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  1. 1. Updated: 1- Introduction to GA GA is a free, web analytics tool hosted by Google that can help you to create more effective sites and increase ROI on marketing campaigns. GA shows you how visitors actually find and use your site, so you'll be able to • Make informed site design and content decisions • Improve your site to convert more visitors into customers • Track a wide variety of metrics, the performance of your keywords, banner ads, and other marketing campaigns, and track metrics such as revenue, average order value, and ecommerce conversion rates. GA can help you answer important questions about your site and your marketing initiatives, and get more out of the site? Some of the features include: • Map Overlay which can help you understand how to best target campaigns by geographic region • AdWords Integration which makes it easy to track AdWords campaigns and allows you to use GA from your AdWords interface. • Internal Site Search which allows you to track how people use the search box on your site. • Benchmarking so that you can see whether your site usage metrics underperform or outperform those of your industry vertical. • Funnel Visualization so that you can optimize your checkout and conversion click- paths. How GA works. When a visitor accesses a page on your site, a request is made to the webserver to display the page. 1
  2. 2. The page is served and the GA Tracking Code JavaScript is executed. The GA Tracking Code, which is a snippet of code that you place on each page of your site, calls the trackPageView() method. At this point, the GA first-party cookies are read and/or written. The webpage then sends an invisible gif request containing all the data to the secure GA reporting server, where the data is captured and processed. Data is processed regularly throughout the day and you can see the results in your reports. GA uses only first-party cookies, which are considered safe and non-intrusive by most internet users today. Although many people block third-party cookies from being set by their web browsers, this won’t affect GA. • Someone who blocks all cookies, however, won’t be tracked by GA since all the data is passed to the GA servers via the first-party cookies. • Someone who deletes their cookies will still be tracked, but they’ll be identified as a new visitor to the site and GA won’t be able to attribute their conversions to a prior referring campaign. People delete cookies for many reasons, one of which is to prevent personal data from being captured or reported. But, note that GA does not report on personally identifiable information. 2
  3. 3. A much less common scenario is that a visitor to your site has disabled JavaScript on his or her browser, the he won’t be tracked since the GA Tracking Code cannot be executed. Cached pages are saved on a visitor’s local machine and so they’re not served by the webserver. GA will still track visits to cached pages as long as the visitor is connected to the internet. JavaScript errors occur when an element of a web page’s script contains an error or fails to execute correctly. If an error occurs before the GA Tracking Code is executed, the visit to the page won’t be tracked. In general, no reporting tool can ever be 100% accurate. You’ll get the most out of web analytics if you focus on trends. Knowing that 20% more visitors converted following a marketing campaign is more powerful than knowing that exactly 10 people visited your site today. All data collected by GA is anonymous, including where visitors comes from, how the visitors navigate through the site, and other actions they may perform. No personally identifiable information is collected. Google does not share Analytics data with any 3rd parties. Furthermore, Google optimization, support, and sales staff may only access a client’s data with the client’s permission. You can give permission verbally, over email or through a support ticket that asks for help with a problem or asks a question about your data. SHARE INFORMATION 1-You may elect to share your GA data “with other Google products”, and Google will use the data to improve the products and services we provide you. 2-Selecting to share your data “Anonymously with Google and others” allows you to use benchmarking. To provide benchmarking, Google removes all identifiable information about your website, then combines the data with hundreds of other anonymous sites in comparable industries and reports them in an aggregate form. If you select "do not share my GA data", you will not be able to use benchmarking and may not have access to specific ads-related features such as Conversion Optimizer. Lesson 2 Interface Navigation Initial Screen 3
  4. 4. Understanding the GA interface will help you find and analyze information more effectively. When you first login to your GA account, you’ll see a screen similar to the one on the slide. Click on the name of the account you would like to access. Each profile for the selected account is displayed under “Website Profiles”. From this screen you can access reports for each profile. You an also edit configuration settings, add filters, add or change user permissions, and add or remove profiles altogether. Report Interface Click the “View Reports” link for a profile, and you’ll be taken to the dashboard for that profile. 4
  5. 5. User interface features available on all reports: Report navigation, scheduled email settings, Help links, data export options, and the calendar. Note that there are several places to find help information. The Help link on the top right of the page takes you to the GA Help Center. Also, on the left margin of the page, you’ll see a Help Resources box with links. Dashboard The dashboard is where you put all the summary information about your site that you want to see at a glance. To add a report to the dashboard, just go to the report you want to add and then click Add to Dashboard. On the dashboard itself, you can position the report summaries however you like and delete the ones you don’t need. 5
  6. 6. Report Structure In the left hand navigation, you’ll see that your reports are organized into categories: Visitors, Traffic Sources, Content, Goals, and Ecommerce. (If you don’t have an ecommerce site or don’t have ecommerce reporting enabled, you won’t see the ecommerce section in your navigation).Some reports contain additional sub-reports, like the AdWords report under Traffic Sources. 6
  7. 7. Setting The Active Date Range You can then use the Calendar or the Timeline to select a new date range. The “Calendar” tab allows you to select date ranges by clicking on the day and month within the calendar or you can type dates in the “Date Range” boxes. The “Timeline” tab has a date slider that you can resize and move to cover any range of dates. You can see your site’s traffic trends in the Timeline. Setting A Comparison Date Range 7
  8. 8. You can select a date range to compare to the current selected date range. When using the Timeline to set a comparison date range, you’ll see two date sliders instead of just one. You can use a comparison date range to see how your site is performing month over month, year over year or even from one day to another. The date range and comparison date ranges you select will apply to all your reports and graphs. Graphic By Day, Week And Month Most reports include an over-time graph at the top. You can make this graph display data by day, week, or month. Multi-Line Graphs You can also compare two metrics on the same graph to see how they are correlated. Click the arrow in the top left of the graph. Then, click the Compare Two Metrics link and select which two metrics you want to compare. In this example, we’re graphing visitors versus average time on site. 8
  9. 9. Graph Roll-Overs You can roll your mouse over the graph and see actual numbers. Exporting Report Data You can export data from any report. There are four formats: PDF, XML, CSV and tab-separated. Email Reports Next to the Export button, you’ll see an Email button. Click it and you’ll see a screen with two tabs: Send Now, and Schedule.You can schedule reports to be delivered daily, weekly, monthly or quarterly. You also have the option to select what format to send them in, such as PDF or CSV.The email scheduling feature 9
  10. 10. provides an easy way to automatically distribute specific report data to the people who need it. Curriculum Links The Overview reports in each section contain a set of Curriculum links. You can use these links to quickly find information that you need. In some cases, these links access reports that are not available from the left report navigation. Title And Breadcrumbs You can always see where you are in a report hierarchy by looking at the title and the breadcrumbs at the top of the report. 10
  11. 11. Look at the example on the slide. From the title, you can see that you are in the Referring Link report and that you’re looking at traffic from the link You can click on any of the breadcrumb links to go back to that report. Narratives And Scorecards Nearly every report contains a short narrative that summarizes the traffic that’s included in the report. The scorecard below the narrative provides metric aggregates and averages for the traffic. Each box in the scorecard contains a question mark button. Clicking it opens a small window that explains how the metric is calculated. 11
  12. 12. Report Tabs Most reports provide tabs that show different sets of data. The Site Usage tab shows metrics such as the number of pages viewed per visit, the average time on site, and the bounce rate. The Goal Conversion tab shows the conversion rates for each of your goals. If you’ve enabled ecommerce reporting on your Profile Settings page, you’ll also see an Ecommerce tab. This tab shows metrics such as Ecommerce revenue, number of transactions, and average value. The AdWords Campaigns reports have an additional tab called Clicks. This tab contains AdWords related metrics such as clicks, cost, revenue per click and ROI. Quick Segmentation You can segment table data in different ways using the Dimension pulldown menu. So, for example, if you want to see the traffic in your keywords report broken out by City, you just select City from the pulldown menu. 12
  13. 13. Keyword Reports In the Keywords and Search Engines reports, you have the option to analyze just paid, just non-paid traffic, or all search traffic. Simply click on the links above the scorecard to make your selection. Hourly Reporting Some reports allow you to view results by hour. On these reports, you can select the view you want by clicking on the clock button in the top right corner next to “Graph By”. 13
