STP designs - Dr. Ananth Kodavasal

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This SlideShare was authored by Dr. Ananth Seshadri Kodavasal who has more than 30 years of experience as an environmental Engineer and is a looked upon as a foremost authority on Sewage Treatment Plants.
It was presented during Water Workshop conducted by ApartmentADDA on 25-Feb-2012. It explains the below topics
• Wastewater Pollutants/Impact
• Physical, Chemical, Biological Unit Operations
• Types & Effects of Pollution
• Biological Treatment Variants
• Pros and Cons
At last the SlideShare details on the Important Acts and rules related to Environmental Protection.

Check the link below for details
http://apartmentadda.com/blog/water-workshop-for-apartments-report/

Published in: Engineering, Technology

STP designs - Dr. Ananth Kodavasal

  1. 1. SEWAGE TREATMENT BASIC CONSIDERATIONS IN DESIGN & OPERATION Dr. Ananth S. Kodavasal Ecotech Engineering Consultancy Pvt. Ltd. As presented in “The Water Workshop” organized by ApartmentADDA.com FEBRUARY 2012
  2. 2. <ul><li> CONTENTS </li></ul><ul><li>WASTEWATER POLLUTANTS/ IMPACT </li></ul><ul><li>PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL UNIT </li></ul><ul><li>OPERATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>3. BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT VARIANTS </li></ul><ul><li>4. PROS AND CONS </li></ul><ul><li></li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>WASTEWATER POLLUTANTS/ IMPACT </li></ul><ul><li>WHY WASTEWATER TREATMENT ? </li></ul><ul><li>COMPLIANCE WITH LAW </li></ul><ul><li>WASTE MINIMISATION / RESOURCE RECOVERY </li></ul><ul><li>IMPROVED SURFACE/ GROUND WATER QUALITY </li></ul><ul><li>IMPROVED PUBLIC HEALTH </li></ul><ul><li>IMPROVED FLORA & FAUNA </li></ul><ul><li>LONG TERM SUSTAINABILITY </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li></li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. POLLUTING INDUSTRIES DOMESTIC ( BPO/ SOFTWARE/ RESIDENTIAL) METALS / MINERALS PROCESSING FOOD PROCESSING INCL. FERMENTATION OIL & PETROCHEMCALS CHEMICALS, BULK DRUGS TEXTILES PULP & PAPER ETC., ETC.
  5. 5. TYPES & EFFFECTS OF POLLUTION O&G : TREATMENT EFICIENCY AESTHETICS HEAVY METALS : TOXICITY ORGANIC CMPDS. : TOXICITY BOD/ COD : OXYGEN DEPLETION N, P : EUTROPHICATION PATHOGENS : DISEASES
  6. 6. THREE CARDINAL RULES FOR A GOOD WWT PLANT <ul><li>PROPER DESIGN OF TRTMNT PLANT </li></ul><ul><li>PROPER ENGG. OF TRTMNT PLANT </li></ul><ul><li>PROPER O&M OF TREATMENT PLANT </li></ul><ul><li>6 </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>WASTEWATER CHARACTERISATION </li></ul><ul><li>PHYSICAL PROPERTIES </li></ul><ul><li>CHEMICAL PROPERTIES </li></ul><ul><li>BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TO ASSESS COMPLIANCE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TO DETERMINE TREATMENT REQUIRED </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li></li></ul>
  8. 8. SOME PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS pH COLOUR ODOUR TURBIDITY SOLIDS – SUSPENDED/ DISSOLVED TEMPERATURE
  9. 9. SOME CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS ORGANIC CONTENT SPECIFIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS TOXIC COMPOUNDS HEAVY METALS REACTIVITY ( CONVENTIONAL MEASURES SUCH AS COD TOD, TOC )
  10. 10. BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS RELATIVE BIODEGRADEABILITY TYPE OF BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT (COMMON MEASURE IS BOD ) REFRACTORY ORGANICS INHIBITORY COMPOUNDS TOXIC COMPOUNDS
  11. 11. <ul><li>WASTEWATER QUANTITY, DISCHARGE PATTERN </li></ul><ul><li>DAILY AVERAGE </li></ul><ul><li>HOURLY AVG./ PEAK HOUR </li></ul><ul><li>CONTINUOUS / INTERMITTENT </li></ul><ul><li>BATCH DUMP </li></ul><ul><li>NO. OF SHIFTS </li></ul><ul><li>WEEKEND FLOW </li></ul>11
  12. 12. MICRO BES FOOD O2 NUTR. + ENERGY + GASES + PRODUCTS BASIC BIOLOGICAL REACTION MORE MICROBES
