TRECENTO: 14 th Century Italy Proto Renaissance or Late Gothic? A period of transition between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance
Late Gothic Proto Renaissance Italy- 14th Century info card # 1• Political and Economic: – Italian City States ruled by oligarchy – wealth from trade from the east – Powerful guilds controlled trade• Religious: Pope spiritual and secular leader
Religion info card # 1• The Great Schism – 1305: French pope elected-Avignon – 1378: Two popes • Clement VII Avignon • Urban II Rome – 1417-1431: Resolved: New Roman Pope• Power Vacuum: monastic orders prominent – Franciscans and Dominicans – Caring for the sick and dying
The Black Death: the Plague late 1340’s info card # 1• Came to Italy via Trade• The most devastating natural disaster in European history – Malnutrition and famine – 25- 50 % died• Social disruption• Art: stimulated religious requests
Triumph ofDeath, Andrea Orcagna 1349• “Since prosperity has departed, death, the medicine of all pain, come and give us our last supper”
Academia info card # 1• Vernacular Literature: led to development of education/ philosophy – Dante, Petrach, Boccaccio• Humanism: adoption of ancient Roman virtues – Civil conduct – Education – revival of classical Literature
HUMANISM• How did humanism influence art style? – Emphasis on academics and science – Painting from visual observation – Depictions of real people • Emotion, expression, movement How is this different from what was done in the middle ages? • Art was copied from other “holy” books What examples are there of art that is influenced by humanism?
HumanismRottgen Pieta, 1300-1325, painted wood, 2’10” high Ekkehard and Uta, Naumburg Cathedral, Germany 1249-1255 6’2”
History: The Crusades• 1095 – Muslims close Jerusalem to Christians; Pope declares first crusade. – Crusaders slaughter Jews across Germany, kill 70,000 residents of Jerusalem and leave.
The 4th Crusade 1202-04 info card # 14• Constantinople sacked (Christian capital of Byzantine empire) as punishment for refusal to pay for the crusade.• Byzantine art and artists then come to Italy, influencing Italian Painters. – “Greek Style”: Maniera Greca: – Italian painting in the 1300s influenced by Byzantine art.
Virgin and Child 7th cent. Cimabue: Madonna 1280-1290 Early Byzantine Last great Italian painter in the Byzantine traditionHow has Cimabue changed fromthe Byzantine?
• Cimabue: Madonna and Child • Giotto: Madonna and Child• 1280-90 • 1310• 4th crusade Constantinople • Art card #5 1204-61 Compare and• Art Card #4 contrast 1) Mary’s features? 2) Christ Child? 3) Positions of angels? 4) Drapery? 5) Throne? 6) Which looks more “modern”? Why?
Bonaventura Berlinghieri;Panel from Saint Francis Altarpiece, San Francesco Pescia, Italy 1235 Tempera on wood Art Card #2• Greek Style(Byzantine)• Evidence? – Clerical garb, stigmata, Byzantine angels – Shallow space – Linear flatness – Formality – Gold leaf• Which monastic order?• Emphasizes ministry of St. Francis-how? – Shows Prominence of
Cimabue: Madonna Enthroned WithAngels and Prophets1280-1290 Tempera on Wood, 12’7” x7’4” Uffizi Gallery Florence Art Card #4• Roman Style Naturalism?• Byzantine influences?• Gothic?
Madonna Enthroned Giotto 1310 1260 Art card #5• Approaches to space and form?• Gravity, floor, 3D?
Virgin and Child 7th cent Giotto 1310Early Byzantine Cimabue 1260
Nicola Pisano, Pulpit of Pisa Cathedral Bapistery, Pisa, Italy 1259-60 marble 15’ high Art card # 3• Classical Forms? – Drapery – Similar to Roman sarcophagus – Round Arches, capitals• Medieval Forms? – Trefoil arch – Lions – Crowded composition
Nicola Pisano (the Father), Pulpit of Pisa Cathedral;
Nicola Pisano• Strong interest in classical forms• Due to influence of humanistic culture of Sicily – King Frederick II ruled 1220-1250 • Holy Roman emperor • German • Revitalized Roman and Classical forms for political purposes • Humanism revived
Nicola Pisano 1259 Giovanni Pisano 1297
• Loose, dynamic • Emotional and animated • Space emphasizes movement Giovanni Pisano Annunciation andNativity 1297 Sant’Andrea Pulpit
Compare: Left Nicola Pisano 1259 Pisa Bapistery Pulpit From static to motionRight Giovanni Pisano 1297 Sant’Andrea Pulpit Drama, energy emotion
Do Now: Which is in the style of Maniera Greca and which is byGiotto? What characterizes Giotto’s painting from the other?Left Right
Cimabue 1305 • A living Madonna as Madonna EnthronedManiera Greca opposed to the Giotto 1310 10’ tall concept of a Madonna. Giotto transitions between the Byzantine and the renaissance Old: Pointed arch, tracery, gold background New:3 D throne, humanizing Mary with bulk and dimension, modelin g – Use of perspective
Rationality and • What is the reward for virtuous behavior? Religion – Honor – Fame – Not Money – Dante’s Inferno • Vergil: main character; a rational being as opposed to a saint • How do you think the new emphasis on humanism will affect art? – More natural figuresDelacroix “ Dante and Virgil in Hell” – Personalities1822 – Modeled after real life as opposed to God
Giotto, Cimabue, CavalliniGreat Artistic innovators of the 13th Century
Giotto Di Bondone: 1266-1337 • Pupil of Cimabue • “ The father of Western pictorial art” – He displaced the Byzantine style – Established painting as a major art form – Restored the naturalistic approach lost since the classical civsWhat devices are used to tell astory?