  14. 14. Report Views There are five different Views available in most reports. The 1st icon: table. This is the default view for many reports. The 2nd icon: a pie-chart based on any one of the metrics in the report. The 3rd icon: a bar-graph based on any metric you select. The 4th icon: is the comparison bar graph view. It allows you to quickly see whether each entry in the table is performing above or below average. The 5th icon allows you to instantly see a summary report with graphs for the traffic you’re analyzing. Sorting Data Columns within tables can be sorted in both ascending and descending order simply by clicking on the column heading. The arrows next to the heading title indicate the order in which the results are listed. 14
  15. 15. Expanding Numbers Of Results Desplayed By default, all reports with tables display ten rows. To display more than ten rows, go to the bottom of your report and click the dropdown menu arrow next to “Show rows”. You can display up to 500 rows per page. Find Box You can use the Find box at the bottom left of your reports to narrow or refine your results. For example, if you are looking at the All Traffic Sources report and you want to only see traffic from the Google domain, you can type in Google and select “containing”. Or, to exclude all traffic from the Google domain, you would select “excluding”. 15
  16. 16. Contextual Help Resources You can get information about any report you’re looking at by clicking one of the Help Resources. About this Report offers a brief description of the report. Conversion University provides insight into how you might use and interpret the data. Common Questions links to Help Center articles that are related to the report. 3_ Updated: Installing the GA Tracking Code: Get started with GA in 3 simple steps. 1. Sign up for a GA Account. 2. Install the provided code across all pages of your site. 3. If you are using Google AdWords, link it to your GA account to report on cost and click data. There are two places you can sign up for a GA account: You can go to and click the “Sign up now” link. Or, if you are already an AdWords user, you can create a new account via “GA” under Reporting. 16
  17. 17. GA uses a combination of JavaScript and first party cookies to gather anonymous data about your visitors. As you set up your GA account, you will be provided with a tracking code. You’ll need to install this tracking code across all pages of your site. If you need to access your tracking code later on, you can find it by going to “Analytics Settings”, and clicking “Edit” next to the profile. Click the “Check Status” link in the top right corner to be taken to the page that contains your tracking code and brief instructions for how to install it. 17
  18. 18. This page gives you the asynchronous version of the GA Tracking Code that allows your site to run at its fastest, so we recommend that you always use this version. Traditional ga.js tracking is still used on many sites. To see the traditional ga.js syntax, navigate to the URL shown on the slide. Be sure to replace the "x"s in the code with your unique GA account number and property index. Let’s look at the tracking code. This section of the code tells GA which account this traffic belongs to. The number immediately following the “UA dash” is your unique GA account number, and the number following the last dash is the property index. This section of the tracking code automatically detects secure versus non-secure pages. So, you can use the same tracking code on both https and http pages. The tracking code that is provided to you is designed to work with most site setups. In some cases, however, you’ll need to make small updates to the tracking code on each of your pages. 18
  19. 19. For example, if you need to: • Track multiple domains in one profile, • Track more than one subdomain per profile, or • Track multiple domain aliases To install the JavaScript, copy your tracking code--either the code provided during setup, or your customized snippet--and paste it into your page. One of the main advantages of the asynchronous snippet is that you can position it at the top of the HTML document. This increases the likelihood that the tracking beacon will be sent before the user leaves the page. It is customary to place JavaScript code in the <head> section, and we recommend placing the snippet at the bottom of the <head> section for best performance. Here’s a sample. To maintain tracking consistency, it is important that the code is installed across all pages of your site. If you buy keywords on Google AdWords, you can use GA to see how well your paid keywords perform in terms of conversion rates, revenue, and ROI. You can compare search result positions for each keyword and you can compare ad performance. To do these things, you'll need to link your AdWords account to your Analytics account. Review the module on Campaign Tracking and AdWords Integration for detailed instructions. 19
  20. 20. Urchin Software from Google is similar to GA, but Urchin runs on your own servers, whereas GA is a service hosted by Google. If you’ve licensed Urchin, you can run both Urchin and GA together on your site. Running Urchin and GA together gives you a great deal of flexibility and analysis capability. Verifying Installation Once you’ve installed your tracking code, it usually takes about 24 hours for data to appear in your reports. The best way to verify that you are receiving data is to simply look at your reports. Go to the Top Content report in the Content section and make sure that you see Pageview numbers for each of your pages. You can also view your webpage’s source code to verify that the tracking code is installed. Search for ga.js. If you find the GA tracking code on your page, then it is likely that GA has been successfully installed on your site. Repeat this process across several pages on your site to make sure that your installation is complete. Urchin Software from Google is similar to Google Analytics, but Urchin runs on your own servers, whereas Google Analytics is a service hosted by Google. If you’ve licensed Urchin, you can run both Urchin and Google Analytics together on your site. Running Urchin and Google Analytics together gives you a great deal of flexibility and analysis capability.You’ll need to make modifications to your tracking code. While this isn’t covered in the course, you can learn how by following the link shown in the slide. Lesson 4_Guidelines Contextual Help Resources You can get information about any report you’re looking at by clicking one of the Help Resources. About this Report offers a brief description of the report. 20
  21. 21. Conversion University provides insight into how you might use and interpret the data. Common Questions links to Help Center articles that are related to the report. Create Context For Your Data When analyzing your traffic, avoid focusing on just a single metric. This pageviews result by itself isn’t actionable because you don’t know what the number really means. But, when you look at pageviews in the context of other metrics, you start to get clearer picture. For example, look at the bounce rate. Half of the time that people entered the site through this page, they left the site without looking at any other pages. This page is very important. By comparing the pageviews to the site average, we can see that this page accounts for over 28% of all the pageviews. How has the performance of this page changed over time? This page is receiving 20% fewer visits than it did last week and people are spending 10% less time on it. And last week, the bounce rate was only 24% — now it’s double that number. So, putting data into context can help us ask the right questions and decide on a course of action. Let’s look at another example 21
  22. 22. Creating Context With Visualizations Here we are looking at the Content by Title report. We’re using the Compare to Site Average visualization to see which pages have significantly higher bounce rates than the site average. The bounce rate for the first title is nearly 20% higher than the site average. The red bar shows that it’s performing worse than the site average. . 22
  23. 23. Looking For Trends Analyzing trends is another useful way to bring context into your analysis.The graph on the slide shows us that pageviews peaked in May. Did visits increase or did each visitor look at more pages? Investigating Changes In Trends Using the Graph Mode to compare Visits and Pageviews, we see that Visits and Pageviews have increased proportionally. Data Driven Decision Making Now let’s identify which traffic sources led to the increase in traffic and revenue. We do this by looking at the All Traffic Sources report and clicking on the Ecommerce tab. 23
  24. 24. Comparing two days of traffic, we find that — although several sources sent an increasing number of visitors to the site — only Google organic and Google referral had a significant impact on revenue. Therefore, we know that although other campaigns increased overall traffic, they did not bring in purchasers. This kind of information can help you decide where to focus your promotion and site content resources. Lesson 5_Pageviews, Visits, and Visitors Pageview Every time a page on your website loads. For example, if someone comes to your site and views page A, then page B, then Page A again, and then leaves your site — the total pageviews for the visit is 3. 24
  25. 25. Visit A visit — or session — is a period of interaction between a web browser and a website. Closing the browser or staying inactive for more than 30 minutes ends the visit. For example, let’s say that a visitor is browsing the Google Store, a site that uses GA. He gets to the second page, and then gets a phone call. He talks on the phone for 31 minutes, during which he does not click anywhere else on the site.After his call, he continues where he left off. GA will count this as a second visit, or a new session. Visitor A visitor is uniquely identified by a GA visitor cookie which assigns a random visitor ID to the user, and combines it with the timestamp of the visitor’s first visit. The combination of the random visitor ID and the timestamp establish a Unique ID for that visitor. You’ll learn more about the visitor cookie in a subsequent module. 25
  26. 26. Pageviews, Visits, And Visitors – The Basics Generally, the Visitors metric will be smaller than the Visits metric which in turn will be smaller than the Pageviews metric. For example, 1 visitor could visit a site 2 times and generate a total of 5 pageviews. Pageviews Vs. Unique Pageviews A pageview is defined as a view of a page that is tracked by the GA Tracking Code. If a visitor hits reload after reaching the page, this will be counted as an additional pageview. If a user navigates to a different page and then returns to the original page, an additional pageview will also be recorded. A unique pageview represents the number of visits during which that page was viewed– whether one or more times. In other words, if a visitor views page A three times during one visit, GA will count this as three pageviews and one unique pageview. 26
