Pharmaceuticlas and indian vultures


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Pharmaceuticlas and indian vultures

  1. 1. Pharmaceutics in the Environment<br />Aditya Parmar<br />Alejandro Azuaje<br />Ecotoxicology and Enviromental Analytics<br />
  2. 2. Outline<br />Pharmaceuticals in Environment<br />Kinds of Pharmaceutics and Their Effects<br />Pharmaceutics Action Method and Examples<br />Case Study: Story of Indian Vultures<br />4.1. Vultures Species<br /> 4.2. The Problem<br /> 4.3. Population Decline and concequences <br />Principle Cause <br />Toxicity <br />Economical Cost <br />Efforts to save the Bird<br />
  3. 3. Pharmaceuticals in the Environment<br />
  4. 4. Introduction of pharmaceutics in the environment<br />Excedents<br />Human pharmaceutics<br />Veterinarian pharmaceutics<br />Waste<br />Purines<br />Waste water<br />Soil<br />Landfills<br />Treatment plants<br />Underground water<br />Surface waters<br />Consuming water<br /><br />
  5. 5. Kinds of Pharmaceutics and Their Effects<br />
  6. 6. Pharmaceutics Action Method and Examples<br />
  7. 7. Case Study: Story of Indian Vultures <br /><ul><li>The Problem
  8. 8. Extinct in ten years, vultures decline quicker than the dodo
  9. 9. Population Decline
  10. 10. Earlys 90‘s: 92 % of decline
  11. 11. By 2007 the decline was 99.99 %</li></ul> Source:<br />
  12. 12. Consequences<br />
  13. 13. Tower of silence <br />
  14. 14. Area Effected <br />
  15. 15. Principle cause <br />Post mortem examinations showed that the majority of dead vultures had visceral gout, due to kidney damage.<br />NO evidence of viral or bacterial infectious disease, pesticides, poisons, heavy metals, or nutritional deficiency.<br />Researchers tested the theory that vultures were encountering a toxin while feeding on livestock carcasses (their main food source).<br />Surveys of veterinarians and pharmacists identified diclofenac as a recently introduced and widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), known to be toxic to the kidneys of mammals.<br />
  16. 16. Principle cause <br />The drug is cheap (less than US$1 for a course) and widely used in the treatment of inflammation, pain and fever in livestock.<br />The key diclofenac breakthrough was made in 2003 , lead by Professor Lindsay Oaks from Washington State University, USA<br />Extensive research has followed up on this work, establishing the same correlation.<br />
  17. 17. Diclofenac – Structure<br />CHC- chlorinated Hydrocarbon<br /><ul><li>Highly persistent in organisms and ecosystem.
  18. 18. High accumulation in fatty tissue of organism </li></li></ul><li>Concentration accumulation<br />Studies demonstrated that cattle has been administered with high dosage of diclofenac just before they die. <br />Drug deposited in kidney and liver tissues in high concentrations. <br /> As the animal is available to vultures fairly quick in these areas, considerable amount of concentration transferred to vultures.<br />
  19. 19. Toxicity<br />Dead birds were often characterised by the presence of extensive kidney failure.<br />Further investigation showed that diclofenac was fatal to vultures at 10 percent of the recommended mammal dose. <br />The study found that 85 percent of 259 vultures examined had died of visceral gout, a condition caused by renal failure.<br />
  20. 20. Toxicity-Oaks et al. <br />
  21. 21. Toxicity-Oaks et al.<br />
  22. 22. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species<br />The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is the world's main authority on the conservation status of species.<br />
  23. 23. Cost of loosing vultures<br />Over the 14 year period from 1993-2006 the estimated total cost of the health costs attributable to vulture declines is a staggering US$ 34 billion.<br />Reference: <br />Ecological Economics- 03130<br />
  24. 24. Efforts to save the bird<br />Banning Diclofenac<br />Breeding centres <br />Research programs on population monitoring and toxicity of other drugs<br />Awareness Programs <br />Short Video Clip<br />
  25. 25. References<br />Karl Fent and Others. Ecotoxicology of Human Pharmaceuticals. Switzerland. 2005. Pag. 122-159. <br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />Environment International 33 (2007) 759–765<br />Nature. 2004 Feb 12;427(6975):630-3. <br /> Ecological Economics<br /><br /><br />
  26. 26. THANKS<br />