peruvian cuisine in the world of todayIn the last decade ofthe twentieth century, Peruviancuisine started to become popular outsideits borders. Because of this rich variety andthe harmony of taste and foodemployees, Peruvian cuisine isconsistently awarded internationally andhis chefs often tend to get internationalmedals that distinguish them.
Most popular dishes today•Coastal cuisine:Peru is one of the two majorproducers and exporters of fish mealfor animal feed in the world.Ceviche is a dish widelydisseminated and Cultural Heritageof the Nation by the Peruviangovernment. The basic recipeceviche is the same in all regions:fish pieces, lemon juice, red onion,pepper and salt.
•Andean cuisineThe Andes are the source of ancient cultures and with them thetaste of the cuisine. In this high country, the mainpower remains corn , potato, and multiple tubers.Cuy :Travel in the highlands of Inca country, and youre likely to beoffered cuy, a traditional Andean entree, on the menu. Cuy,alternately called conejillo de indias is a guinea pig or cavy.
The cuisine of the jungle The most popular dishes of the Peruvian Amazon are Juane, tacacho and SuriTacacho:It consists in grilled bananassmashed.Suri: Is a type of worm, typical ofthe rainforest and is eaten fried.
Desserts & Sweets: Alfajor: Dessert of colonial origin. Picarones: This dish is served like rings made from a mixture of flour and chunks of squash and fried in a hot pan coated in molasses syrup. ..
Beverages:Chicha: is prepared fromthe time of the Incas, ismade by fermenting corngerm, called Jora anddifferent fruits and spices.Aguajina : It’s a typicalbeverages from thejungle , It’s prepared fromAguaje , Especial fruit fromthis region.
Spirits & CocktailsPisco: Pisco is the national drink. There are fourvarieties of Peruvian pisco, fresh, green juice,alcoholated and aromatic. Mixing pisco and lime,we prepare the famous pisco sour which is ournational drink.
ConclusionsFinally we can say that Peru is a country full of both physical and intellectual riches, full of heroes who fought forindependence showing great courage and love for our homeland. It is an example of a country, which is striving to get ahead and move from an underdeveloped country to a developed one.