  27. 27. “Absolute Unique” Vs. “New vs. Returning” The “Absolute Unique Visitors” report counts each visitor during your selected date range only once. So, if visitor A comes to your site 5 times during the selected date range and visitor B comes to your site just once, you will have 2 Absolute Unique Visitors. Remember, a visitor is uniquely identified by a GA visitor cookie. The “New vs. Returning” report classifies each visit as coming from either a new visitor or a returning visitor. So when someone visits your site for the first time, the visit is categorized as “Visit from a new visitor.” If the person has browsed your website before, the visit is categorized as “Visit from a returning visitor.” 27
  28. 28. A high number of new visits suggests that you are successful at driving traffic to your site while a high number of return visits suggests that the site content is engaging enough for visitors to come back. You can look at the Recency report to see how recently visitors have visited. You can look at the Loyalty report to see how frequently they return. Both the Recency and Loyalty reports are under Visitor Loyalty in the Visitors section. Pageviews, Visits, And Visitors In Your report The Pageviews metric can be found in the Visitors Overview and in the Content section reports. Most of the other reports show Pages Viewed per Visit instead of Pageviews. Unique Pageviews is only found in the Content section. Almost all of the reports show Visits. The Visitors metric — in other words the number of visitors who came to your site — is found in the Visitors section. 28
  29. 29. Lesson 6_ Time Metrics Time On Page To calculate Time on Page, GA compares the timestamps of the visited pages. For example, in the slide, the visitor saw page A, then page B, and then left the site.The Time on Page for page A is calculated by subtracting the page A timestamp from the page B timestamp. So, the Time on Page for page A is 1 minute and 15 seconds. (In order for this calculation to take place, the GA Tracking Code must be executed on both pages) The Time on Page for page B is 0 seconds, because there is no subsequent timestamp that GA can use to calculate the actual Time on Page. Time On Site Now, suppose the visitor continued on to a third page before exiting. The second page now has a Time on Page of 1 minute 10 seconds. The Time on Site is now calculated as 2 minutes and 25 seconds. 29
  30. 30. “Avg. Time On Page” VS “Avg. Time On Site” For Average Time on Page, bounces are excluded from the calculation. In other words, any Time on Page of 0 is excluded from the calculation. BUT For Average Time on Site, bounces remain a part of the calculation. To calculate Average Time on Site, GA divides the total time for all visits by the number of visits. Flash Based Sites Sites that make use of Flash or other interactive technologies don’t load new pages frequently and all the user interaction takes place on a single page. As a result, it’s common for sites like this to have high bounce rates and low average times on site. If you have such a site, you may wish to set up your tracking so that virtual pageviews or events are generated as the user performs various activities.. “Length Of Visit” VS “Avg. Time On Site” The Length of Visit report, found under Visitor Loyalty in the Visitors section, categorizes visits according to the amount of time spent on the site during the visit. The graph allows you to visualize the entire distribution of visits instead of simply the ‘Average Time on Site’ across all visits. 30
  31. 31. You can see whether a few visits are skewing your ‘Average Time on Site’ upward or downward. Lesson 7_Traffic Sources Traffic Sources Reports The reports in the Traffic Sources section show you where your traffic is coming from on the internet. You can compare your traffic sources against each other to find out which sources send you the highest quality traffic. 31
  32. 32. Traffic Sources Explained • Direct Traffic represents visitors who clicked on a bookmark to arrive at your site, or who typed the URL directly into their browser. • Referring Sites include any sites that send traffic to you. These could be banner ads or links featured on blogs, affiliates, or any site that links to your site. • Search Engine traffic represents visitors who click on a search results link in Google, Yahoo, or any other search engine. Search Engine traffic can be organic — in other words, free search results — or paid. Paid search engine traffic is pay per click or cost per click traffic that you purchase from a search engine — for example on Google AdWords. Understanding which search engines send you qualified traffic can help you select the search engines on which you want to advertise. What Makes A Good Source Of Traffic? Looking at the highest traffic drivers is a start, but it doesn’t tell you whether the traffic was qualified and helped you achieve the goals you’ve set for your site. One easy indicator of quality is Bounce Rate — the percentage of visits in which the person left without viewing any other pages. By clicking the “compare to site average” icon and selecting a comparison metric, you can see which sources outperform and underperform the site average. One note about bounce rate, if your site is a blog, bounce rate may not be relevant. With blogs, it’s common for people to look at a single page and then leave. All Traffic Sources The All Traffic Sources report lists all of the sources sending traffic to your site — including referrals, search engine traffic, and direct traffic This report is particularly helpful because you can identify your top performing sources, regardless of whether they are search engines or sites. For example, in the report, we see that referred more traffic than any other source. It has a medium of referral because it is a referral from a site. The second most popular source of traffic was direct. Direct traffic always has a medium of (none). Free Google search engine traffic was the fourth largest referrer. 32
  33. 33. The medium of organic tells us that this traffic came from clicks on unpaid search engine results. The medium of cpc on this entry — for cost per click — tells us that this traffic came from paid search results. You may sometimes see _referrals_ from These can come from Google Groups posts or static pages on other Google sites. Revenue And Conversion Drivers If you have goals or ecommerce set up on your site, you have a much wider range of metrics with which to assess performance. Click on the Goal Conversion or Ecommerce tabs to view which sources are driving conversions and purchases. 33
  34. 34. Keywords Report The Keywords report is very useful for understanding what visitors were expecting to find on your site. Keywords with a high bounce rate tell you where you failed to meet that expectation. You can isolate your paid search engine traffic by clicking the Paid link. By doing this, you’ll limit the report to just showing your AdWords traffic and paid traffic from other search engines. If you have paid keywords with a high bounce rate, you should evaluate whether your landing pages are relevant enough and you might also want to consider whether you should continue to buy those keywords. Remember, you can use the Goal Conversion and Ecommerce tabs to compare the performance of keywords in terms of conversions and revenue. For example, in the slide example, the ‘google kids’ phrase has a 86% bounce rate. Let’s find out what landing page is being used. We start by clicking on the ‘google kids’ entry in the table. This takes us to the Keyword report for ‘google kids’. 34
  35. 35. To find out which landing page is being used for this keyword, we’ll select Landing Page from the Dimension pulldown menu. Keyword Drilldown We can now see which landing page is being used and evaluate it’s relevance to the keyword. This report can be particularly helpful if multiple landing pages are being used. You can find out which landing pages are responsible for the poor performance and send the keyword traffic to the most effective landing page. Be sure to also check the bounce rates for organic, non-paid keywords. This information can offer insights into how to best focus your search engine optimization efforts. 35
  36. 36. Campaign Attribution As long as you have defined goals and track ecommerce transactions, you can use the metrics on the Goal Conversion and Ecommerce tabs to assess the performance of any campaign. By default, GA attributes a conversion or sale to the campaign that most recently preceded the conversion or sale. For example, if a visitor clicks on an AdWords ad (Campaign 1 in the first session) and then later returns via a referral to purchase something (Referrer 1 in the second session), the referral will get credit for the sale. However, if instead the visitor returns directly ( bookmark or typing ULR), then the AdWords ad (Campaign 1) will still get credit for the sale. To prevent a specific referral or campaign from overriding a prior campaign, simply append “utm_nooverride=1” to all referring campaign links as shown in the slide. This ensures that the conversion is always attributed to the original referrer (or first campaign the user clicked on). Therefore, in the example above, the original campaign will continue to get credit for the conversion. If a visitor returns via a link without the utm_nooverride, as in the third example, that campaign will get credit for the sale since it overwrites all previous referring campaigns. 36
  37. 37. Lesson 8_ Content Reports 3: Top Content, Content By Title, Content Drilldown The first three reports listed in the Content section all show the same information, but each report organizes it differently. The Top Content report lists each page that received traffic. The Content by Title report groups your pages according to Title tag. You can click on a title to see the pages that share that title. The Content Drilldown report groups pages according to directory. You can click on a directory to see the pages in the directory. Why Am I Seeing “/” In My Reports? Pages in your Content reports are represented by their “request URIs”, which is the part of the URL after the domain name. So, a forward slash represents your home page. When you create your profile, you should specify the name of your homepage as the Default page. That way, instead of having forward slash show up in your reports, you’ll see your homepage URI instead. 37