  13. 13. 2 . PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL & BIOLOGICAL UNIT OPERATIONS IN WWT <ul><li>PHYSICAL TREATMENT METHODS </li></ul><ul><li>SCREENING, GRIT REMOVAL </li></ul><ul><li>O&G REMOVAL </li></ul><ul><li>EQUALISATION/ HOMOGENISATION </li></ul><ul><li>SEDIMENTATION </li></ul><ul><li>FILTRATION </li></ul><ul><li>ADSORPTION </li></ul><ul><li>OTHER TERTIARY TREATMENT METHODS </li></ul><ul><li></li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>CHEMICAL TREATMENT METHODS </li></ul><ul><li>NEUTRALISATION </li></ul><ul><li>OXIDATION/ REDUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>COAGULATION / COLOUR REMOVAL </li></ul><ul><li>PRECIPITATION </li></ul><ul><li>DEEMULSIFICATION </li></ul><ul><li>CHLORINATION – OZONATION </li></ul><ul><li></li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT METHODS </li></ul><ul><li>ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL METHODS </li></ul><ul><li>AEROBIC BIOLOGICAL METHODS </li></ul><ul><li>FACULTATIVE BIOLOGICAL METHODS </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  16. 16. 3. AEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT VARIANTS <ul><li>CONVENTIONAL ACTIVATED SLUDGE ( EAAS) </li></ul><ul><li>MOVING BED/ FIXED BED BIOLOGICAL REACTOR </li></ul><ul><li>( MBBR / FBR / SAFF / %#@+) </li></ul><ul><li>SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR (SBR) </li></ul><ul><li>MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR (MBR) </li></ul><ul><li>OTHERS </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> 16 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. EAAS – SUSPENDED M.O EQ. TNK AER.TNK INT SUMP P S F A C F SET. TNK SLUDGE HNDLNG FNL TNK CL 2 AIR BLOWERS 17
  18. 18. MBBR – ATTACHED M.O <ul><li>SAME AS EAAS - EXCEPT </li></ul><ul><li>1. NEED TO HAVE PRIMARY SEDIMENTATION </li></ul><ul><li>2. PLASTIC MEDIA INTRODUCED IN AERATION TANK TO INCREASE SURFACE AREA FOR MICROBES TO ATTACH </li></ul>18
  19. 19. VIEW OF MBBR TANK <ul><li>PLASTIC MEDIA FLUIDISED IN TANK </li></ul>19
  20. 20. SBR – BATCH REACTOR 20
  21. 21. MBR – MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR - IMMERSED 21
  22. 22. MBR – MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR - SIDESTREAM 22 22 22
  23. 23. EAAS PROS CONS 23 TIME TESTED AREA REQMNT PROVEN – CONSISTENT QLTY POWER CONSMPTN OP. FLEXIBILITY GOOD SLUDGE QUALITY EASY MONITORING CONTROL LOW SKILL LVLS
  24. 24. SBR PROS CONS 24 LESS NO. OF UNITS SOPHISTICATED DECANTER REQD. LESS POWER NUMBER OF BATCHES – LIMITS NOT SUITED FOR HIGH PEAK FLOWS MORE LOAD ON FILTERS SLUDGE HANDLING ISSUES
  25. 25. MBBR PROS CONS 25 NONE KNOWN NEED PRIMARY SETTLING POOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY SLUDGE HANDLING ISSUES MONITORING, CONTROL DIFFICULT DIFFUSERS MTCE. ISSUES
  26. 26. MBR PROS CONS 26 GOOD QUALITY WATER HIGH INITIAL & REPLCMNT COSTS HIGH POWER HIGH CHEMICALS UNRESOLVED OP. ISSUES HIGH SKILLS HIGH LVL PRETRTMNT
  27. 27. SUMMARY, CONCLUSION <ul><li>EAAS STILL REMAINS THE WORKHORSE OF THE INDUSTRY </li></ul><ul><li>TIME TESTED, PROVEN, CONSISTENT RESULTS </li></ul><ul><li>FLEXIBLE </li></ul><ul><li>LOW LIFETIME COSTS </li></ul><ul><li>EASY MTCE, MONITORING, CONTROL </li></ul>27
  28. 28. <ul><li>DESIGN BASIS FOR BIOLOGICAL TREAMTMENT </li></ul><ul><li>AEROBIC TREATMENT </li></ul><ul><li>pH </li></ul><ul><li>TEMPERATURE </li></ul><ul><li>FOOD </li></ul><ul><li>OXYGEN REQUIREMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>TYPE OF WASTE </li></ul><ul><li>FOOD TO MICROORGANISMS ( F/M) </li></ul><ul><li></li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>SLUDGE AGE </li></ul><ul><li>MLSS LEVEL </li></ul><ul><li>SLUDGE RETURN RATE </li></ul><ul><li>EXCESS SLUDGE PRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>DISSOLVED OXYGEN LEVEL </li></ul><ul><li>MIXING IN AERATION TANK </li></ul><ul><li>SETTLING CHARACTERISTICS OF SLUDGE </li></ul><ul><li>TYPE OF MICROORGANISMS </li></ul><ul><li></li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>SECONDAY CLARIFIER DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>OVERFLOW RATE </li></ul><ul><li>WEIR RATE </li></ul><ul><li>SLUDGE LOADING RATE </li></ul><ul><li>RETENTION TIME </li></ul><ul><li>MECHANICAL RAKE ARM DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li></li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>SLUDGE HANDLING </li></ul><ul><li>PRIMARY, SECONDARY, TERTIARY SLUDGE </li></ul><ul><li>SLUDGE THICKENING </li></ul><ul><li>SLUDGE CONDITIONING </li></ul><ul><li>SLUDGE DEWATERING </li></ul><ul><li>DRYING BEDS, </li></ul><ul><li>FILTER PRESS, VAC. FILTER </li></ul><ul><li>CENTRIFUGE </li></ul><ul><li></li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>TYPICAL INTEGRATION OF TREATMENT UNITS/ STAGES </li></ul><ul><li>PRELIMINARY TREATMENT </li></ul><ul><li>PRIMARY TREATMENT </li></ul><ul><li>SECONDARY TREATMENT </li></ul><ul><li>TERTIARY TREATMENT </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  33. 