Arena Chapel by GiottoPadua, Italy 1305-1306 commissioned for a wealthy family
Giotto Interior of the Arena Chapel facing east; Padua Italy 1305-1306, Patron: Scrovegni Family AC # 6 Top: Virgin and her parents Middle: life and passion of Christ Bottom: crucifixion and resurrection Bottom Panels: • Vices (L) Virtues (R)
What are the virtues and the related vices? • VIRTUES • VICES – Humility( humble) – Pride – Justice – Greed – Chastity – Lust – Patience – Anger – Temperance (self control) – Gluttony – Love – Envy – Fortitude (courage) – Sloth
GiottoJustice brings victory, good Greed: Bad governmentgovernment and a well run state
Envy lust fortitude
Christ Entering JerusalemHow did Giotto bring drama and life to thereligious story?
In the hell scene, themoneylenders arehanging from their money bags
Partner: This is a very innovative work for its time-1305How did Giotto integrate formalism with emotionalism?
Giotto Lamentation; Arena Chapel Fresco 6’ x 6’ Art cd # 7• Formalism? – Shallow stage – Asymmetrical focal point – Shading• Emotionalism? – Movement – grief• Innovations? – Backward figs – perspective
The Republic of Florence • Florence: “the daughter and the creature of Rome” – Urban Center of bankers and merchants – Dominant City- State – Economic and cultural superiority
Florence Cathedral; DiCambio and others 1296-1436 Art Card # 8• Horizontal• Marble encrusted• Defined geometric volumes• Clear logical structural relationship• Built by artist and sculptors , not engineers• Tower by Giotto
The Republic of Siena, Italy• Devoted to the Virgin Mary• Preeminent artist: Duccio• The Palio-a medieval horserace
Siena Cathedral: 1260-lower sections Giovanni Pisano 1289• What evidences of diffusion do you see?• Early Christian?• Gothic?
Sienese Art• Devotion to Virgin Mary• Byzantine influence with humanism• Extension of the Late Gothic aristocratic court style• "Holy Mother of God, the cause of peace to Siena, and of life to Duccio because he has painted you thus."
Duccio : Virgin and Child 8” x11” 1305 • Philippe de Montebello with Duccios Virgin and Child And Forty Five Million Dollars Philippe de Montebello with Duccios Virgin and Child-MET And forty five million dollars
Maesta:a painting of Mary as Queen of heaven surrounded by angels and saints
Duccio Di Buoninsegna, Virgin and Child Enthroned withSaints, Maesta Altarpiece, Siena Cathedral Italy 1308-11 Tempera on wood 7’ x 13’ AC #9• Byzantine? – Formal and symmetrical, gold background, holy character• Classical? – patron Saints of the city are turning, conversing, individualized faces, softer drapery• Sienese trade? – : rich textile colors and textures-silk from Asia
Duccio Di Buoninsegna, Betrayal of Jesus, detail back of Maesta Altarpiece Siena Cathedral Art Cd. # 10• Narrative of 3 episodes kiss, fleeing, ear• Traditional background• Figures modeled and emotive-humanization of religious subject matter
The International Style French( Gothic) and Sienese• French Court Style – Elegant postures – Brilliant colors – Swaying forms• Rich textures and fabrics• Intricate surface ornamentation• Themes of Processionals
Simone Martini and Lippo Memmi(?) Annunciation 1333 reconst frame Tempera and gold leaf on wood 10’ x 9’ Art Cd. # 10 International Gothic: French and Sienese • Color? • Costumes? • Line? • Setting? • Aristocratic elegance"Ave Maria Gratia Plenum Dominus Tecum""Hail Mary, Full of Grace, the Lord is with you."
Pietro Lorenzetti: Siena Cathedral The Birth of theVirgin1342 Tempera on Wood• How does it advance realism? – Architectural elements? – Perspective – Upper class Italian home of the time – Recording of the everyday world – Typical of childbirth?
Palazzo Publico, Siena Italy 1288-1309 • The Town Hall: defensive • Machiolated galleries • Battlements • Civic pride
Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Peaceful Country. Fresco detail Effects of Good Government in the City and in the Country, 1338-39 Art Card # 11• Allegorical figure of security: safety to those who live under law( gallows in hand)• Engaging in agriculture• First landscape painting since antiquity
In the Palazzo Publico : Enthroned man: allegory city of Siena Personifications: Above him Faith, Hope, CharityFlanking him : Peace, Fortitude, Prudence, Temperance, Justice
•1329 Famine •1333 Eclipse/Flo od •1335 Smallpox •1340 Banks failed •1348...Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Bad Government, Sala della Pace, PalazzoPubblico, Siena, 1338-9The Lorenzetti brothers both died of the plague in 1348 along with half the population of Siena
James le Palmer, Plague Hartmann Schedel, Jews BurntVictims Blessed by Alive during the BlackPriest, London, 1360-75 Plague, 1493 1348 Bubonic plague- 50-70% of Florentines and Siennese died
Spread of Bubonicplague in EuropeMinor outbreak
They died by the hundreds, both day and night, and all were thrown in ... ditches and covered with earth. And as soon asthose ditches were filled, more were dug. And I, Agnolo di Tura … buried my five children with my own hands … And so many died