  38. 38. Top Landing Pages The Top Landing Pages report lists all of the pages through which people entered your site. You can use this report to monitor the number of bounces and the bounce rate for each landing page. Bounce rate is good indicator of landing page relevance and effectiveness. You can lower bounce rates by tailoring each landing page to its associated ads and referral links. The more relevant the page, the less likely a visitor will be to bounce. 38
  39. 39. Navigation Summary Help you understand how people move through your site. The reports are listed on the Content Overview page. They’re also available from a pulldown menu when you drill down to a page detail report. The first of these — Navigation Summary — can help you see how people arrived at a specific page and where they went afterwards. Navigation Summary Here’s the Navigation Summary report. Percent Entrances shows how frequently the page was a landing page. Percent Previous Pages shows how frequently visitors came to the page after viewing another page on the site. Percent Exits shows how frequently visits ended on this page. Percent Next Pages shows how frequently visitors continued on to another page on the site. The list of pages that were viewed immediately before the page or pages is shown in the left column. The list of pages that were viewed immediately after the page or pages is shown in the right column. 39
  40. 40. Why Are “Previous Page” And “Next Page” The Same? Sometimes the Previous Page, the Next Page, and the page you are analyzing are all the same page. This can be caused by visitors hitting the refresh button multiple times and generating “self-referring” hits. It can also be caused, for example, if the page has graphics that the visitor can click to enlarge. Here’s what happens. The visitor views the page and GA registers a pageview. Then the visitor clicks on a graphic and views the enlarged graphic file. This does not result in a pageview because the enlarged graphic file doesn’t have the GA Tracking Code. The visitor then clicks the back button, which registers another pageview. If there are many images on the page, it’s possible that the visitor will click on each graphic. This scenario will cause the Previous, current, and Next page to all be identical. Entrance Path Reports The Entrance Paths report is a powerful tool for analyzing navigation paths. For example, let’s say that you want to find out whether people clicked the Purchase button on your landing page and actually completed the purchase. 40
  41. 41. To find out, go to the Top Landing Pages report and click the landing page you want to analyze. Once you are on the Content Detail report for the page, click the Entrance Paths link as shown in the slide. Analyzing A Landing Page Using Entrance Paths You’ll now see the Entrance Paths report for your landing page. In the middle column, you’ll see all the possible clicks people made on the page. Choose the link that represents the Purchase page. In the right hand column, you’ll now see all the pages visitors went to after the Purchase page. By looking at this list, you’ll be able to see how many visits ended up on the Purchase Completion page. This report can show you if the landing page is doing the job you designed it for. 41
  42. 42. Additional Content Reports And Drill-Down You can use the “Analyze” drop-down menu to view additional reports such as Entrance Sources and Entrance Keywords. The “Content” drop down menu allows you to select — or search for — specific pages to analyze. 42
  43. 43. Lesson 9 Profiles in GA Account Admin Interface 43
  44. 44. Creating A New Account The last option in the drop-down is “Create New Account” – this is how you would create a new analytics account under the login that you are currently using. So, when should you create a new account? If you manage the analytics services for several websites which belong to different organizations, you’ll generally want to create a new account for each organization. We’ll discuss this best practice in a few minutes. You are permitted to create up to 25 analytics accounts per Google username. However, you can be added as an administrator to an unlimited number of accounts. If you’re using Analytics from your AdWords account, you won’t see this drop-down. You’ll only see it if you are signed in from User Manager To give other users access to your GA account, you use the User Manager, which you can access here from the Analytics Settings page. Inside the User Manager, you can view all of the users who currently have access to your account. 44
  45. 45. 45
  46. 46. “Administrators” And “Users” There are two types of GA users. Administrators have access to all reports and they can also modify Analytics settings. So, Administrators can create profiles, filters, and goals, and they can add users. Users only have read access to your reports and they can’t modify analytics settings. Also, Users can be restricted to viewing only specific profiles. Add/Delete Users And Edit User Info You use the User Manager to add new users, remove users, and edit user information. Adding A New User After clicking “Add Users” a screen that looks like this will appear. Enter the user information in the form. In order for you to add a new user, they must have a Google Account. If they don’t have a Google Account, ask them to create one at Use the access type dropdown to select the level of access you want to give the new user. You can either grant read-only access to certain reports or you can make them an administrator. Remember that administrators can view all reports and modify account settings. 46
  47. 47. 47
  48. 48. Granting Access To A User If you select the “View Reports Only”, the interface will show you a list of all profiles associated with your account. Select the profiles you would like this user to have access to and click the “Add” button to apply your changes. Modifying Access To edit the access settings for an existing user, go to the User Manager and click Edit next to the user. You can change their Access Type, and you can add or remove access to specific profiles. Select the profiles you would like to remove report access to and click on the “Remove” button. 48
  49. 49. Managing Access And Accounts Remember that an administrator has full administrative access to all profiles within the account. If you manage the analytics services for several websites which belong to different organizations, the best practice is to create a separate Analytics account for each organization. Otherwise, if you were to group all the websites of all the different organizations into a single account, any Administrators you created on the account would have access to all the reports for all the websites. 49
  50. 50. Not only would the administrators be able to see the reports of other organizations, they’d also be able to change analytics settings on profiles that don’t belong to them. This raises the potential for an Administrator to accidentally edit — or even delete — another organization’s settings and data. Changing Your E-mail Login Address If you want to change your e-mail login, create a new Google account. Add your new login as an administrator to your GA account. 50
  51. 51. Profiles On your Analytics Settings page, you can see a list of the profiles that belong to the account you’ve selected. You’ll generally have a separate profile for every domain that you track. You might also have profiles that correspond to subdomains. Or you might set up a profile that only includes data for a filtered subset of traffic of one of your domains. Profiles are very flexible — they are basically just a set of rules that define what data is to be included in the reports. Using Profiles Here are some typical examples of profiles you might set up: You might have a profile that only contains traffic data for a specific subdomain or tracks a certain kind of traffic. You could give some users access to one of these profiles and other users access to another profile. The result would be that each user would only see reports that apply to them. 51
  52. 52. Profiles A profile consists of settings that define the reports that you see. These include user access, goals, and filter settings.When you create a profile, you have the option of creating a profile for a new domain or an existing domain. Here is a schematic showing an Analytics account with three profiles. The first two profiles are tracking domain A, and the third profile is tracking domain B. Notice the tracking code number for each profile. The longer number, represented by Xs, is the GA account number–all three profiles have the same account number. Next you see that Profiles 1 and 2 each have a “dash 1”, while Profile 3 has a “dash 2.” This smaller number is the property number. Profiles 1 and 2 are tracking the same domain and have the same property number. They can be referred to as “duplicate profiles.” Profile 3 is tracking a different domain, and has a different property number. Now you may wonder, why would I create duplicate profiles? You might want to apply filters to your duplicate profile so that it contains a subset of data. So, for example, you might filter the data in Profile 2 so that it only includes AdWords visitors to domain A. In addition, you might want to give certain users access only to Profile 2. This has the effect of only allowing these users to see AdWords traffic to domain A. 52
  53. 53. Adding A New Profile You’ll need to be an Administrator to add a new profile.To add a new profile, go to the Analytics Settings page and click the Add Website Profile link. Then, in the screen that appears, select the Add a profile for a new domain. Enter the URL for the web property and click Finish. Edit Profile To edit a profile, click the “Edit” settings link for the profile on the Analytics Settings page. You must be an Administrator in order to edit a profile. 53
  54. 54. Using the edit link next to “Main Website Profile information,” you can configure various profile settings such as the default page, e-commerce reporting, and site search tracking. You can also configure the profile to exclude query string parameters such as session IDs from the URLs that appear in the report interface. Removing Profiles To remove a profile, you can simply click the Delete link next to the profile on the Analytics Settings page. You’ll need to be an Administrator to do this. Be careful that you are deleting the correct profile, because you won’t be able to recover the historical data for the profile once it’s been deleted. 10_ Updated: Campaign Tracking and AdWords Integration GA allows you to track and analyze all of your marketing campaigns -- including paid search campaigns, banner ads, emails and other programs. 54