33. TYPICAL FLOWSHEET OF TREATMENT SCREEN GRIT/GRSE EQLSTN SETTLING AN. REACTOR AER. TANK SEC. CLRFR SAND FILTER AC FILTER SLDGE HNDLNG SEC. TRTMENT PR. TRTMENT TERT. TRTMENT
  34. 34. <ul><li>ADVANCED WWT TREATMENT ( TERTIARY) </li></ul><ul><li>ACTIVATED CARBON ADSORPTION </li></ul><ul><li>NUTRIENT REMOVAL </li></ul><ul><li>AIR STRIPPING </li></ul><ul><li>CHEMICAL COAGULATION/ SETTLING </li></ul><ul><li>CHEMICAL OXIDATION </li></ul><ul><li>MICRON/ ULTRA FILTRATION </li></ul><ul><li>REVERSE OSMOSIS </li></ul><ul><li>UV RADIATION </li></ul>
  35. 35. 4. OPERATION & MAINTENANCE PROBLEMS SCREEN : CLOGGING, ODOUR GRIT CHAMBER : POOR SEPARATION PRMRY CLRFIER : FLOATING SLUDGE LOW SOLIDS IN SLUDGE AERATION TANK : FOAMING, MIXING, OVER/ UNDER AERATION SEC. CLRFIER : BULKING SLUDGE PIN POINT FLOCS
  36. 36. SEC. CLRFIER : NO CLARITY IN WATER POOR SLUDGE SETTLING PR. SAND FILTER : INSUFFICIENT CLARITY BACK PRESSURE HIGH ACT. CARB. FLTR : NO IMPROVEMENT ETP OPERATOR : UNTRAINED UN MOTIVATED UN SUPERVISED INDISCPLINED DESIGN FAULTS : REDESIGN/ REENGINEER
  37. 37. <ul><li>IMP. ACTS AND RULES ON ENV. PROTECTION </li></ul><ul><li>Water (Prevention & control of pollution) Act, 1974 </li></ul><ul><li>Air (Prevention & control of pollution) Act, 1981 </li></ul><ul><li>Environment (Protection) Act, 1980 </li></ul><ul><li>Factories Act, 1948 </li></ul><ul><li></li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>The Water (Prevention & control of pollution) Cess Act, 1977 </li></ul><ul><li>The Indian Boilers Act, 1923 </li></ul><ul><li>The Water (Prevention & control of pollution) Rules, 1975 </li></ul><ul><li>The Air (Prevention & control of pollution) Rules, 1982 </li></ul><ul><li>The Environment (Protection) Rules, 1980 </li></ul><ul><li></li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Scheme on Labelling of Environment friendly products (Eco-mark)- criteria for packaging materials (G.S.R. 621 (E) dt. 6 Sept. 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1989 </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacture, Storage and import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules, 1989 </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Accidents (Emergency planning, preparedness & Response) Rules, 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>The Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991 </li></ul><ul><li></li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>The Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling) Amendment Rules, 2000, 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>The Batteries (Management & Handling) Rules, 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>The Environment (Protection) Amendment Rules, 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>The Noise Pollution (Regulation & control) Act, 2000 </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>ECOTECH COMPANY PROFILE </li></ul><ul><li>ESTABLISHED IN 1986 </li></ul><ul><li>DESIGN, ENGINEERING OF TREATMENT PLANTS </li></ul><ul><li>COMMISSIONING, UPGRADATION, O&M </li></ul><ul><li>REIA, WATER, WASTEWATER, ETP AUDIT </li></ul><ul><li>OVER 600 PROJECTS HANDLED ALL OVER INDIA </li></ul><ul><li>OVER 80 O&M AMC CONTRACTS AT PRESENT </li></ul><ul><li>QUALIFIED, EXPERIENCED AND DEDICATED STAFF </li></ul><ul><li>3 ENV. SCIENTISTS/ ENGINEERS </li></ul><ul><li>8 FIELD, QUALITY & TRAINING OFFICERS </li></ul><ul><li>8 MECHANICS/ ELECTRICIAN </li></ul><ul><li>OVER 80 EXPERIENCED SUPERVISORS </li></ul>
  42. 42. THANK YOU ECOTECH ENGG. CONSULTANCY PVT LTD

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