The Roman Empire: The Greatest empire the world had ever known Map of the Roman Empire 2ND Cent. CE
Monarchy 753- 509 BCE ( founded by Romulus)
Republican Period: 509-27 BCE
Early Empire: 27 BC - 96 CE
High Empire: 96 - 192 CE
Late Empire: 192-337 CE
The Roman Empire: Unification of the Ancient World INFO CARD 8
Government: ruled from Mesopotamia to England
many races, languages, cultures
Infrastructure: all led to Rome
Domination: law and order Pax Romana
Roman influences on the Western World INFO CARD 8
Legacy: Rome lives on
Coins, law, government, language
Roman Basilica -> Christian churches
Ports, roads aqueducts still in use
Use of art as propaganda
Concrete revolution in architecture
Two cultures that most influenced Rome
The Republican Period 509-27 BCE INFO CARD 9
509 BCE Expulsion of Etruscans from Rome
Establishment of constitutional government
Power in senate and consuls
Two social classes: Patrician and Plebian
Dancing Warriors, late Republican period, Vatican museum
211 BC: Romans conquered the Greek city of Syracuse, Sicily INFO CARD 9
Plundered Greek art
146 BCE Greece becomes a Roman Province
Differences from Greece
The artists are unimportant, no names survive(servants of the patron)
Greeks were interested in philosophy, art and science. The Romans were interested in conquest and administration.
The Romans took over their neighbors one by one 27 BC Republic becomes Roman Empire INFO CARD 9
Temple of Fortuna Virilis (Portunus: Roman god of harbors) Rome, 75 BCE, stone and travertine ART CARD 11
Ionic columns & frieze
Stucco used as faux marble over stone
Pseudoperipteral: engaged columns
Compare the Parthenon 48 BCE to the Temple of Fortuna Virilis
Architecture Info Card 8 A
Greek: religious artistry; the building as sculpture
Structure and engineering
Invention of concrete and use of the arch
eclectic; borrowed from Etruscan and Greek
Greek: the temple as sculpture and perfection
Roman : the temple is a monument to an empire
Temple of Vesta Tivoli, Italy, 25 BC
What are four non-Greek features?
Roman Technical Developments Info card 8 A
Roman genius: many materials in the same building- Efficiency
The Dome: architecture of light and space
Roman Invention of Concrete
Cheap and strong; can be molded to any form especially arcuation
Placed in wooden frames, then dried
Architecture of space rather than mass.
Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia Palestrina, Italy 110 BC Goddess of fate and chance ART CARD 12
How is it Hellenistic?
7 vaulted terraces, tholos at peak of triangle
innovative use of concrete; barrel vaults
#10 Symbol of Roman will & rational order over nature
Roman Engineering Feats: The Arch Info card 8 A
Advantages over trabeation
support more weight
uses smaller stones
structure can be taller and larger
needs a centering and buttressing
Barrel Vault (Tunnel); a series of connected arches
needs buttressing dark, gloomy
Groin Vault: barrel vaults intersect at right angles over a square area.
Thrust is concentrated at four corners, eliminating walls, allows clerestory windows
Info card 8 A
Patrician Portraits ART CARD 12
Function: show elevated class status through genealogy
Waxed death masks
Bust of ancestors kept in the home
Different from Greek:
Not full figure
Use of verism , not idealism
Head of a Roman Patrician 75-50 BCE marble
Head of a Roman Patrician75-50 BCE What Period? Alexander the Great What period?
Plebian Relief Sculpture Slavery was common Stylistic tastes tied to social and political status Funeral portraits of deceased freedmen. Legal members of society-thus the portraits
Portrait of a Roman General, From Sanctuary of Hercules 75-50 BCE Marble 6’2”
What’s wrong with this picture?
Cuirass(breastplate): military general
Body: Hero (Idealized)
Face: portrait (verism)
George Washington 1832-41 Horatio Greenough Neo Classic Style Smithsonian Institute What’s wrong with this picture?
“ Rated Naughty for the nipples, the navel, and the outfit”
In the words of an incensed Virginia Statesman: “The man does not live, and never did live, who saw Washington without his shirt!”
Head of a Roman Patrician 75-50 BCE marble Verism
How old is he?
Why would you want to be remembered this way?
What does it say about Roman society that there is a willingness to portray people with these looks, and to execute it in marble?
What virtues are represented here?
How does it compare to today?
How does it compare to the ancient Greeks?
Pompeii and the cities of Vesuvius
#19 & 20 Buried by a volcano 79 AD
Excavated mid 1700’s
Classical Revival 1760’s- ( Neo Classic period)
#21: Forum: Public square
Basilica: city hall
Domus w/ plan
# 22 Atrium : central reception area
Impluvium: for rainwater
Cubicula: a bed room
Triclinium: dining room
Peristyle garden: garden encircled by columns
House of Vetti 2 nd century BCE Pompei (rebuilt 60 CE) Atrium with Impluvium
THESIS: The frescoes of ancient Rome were used to lighten up windowless interiors and show off their wealth and style. They start out simplistically and evolve into complex and then disorganized compositions.
First Style Wall Painting ; Masonry style Samnite House Herculaneum late 2nd cent BCE
Fresco: wet on wet; uses mortar, lime, marble dust, color on plaster
Modeled in relief
Illusion of windows and porticos, looked out to scenes
Linear Perspective: using a vanishing point
Second Style architectonic after 80 BCE Cubiculum Villa of Publius Fannius Synistor Boscoreale, Italy 50-40 BCE
2 nd style Dionysiac Mystery frieze, Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii, Italy 60-50 BCE 5’ 4” high ART CARD 14
Celebrate rites of the god of Bacchus
Dionysiac mystery religious cult
Modeling of figures
3 illusion of a ledge
Figures interact across the room
Gardenscape, 2nd style Villa of Livia. Primaporta, Italy 30-20 BCE
Illusion of nature
Atmospheric Perspective: blurring of colors further away
no framing element
Aegean: Spring Fresco Cycladic 1450 BCE
3rd Style: ornamental end of 1st cent BCE Villa of Agrippa Postumus Boscotrecase, Italy 10 BCE ART CARD 15
Tiny floating landscape
Candelabra replaced columns
Wall is painted to support framed paintings as in a gallery
Fourth Style Wall Painting ART CARD 16
Return to Illusionism
Mixture of 2nd and 3rd styles
Walls divided into panels; may be chaotic and overfilled
Domus Aurea of Nero, Rome Italy 64-68 CE
Fourth Style Ixion Room, House of the Vetti Pompeii, Italy AD 70-79
Mix of all styles
Neptune and Amphitrite, Wall mosaic, Herculaneum, Italy 62-79CE
Inspired by which Greek statues?
Another Famous Roman mosaic?
Alexander Mosaic Battle of Issus 310 BC, Pompeii
Portrait of Husband and wife, wall painting Pompeii, Italy 70-79 CE
#25 Which attributes show social class?
Still Life with Peaches , detail of 4th style wall painting Herculaneum, Italy CE 62-79