  55. 55. There are two ways to track ad campaigns. 1_For AdWords campaigns, you should enable keyword autotagging. This allows GA to automatically populate your reports with detailed AdWords campaign information. In order to enable autotagging, you’ll need to link your AdWords and GA accounts; 2_The second way to track campaigns is to manually tag links. So, for example, you could tag the links in an email message with campaign-identifying information. You may also choose to manually tag AdWords links if you do not wish to enable autotagging. The tags are campaign variables that you append to the end of your URLs. autotagging By linking GA to your AdWords account, you can get advanced reporting that measures performance and ROI for your AdWords campaigns. 55
  56. 56. Within AdWords, select GA under the Reporting tab to link your accounts. The AdWords login that you’re using will need administrator privileges in Analytics in order to link the accounts. If you don’t already have an Analytics account, you’ll be able to create one. When you link your accounts, you should enable "Destination URL Autotagging”. This option allows you to differentiate your paid ads from organic search listings and referrals (If autotagging is not enabled, your Analytics reports will show that the clicks from the sponsored listings and the organic listings are both coming from the same source: google organic) and to see detailed campaign information in the AdWords section of your Traffic Sources reports. Your cost data -- the information about clicks and keyword spending -- will be applied once you link your accounts. If you don't want cost data imported into a particular profile, you can edit the profile settings and de-select the cost data option -- after you've completed the linking process. Be aware that you can only link one Analytics account to one AdWords account. For administration purposes, you will want to create a new Analytics account for each associated AdWords account. Note that once you have linked an Analytics and AdWords account – the time zone in GA will automatically take that of the AdWords Account (if they are different). Autotagging works by adding a unique id, or g-c-l-i-d, to the end of your destination URLs. This unique id allows Analytics to track and display click details in your reports. 56
  57. 57. It is important to note that 3rd party redirects and encoded URLs can prevent autotagging from working properly. You should test these cases by adding a unique parameter to the end of your URL --- for example you could add ?test=test. Test to make sure that the parameter is carried through to your destination page and that the link doesn’t break. Notice that the first query parameter is always preceded with a question mark. Subsequent values are separated using ampersands. Here’s an example of a gclid appended to the end of a URL. To enable autotagging, select “Account Preferences” under “My Account” in Adwords. Make sure that the Tracking option reads “yes”. If it says “no”, click the edit link, check the box for “Destination URL Autotagging”, and click “Save Changes”. 57
  58. 58. When linking your AdWords account to Analytics for the first time, you’ll be prompted to automatically select “Destination URL Autotagging” and “Cost Data Import”. If you want to change your autotagging settings later, you can do so by editing your AdWords account preferences. All AdWords cost data from an account will be imported into any profile in which the Apply Cost Data checkbox is selected. Make sure both your AdWords and Analytics accounts are set to the same currency so that ROI data is accurately calculated. Recall that when linking your AdWords account to your Analytics account, your cost data will be applied to all of your profiles. If you don't want cost data imported into a particular profile, you can edit the profile settings. Within the "Edit Profile Information" screen, find the "Apply Cost Data" checkbox. De-select this checkbox. 58
  59. 59. And finally, note that GA is only able to import cost data from AdWords, and not from other ad networks. Discrepancies: You may notice differences between the data in your GA and AdWords reports. Reasons: 1) AdWords tracks clicks, while Analytics tracks visits. 2) Visitors browser preferences: Some visitors who click on your AdWords ads may have JavaScript, cookies, or images turned off. As a result, Analytics won't report these visits, but AdWords will report the click. 3) Unable to load the code: You’ll also see differences between Analytics and AdWords if the GA Tracking Code on your landing page doesn’t execute. In this case, AdWords will report the click but Analytics will not record the visit. 4) Invalid clicks may also cause reporting differences because while Google AdWords automatically filters invalid clicks from your reports, GA will still report the visits. 5) Finally, keep in mind that AdWords data is uploaded once a day to Analytics so the results for each may be temporarily out of sync. 6) Be aware that campaign data can be lost if your site uses redirects. As a result, Analytics won’t show the visits as coming from AdWords, but your AdWords report will still report the clicks. 59
  60. 60. Make sure that your landing pages contain the GA Tracking Code. If they don’t, campaign information will not be passed to Analytics, but clicks will register in AdWords. Make sure that you have autotagging enabled. Otherwise, visits will be marked as Google Organic instead of Google CPC. While we strongly recommend that you use autotagging instead of manual tagging, if you do manually tag your destination URLs, you must make sure that all of them are tagged, otherwise data discrepancies will occur. GA automatically tracks all of the referrals and search queries that send traffic to your website. However, if you are running paid advertising campaigns, you should add tags to the destination URLs of your ads. Adding a tag allows you to attach information about the campaign that will show up in your Analytics reports. Although it’s possible to manually tag your AdWords ads, you should enable auto- tagging instead. • If you manually tag your AdWords ads, the AdWords reports will only show you information by Campaign and Keyword. • If you enable auto-tagging, the AdWords reports will show you results by ad group, matched search query, placement domain and many other AdWords attributes. VARIABLES There are five variables you can use when tagging URLs. To tag a URL, you add a question mark to the end of the URL, followed by your tag, as shown in the slide. The variables and values are listed as pairs separated by an equals sign. Each variable- value pair is separated by an ampersand. 1) utm_source to identify the specific website that is sending the traffic. 2) utm_medium to identify the kind of advertising medium -- for example, cpc for cost per click, or email for an email newsletter. 3) utm_campaign to identify the name of the campaign -- for example, this could be the product name or it might be a slogan. You should always use these three variables when tagging a link. You can use them in any order you want. 4) If you're tagging paid CPC campaigns, you should also use utm_term to specify the keyword. 60
  61. 61. 5) And you can differentiate versions of a link -- for example, if you have two call- to-action links within the same email message, you can use utm_content to differentiate them so that you can tell which version is most effective. To illustrate, let’s look at a two versions of a link to, both placed on The first link in the slide does not have a tag. Traffic from this link will show up in your reports as a referral from There won’t be any campaign information. The second link has a tag. Traffic from this link will show up with a source of your site, and it will show as a banner, instead of a referral. Also, you’ll see this traffic reflected under summerpromo in your Campaigns report. Let’s look at a destination URL from an AdWords ad. In the first example, no tag has been provided and autotagging is disabled. In this case, you won’t see this traffic in your AdWords reports. 61
  62. 62. The second example shows how to manually tag an AdWords link. This traffic will show up in your AdWords reports, but information will be limited to campaign and keyword. You must specify cpc as your medium and google as your source in order to see this traffic in your AdWords reports. You should also specify cpc as your medium when tagging paid search campaigns from other search engines. The third example shows what an AdWords autotagged URL might look like once AdWords has appended the g-c-l-i-d variable to the end of the URL. This traffic will show up in your AdWords reports and you’ll see complete AdWords information. Let’s look at where information from each of the tags shows up in your reports. • Source: In the All Traffic Sources report. This report will include not only all the sources you tagged, but also sources like “direct” and website names. • Medium: In the All Traffic Sources report. In addition to all the mediums you tagged, you’ll also see mediums such as “referral” and “organic”. 62
  63. 63. • Campaign will appear in the Campaigns report. • Terms that you’ve used will show up in the Keywords report. • Content: Your content tags will show up in the Ad Versions report. You can also segment on any of these variables. For example, to see all of the sources in California from which you received traffic, you could go to the Map Overlay report, drill down to California, and segment by Source. You can use the URL Builder in the GA Help Center to construct your URLs. You enter in the destination URL and the values for each campaign variable. You should always use source, medium and campaign name. The URL builder can only construct one URL at a time, so you probably won’t want to use it to construct every URL for every campaign. 63
  64. 64. If you have a large number of URLs to tag, you can use spreadsheets to automate the process. Generate a sample URL in the URL Builder and create a simple spreadsheet formula. Stick to these best practices when tagging your advertising campaigns. • If you use AdWords, be sure to enable auto-tagging. Otherwise, you’ll miss out on important information that can help you optimize your AdWords campaigns. • Second, for each campaign, use the URL Builder to create a template URL. Then, copy and paste from the template to create the rest of the URLs for the campaign. • Third, use consistent names and spellings for all your campaign values so that they are recorded consistently within your Analytics reports • Finally, use only the campaign variables you need. You should always use source, medium, and campaign name, but term and content are optional. Lesson 11: Analysis Focus - AdWords: AdWords Campaigns Report AdWords-related reports are listed under AdWords in the Traffic Sources section. The AdWords Campaigns report, which is the first one listed, contains performance metrics for your AdWords keyword ads. This report is actually the top level of a hierarchy of reports. 64
  65. 65. By clicking one of of the Campaigns in the table, you drill down to the Ad Groups report which lists all of the Ad Groups in that Campaign. Click one the Ad Groups and you drill down to the AdWords Keywords report which lists all of the keywords in that Ad Group. Clicks Tab The AdWords Campaigns reports are unique in that they provide an extra tab labeled Clicks. The Click metrics are extremely useful for optimizing AdWords spending. Let’s look at the first three. Visits is the number of visits your site received from AdWords keyword campaigns. Impressions is the number of times your ads were displayed. Clicks shows the number of clicks for which you paid and which your ads received. It’s normal for Visits and Clicks to show different numbers. In this case, we have fewer Clicks than Visits. The reason is that some visitors clicked on the ad, and then later, during a different session, returned directly to the site through a bookmark. The referral information from the original visit was retained, so some clicks resulted in multiple visits. If you have fewer Visits than Clicks, you may not have the GA Tracking Code correctly installed on all your landing pages. It’s also possible that some visitors clicked away from 65
  66. 66. your website or stopped that landing page from loading before the tracking code was executed. Also, your visitors must have JavaScript, images, and cookies enabled in their browsers in order to be tracked. However, AdWords will still be able to register clicks from these visitors. How Many Times Were Ads Displayed And Clicked? Impressions, Clicks, Cost, and CTR — or Click Through Rate — all relate to how many times your ads were displayed and how frequently people clicked on them. These metrics can help you understand how visible and compelling your ads are to searchers on these keywords. For example, if you want a higher clickthrough rate, you might consider bidding for a higher position or rewriting your ad so that it is more relevant to the searcher. If you are getting all zeros in the cost column, make sure you’ve linked to your AdWords account and that you’ve enabled autotagging. 66
  67. 67. Which Keywords Are Profitable? Revenue per Click, Return on Investment, and Margin can help you assess keyword profitability. For example, ROI is useful because it provides a single-metric comparison of how much you spent versus how much you made. An ROI of 0% means that you earned in revenue the same amount of money you spent. An ROI of 100% means that you spent, say $5, and made $10. In other words, you spent X and received 2X in revenue. It’s not uncommon to get 500% or even 1000% ROI. High ROIs simply indicate that your Revenue is many times greater than your Cost. If your RPC numbers are all 0 and your ROI numbers are all -100%, it’s because you have 0 Revenue. Make sure that you’ve set goal values or that you’ve enabled e-commerce tracking. 67
  68. 68. ROI And Short Date Ranges Before you delete or pause negative ROI keywords, consider how much you’ve spent and whether you have enough data yet to make a decision. In particular, watch out for short date ranges. It’s generally not a good idea to make keyword changes on the basis of a few days worth of data. Consider return customers — those that find the site via an AdWords ad and then return later to buy again. You’ll miss repeat conversions if you set too short of a date range. Also, it may take days or longer for many of visitors to become customers. So, set a date range that is at least as long as your expected sales cycle. 68
  69. 69. How Does Ad Position Affect Performance? If you want to see how ad position affected keyword performance, you can use the Keyword Positions report to find out. The keywords are listed on the left and you can use the dropdown menu above the list to sort them. Then, select the keyword you want to analyze and you’ll see how it performed in each ad position for the metric you select. For example, in the slide, we’re comparing ad positions based on pages viewed per visit. The Side 1 position for this keyword referred visitors who looked at an average of between 20 and 21 pages, and the Side 8 position referred visitors who looked at an average of between 17 and 18 pages. TV Campaigns You can upload your TV ad—a video file—to your AdWords account and start a campaign on nationwide TV. You specify the time of day and week, audience demographic, and type of program you’d like to target. Once you’ve set up your TV campaign, you can track it using the TV Campaigns report. 69
  70. 70. You can drill down into specific TV campaigns and see the impressions delivered, number of ad airings, cost and CPM alongside your metrics like visits, time on site, and conversions. For example, this screenshot shows website visits plotted against impressions delivered — the number of active TVs tuned to your commercial. Looking at your web traffic metrics alongside your TV campaign metrics can help you optimize your TV campaigns. Audio Campaigns With Google Audio Ads, you can buy and manage both local and national radio campaigns on over 1600 radio stations — all from your AdWords account. Once your Audio Ads campaigns are running, you can use the Audio Campaigns report to track them. You can drill down into specific Audio campaigns and also Audio DMA’s — Designated Market Areas. You can see the impressions delivered, number of ad airings, cost and CPM alongside metrics like visits, time on site, and conversions. 70
  71. 71. You can conduct a before and after campaign analysis to see incremental lift and assess whether certain campaigns or markets are impacting better than others. This screenshot shows website visits plotted against impressions delivered. By looking at website metrics alongside your Audio campaign metrics, you can learn what is working best and optimize your campaigns accordingly. How Well Does Each Ad Perform? Although it’s not listed under AdWords, The Ad Versions report can help you optimize your keyword ads. Assuming that you’ve enabled autotagging, you’ll see an entry in the table for each of your ad headlines. You can compare site usage, goal conversions, and ecommerce performance for each ad — although there is no Clicks tab, so you won’t be able to see metrics like ROI and clickthrough rate. A limitation of this report is that it can only differentiate ads based on the headline. But if each of your ads has a distinct headline, you’ll see an entry for each ad. Also, note that if you’ve any tagged links with the utm_content variable, you’ll see traffic from those links in this report as well. 71
  72. 72. Lesson 12: Updated: Goals in GA: Goals Defining site goals and tracking goal conversions is one of the best ways to assess how well your site meets its business objectives. You should always try to define at least one goal for a website. So what is a goal? A goal can be any activity on your website that’s important to the success of your business. For example, an account signup is a goal. A request for a sales call is another example of a goal. To define a goal in GA, you specify the page that visitors see once they have completed the activity. For an account sign-up, you might set the “Thank You for signing up” page as a goal. Goals In Reports Each time that a visitor sees the page you defined as a goal, a conversion is recorded. 72
  73. 73. You can see total conversions and conversion rates for each of your goals in your reports. Funnels For each goal that you define, you can also define a funnel. A funnel is the set of steps , or pages, that you expect visitors to visit on their way to complete the conversion. A sales checkout process is a good example of a funnel. And the page where the visitor enters credit card information is an example of one of the funnel steps. So, the goal page signals the end of the activity — such as a “thank you” or “confirmation” page — and the funnel steps are the pages that visitors encounter on their way to the goal. 73
  74. 74. Why Define Funnels? Defining a funnel is valuable because it allows you to see where visitors enter and exit the conversion process. For example, if you notice that many of your visitors never go further than the “Enter shipping information” page, you might focus on redesigning that page so that it’s simpler. Knowing which steps in the process lose would-be customers allows you to eliminate bottlenecks and create a more efficient conversion path. 74
  75. 75. Setting Up Goals To set up a goal, first go the Analytics Settings page and edit the the profile for which you want to configure a goal. Goal And Funnel Set-Up Once you are on the Profile Settings page, look for the “Conversion Goals and Funnel” section. Select a goal and click Edit. You can create up to 20 goals for each profile. 75
  76. 76. Entering Goal And Funnel Information Next, enter the URL of the goal page. You don’t have to enter the entire URL. You can simply enter the request URI – that’s what comes after the domain or hostname. So, if the complete URL is, you only need to enter /confirmation.php. Make sure that the URL you enter corresponds to a page that the visitor will only see once they complete the conversion activity. So, pick something like the Thank You page or a confirmation page for your goal. You can also enter a name for the Goal — here we’ve entered “Completed Order”. This name will appear in your conversion reports. 76
  77. 77. Defining a funnel is optional. To define your funnel steps, you add the URLs of the pages leading up to the goal URL. Just as with goals, you don’t have to enter the entire URL of a funnel step — just the request URI is fine. Provide a name for each step in the funnel — here we’ve entered “Select gift card “ for Step 1. The names you enter will appear in your reports. Next, we’ll talk about the Match Type setting. 77
  78. 78. Goal URL Match Types The match type defines how GA identifies a goal or funnel step. You have three choices for the Match Type option. “Head Match” is the default. It indicates that the URL of the page visited must match what you enter for the Goal URL, but if there is any additional data at the end of their URL then the goal will still be counted. For example, some websites append a product ID or a visitor ID or some other parameter to the end of the URL. Head Match will ignore these. Here’s another example, illustrated on this slide: If you want every page in a subdirectory to be counted as a goal, then you could enter the subdirectory as the goal and select Head Match. “Exact Match” means that the URL of the page visited must exactly match what you enter for the Goal URL. In contrast to Head Match, which can be used to match every page in a subdirectory, Exact Match can only be used to match one single page. Also notice that Exact Match does not match the second pageview, “/offer1/signup.html?query=hats” because of the extra query parameter at the end. “Regular Expression Match” gives you the most flexibility. For example, if you want to count any sign-up page as a goal, and sign-up pages can occur in various subdirectories, you can create a regular expression that will match any sign-up page in any subdirectory. Regular Expressions will be covered in a later module. When you use Regular Expression Match, the value you enter as the goal URL as well as each of the funnel steps will be read as a Regular Expression 78
  79. 79. Remember that regardless of which option you choose, GA is only matching Request URIs. In other words, the domain name is ignored. ”Case Sensitive” Settings Check “Case Sensitive” if you want the URLs you entered into your goal and funnel to exactly match the capitalization of visited URLs. 79
  80. 80. Goal Value The “Goal Value” field allows you to specify a monetary value for goal. You should only do this for non-ecommerce goals. By setting a goal value, you make it possible for GA to calculate metrics like average per-visit-value and ROI. These metrics will help you measure the monetary value of a non-ecommerce site. Just think about how much each goal conversion is worth to your business. So, for example, if your sales team can close sales on 10% of the people who request to be contacted via your site, and your average transaction is $500, you might assign $50 or 10% of $500 to your “Contact Me” goal. Again, to avoid inflating revenue results, you should only provide values for non- ecommerce goals. 80
  81. 81. Goal Conversions VS Transactions There is an important difference between goal conversions and e-commerce transactions. A goal conversion can only happen once during a visit, but an e-commerce transaction can occur multiple times during a visit. Let’s say that you set one of your goals to be a PDF download and you define it such that any PDF download is a valid goal conversion. And let’s say that the goal is worth $5. In this case, if a visitor comes to your site and downloads 5 PDF files during a single session, you’ll only get one conversion worth $5. However, if you were to track each of these downloads as a $5 e-commerce transaction, you would see 5 transactions and $25 in e-commerce revenue. You’ll learn how to set up ecommerce tracking and how to track PDF downloads in later modules. 81
  82. 82. Filters And Goal Settings If you are using a filter that manipulates the Request URI, make sure that your goal is defined so that it reflects the changed Request URI field. For example, in the slide, we have a profile that defines /thankyou.html as a goal. But we have another profile with a filter that appends the hostname to the Request URI. So, for this profile, we need to change the goal definition accordingly. 82
  83. 83. Funnel Reporting If you define a funnel for a goal, GA populates the Funnel Visualization report, shown here in the slide. On the left, you can see how visitors enter your funnel. On the right, you can see where they leave the funnel and where they go. The middle shows you how visitors progress through the funnel — how many of them continue on to each step. In this example, we can see that there were 9,283 entrances at the top of the funnel and 187 completed orders, at the bottom of the funnel. This report is very useful for identifying the pages from which visitors abandon your conversion funnel. Reverse Goal Path Reporting Here’s another report in the Goals section. It’s the Reverse Goal Path report. You can see this data even if you haven’t defined a funnel. It lists the navigation paths that visitors took to arrive at a goal page and shows you the number of conversions that resulted from each path. 83
  84. 84. In this example, we can see that 96 of the conversions — or about 15% of them — resulted from the first navigation path that’s shown. This is a great report for identifying funnels that you hadn’t considered before and it can give you great ideas for designing a more effective site. Lesson 13: Analysis Focus - Funnel Visualization Funnel Visualization Report If you define a funnel for a goal, GA populates the Funnel Visualization report, shown here in the slide. On the left, you can see how visitors enter your funnel. On the right, you can see where they leave the funnel and where they go. The middle shows you how visitors progress through the funnel, how many of them continue on to each step. In this example, we can see that there were 9,283 entrances at the top of the funnel and 187 completed orders at the bottom of the funnel. 84
  85. 85. This report is very useful for identifying the pages from which visitors abandon your conversion funnel. Finding The Report And Selecting A Goal To find the Funnel Visualization report, look in the Goals section. Once you are in the report, you can select the goal you want to analyze from the Select Goal drop-down menu. 85
  86. 86. Funnel Entrance Pages The boxes along the left side of the funnel show the pages from which visitors entered the funnel. (entrance) shows the number of times that the funnel page was a landing page. In this example, 11,514 visitors came to the View Product Categories page from the home page. Funnel Exit Pages The boxes on the right show where visitors went when they abandoned the funnel. For each step, you can see the pages that visitors went to. (exit) means that the person not only abandoned the funnel but also left your site. In this example, there were 1,423 funnel exits from the View Product Categories page that went to the software.asp page. 86
  87. 87. Progressing Through The Funnel In this example, only 29% of visits to the View Shopping Cart page actually proceeded to the login page. The remaining 2,418 times, the person either left the funnel for another page or left the site entirely. This data is valuable because you can use it to see what pages of your site may need to be altered. For instance, in this example, you might want to improve the design of the the “View Shopping Cart” page so that more visitors log in and continue. You can also see that only 41% of visits to the Login page continue on to the Place Order page. So, the Login page may also need improvements. 87
  88. 88. Understanding The Numbers Let’s look at all the numbers in the report. Here is the number of funnel entrances to the first step of the funnel. Here is the number of funnel abandonments that occurred from this step. Here is the number and percentage of funnel entrances that continued on to the next step. Here is the number of funnel entrances to the second step of the funnel. Here is the number of visits to the second funnel step. It includes those who proceeded from the first step and those who entered the funnel at this step. Here is the number and percentage of visits to the second funnel step that continued on to the next step. 88
  89. 89. Lesson 14_ Filters in GA Filters GA filters provide you with an extremely flexible way of defining what data is included in your reports and how it appears. You can use them to customize your reports so that data that you deem useful is highlighted in interesting ways. Filters can also help you clean up your data so that it is easier to read. Use in conjunction with Advanced segments, first with Advanced Segments you can discover segments (you can look back historical data) and then, if requires= filter for a dedicated report of that segment. 2 types of filters in GA – predefined filters and custom filters. 89
  90. 90. You can use the Filter manager to create new filters, to edit their settings, and to delete them. To apply filters to a profile, you edit the profile. How Do Filters Work? Filters process your raw traffic data based on the filter specifications. The filtered data is then sent to the respective profile. 90
  91. 91. Once data has been passed through a filter, Google cannot re-process the raw data. That’s why we always recommend that you maintain one unfiltered profile so that you always have access to all of your data. How To Set-Up Filters? 91
  92. 92. Predefined Filters : 3 1. “Exclude all traffic from a domain” excludes traffic from the domain such as an ISP company network. If you apply this filter, GA will apply a reverse lookup with each visitor’s IP address to determine if the visitor is coming in from a domain that should be filtered out. Domains usually represent the ISP of your visitor although larger companies generally have their IP addresses mapped to their domain name. 2. “Exclude all traffic from an IP address”, removes traffic from addresses entered into the IP address field. This filter is generally used to exclude your internal company traffic. As a best practice, we recommend that you create a filter to exclude your internal company traffic from your reports. 3. “Include only traffic to a subdirectory”, causes your profile to only report traffic to a specified directory on your site. This is typically used on a profile that is created to track one part of a website. e.g. Creating Custom Filters You can also create custom filters for your profiles. Custom filters offer you greater control over what data appears in your profiles. To create a custom filter, select “Custom filter” from the “Filter Type” drop-down. Additional fields will appear when you choose this option. Custom Filters Each custom filter has three main parts. 92
  93. 93. 1st “Filter Types”. There are six filter types available and each one serves a specific purpose. 2nd “Filter Field”. There are numerous fields you can use to create your filter. Examples of some commonly used fields are the “Request URI” and “Visitor Country” fields. Check complete list: 3rd “Filter Pattern”. This is the text string that is used to attempt to match pageview data. The pattern that you provide is applied to the field and, if it matches any part of the field, it returns a positive result and causes an action to occur. You’ll need to use POSIX Regular Expressions to create the filter pattern. Filter Types Here’s a chart that describes the filter types. 93
  94. 94. • Exclude and Include filters are the most common types. They allow you to segment your data in many different ways. They’re frequently used to filter out or filter in traffic from a particular state or country. • Lowercase and Uppercase filters do not require a filter pattern, only a filter field. Lowercase and Uppercase filters are very useful for consolidating line items in a report. Let’s say, for example, that you see multiple entries in your reports for a keyword or a URL, and the only difference is that sometimes they appear with a different combination of uppercase and lowercase letters. You can use the Lowercase and Uppercase filters to consolidate these multiple entries into a single entry.(This affects only letters not special characters) • Search and Replace (for reports) filters replace one piece of data with another.They are often used to replace long URL strings with a shorter string that is easier to read and identify in your reports. • You can use Advanced filters to remove unnecessary data, replace one field with another, or combine elements from multiple filter fields. (enables you to build a field from one or two other fields)For example, a best practice when tracking multiple subdomains in a single profile is to append the subdomain name to the page names. You can do this by creating an advanced filter that appends Hostname to Request URI. Let’s look at an example of a Search and Replace filter. Let’s say that your website uses category IDs as an organizational structure. So, in your Top Content reports, you’d see a list of Request URIs that indicate the different pages on your site. The page “/category.asp?catid=5” is actually the Google Store Wearables page. You could make the Top Content report more meaningful by replacing “catid=5” with a descriptive word, like “Wearables”. Here’s what the Search and Replace filter might look like. This particular filter would overwrite the entire Request URI with “Wearables.” 94
  95. 95. Filters And Profiles You can track and segment multiple sites from the same Analytics account, using the same JavaScript code. And, once you’ve defined a filter, you can apply it to a single profile or across several profiles. So, for example, in the slide, the graphic shows a single Analytics account with two profiles. Filter 1 has been applied to both profiles. Filter 2 has been applied only to Profile 2. 95
  96. 96. By setting up multiple profiles and applying filters creatively to each of them, you have a great deal of reporting and analysis flexibility. Again, you use the Filter manager to create and manage filters. To apply filters to a profile, you edit the profile. Customize data Views You can also use profiles and filters together to create customized data views. Let’s say that you want to have two different views of your data — one view includes only traffic to a subdomain and the other view only includes customers from a specific geographic region. To do this, you’d set up Profile 2 and Profile 3 as shown here in the chart. Or, for example, you might want to set up a profile that only inlcudes Google AdWords traffic. We’ll look at how to do this in the next slide. Remember, you always want to maintain a profile that contains all of your data. That’s Profile 1 in the chart. How To Include Only Google AdWords Traffic? To set up a profile that includes only Google AdWords traffic, you need to apply the two Custom Include filters shown in the slide. In filter one, you’ll filter on campaign source for a pattern of google. In filter two, you’ll filter on campaign medium for a pattern of cpc. 96
  97. 97. You can apply these two filters in any order. Best practices: if you tag all other pay per click campaigns with utm_medium=ppc the you can segment easily GoogleAdwords visitors from other pay search network. Tracking Subdomains Let’s look at how you can use profiles and filters to track subdomains. If your subdomains are totally separate businesses, and you have no need for reports that include cumulative traffic to both, then you could simply create a unique profile for each subdomain. To do this, you’d install the “dash 1” version of your tracking code on your Subdomain A pages, and the “dash 2” version of your tracking code on your Subdomain B pages. But what if you want to analyze the traffic aggregated across both subdomains? In this case, you could set up at 3 duplicate profiles. Then, you’d apply an Include filter to two of the profiles. Profile 1 includes all traffic to both subdomains. Profile 2 only includes traffic to subdomain A. Profile 3 only includes traffic to subdomain B. In this scenario, you’d install identical tracking code on every page of the site regardless of subdomain. 97
  98. 98. Best Practices For Filters And Profiles Maintain an unfiltered profile which provides you with a backup. Remember, once your raw data has passed through filters, Google cannot go back and reprocess the data. So, Best Practices For Include And Exclude Filters You can apply multiple include and exclude filters to a single profile, but keep in mind that when more than one filter is applied, the filters will be executed in the same order that they are listed in your Profile Settings. In other words, the output from one filter is then used as the input for the next filter. The example shown here illustrates that if you want to include only users from California and Texas, you cannot create two separate include filters because they will cancel each other out. The solution is to create one filter that uses a regular expression to indicate that the Visitor Region should be California or Texas. 98
  99. 99. One AdWords Account, Multiple URLs If you drive traffic from AdWords to multiple sites, each of which is tracked in a separate Analytics profile, you’ll need to apply a filter to each site’s profile. Because, when you apply cost data from an AdWords account, data from the entire account is applied to each profile – GA doesn’t automatically match campaigns to specific profiles. To illustrate what would happen if you don’t apply a filter, let’s imagine that you have two sites and you spend $50 to drive traffic to each of them. Without a filter, the Clicks tab on each profile would include $100 worth of cost data instead of just the $50 you spent for that site. So, for each profile that should include a subset of your AdWords data, you’ll need to create a custom include filter. Filters For Cost Sources In your profile settings, select “edit filter”. Create a custom filter and select the Include filter type. For the filter field, select “Campaign Target URL”. This field only applies to Google AdWords data. 99
  100. 100. Use a regular expression to create the filter pattern based on the AdWords destination URL that is applicable to this profile. Once you’ve saved this filter, only AdWords data for this profile will be displayed in the reports. Five Common Profiles filter Include only your website traffic: to prevent GATC hijacking Exclude certain known visitors (employees, agency) by IP address (predefined filter) by range of IP addresses (custom filter) If the customer don’t have a fixed IP address you can customize the code (_setvar () lokk for updated???) Segmenting by geographical location Segmenting by campaign, medium or referrer source Segmenting by content e.g: product purchase vs product support Assigning filter order: by default filters are applied to the incoming data in the order in which the filters were added. However you can easily modify this order from your Profile Setting Page using the Assign Filter Order. 10
  101. 101. Advanced Segments vs Profile filter: Modify a report view at the visit level Modify incoming data at the pageview level to create separate profiles (reports) Applied to current and historical data Applied only to new data, from the time the Filter is created Instantaneous results, immediate report Aimend at longer-term usage, take 3-4 h to Test facility available populate reports Allow the use of conditional values Only text string matches can be included (Greater tha, Less than) Set up by repor users (no data can be lost) Set up by administrator(data can be Permanently deleted Combine statements to meet multiples conditions Use cascading filter x combination Reports can be shared but Data can not be hidden Access to profiles can be controlled Regular expressions statements are not limited RegEx limited to 255 characters (although must not exceed 30,000 characters) Lesson 15_ RegEx and GA A regular expression is a set of characters and metacharacters that are used to match text in a specified pattern. You can use RegEx to configure flexible goals and powerful filters. (e.g. Range of IP addresses) Metacharacters are characters that have special meanings in RegEx. Dot: Use the dot as a wildcard to match any single character (only 1 character) 10
  102. 102. Backslash / Allows you to use special characters, such as the dot, as though they were literal characters. Enter the backslash immediately before each metacharacter you would like to escape. E.g: if you want to treat a dot like a regular dot, you have to escape it with the backslash. You’ll use backslashes a lot, because dots are used so frequently in precisely the strings you are trying to match, like URLs and IP addresses. Character Sets And Ranges [] Use square brackets to enclose all of the characters you want as match possibilities. So, in the slide, you’re trying to match the string U.S. Holiday, regardless of whether the U and the S are capitalized. However, the expression won’t match U.S. Holiday unless periods are used after both the U and the S. The expression also requires that the H is capitalized. There is a regex you can write to match all of these variations. The question mark used here is another “quantifier”, like the ‘+’ sign mentioned earlier. 10
  103. 103. You can either individually list all the characters you want to match, as we did in the first example, or you can specify a range. Use a hyphen inside a character set to specify a range. So instead of typing square bracket 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9, you can type square bracket 0 dash 9. And, you can negate a match using a caret after the opening square bracket. Typing square bracket caret zero dash nine will exclude all numbers from matching. Note that you will see the caret used a different way—as an anchor. The use of the caret shown here is specific to character sets, and the negating behaviour occurs only when the caret is used after the opening square bracket in a character set. Quantifiers And Repetitions ? + * • ? The question mark requires either zero or one of the preceding character. • + The plus sign requires at least one of the preceding characters. • The asterisk requires zero or more of the preceding character. • {} You can also SPECIFY repetition using a minimum and maximum number inside curly brackets. Recall that a dot matches any single character. What would you use to match a wildcard of indeterminate length? 10
  104. 104. • .* Dot star will match a string of any size. Dot star is an easy way to say “match anything,” and is commonly used in GA goals and filters. Grouping ( ) You can just list the strings you want to match, separating each string with a pipe symbol (also known as the OR symbol) and enclosing the whole list in parentheses.Here, we’ve listed four variations of “US” that we’ll accept as a match for US Holiday. 10