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Protected Areas in Greece
Protected Areas in Greece
Protected Areas in Greece
Protected Areas in Greece
Protected Areas in Greece
Protected Areas in Greece
Protected Areas in Greece
Protected Areas in Greece
Protected Areas in Greece
Protected Areas in Greece
Protected Areas in Greece
Protected Areas in Greece
Protected Areas in Greece
Protected Areas in Greece
Protected Areas in Greece
Protected Areas in Greece
Protected Areas in Greece
Protected Areas in Greece
Protected Areas in Greece
Protected Areas in Greece
Protected Areas in Greece
Protected Areas in Greece
Protected Areas in Greece
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Protected Areas in Greece

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Greece is a country going through a transition phase, as far as protected areas are concerned. The management of these areas moves from a central public system to a more local and participatory …

Greece is a country going through a transition phase, as far as protected areas are concerned. The management of these areas moves from a central public system to a more local and participatory approach.

Since 1938, protected areas in Greece have been managed by the Forest Service. There have been no specialised administration units for this purpose and the management of protected areas has been one of the many responsibilities of the Forest Service. This system is described in the Greek Law 998/79, which also contains the general rules for forestry operations. There have been many difficulties in the efficiency of management, since over the last twenty years, the forest service has been operating with insufficient staff and funds. Wardening, management operations and the support from the public are the most problematic issues of this centrally coordinated system.

In the year 1985, the Law 1650/86 for the protection of the environment was established. A participatory approach was introduced for the management of protected areas. This law remained ineffective until 1999, due to the complicated procedures for the establishment of the new protected areas and the formation of the local management authorities. In 1999, the Law 2742/99 described the procedure more precisely and the first participatory management unit for a marine park (Zakynthos) was formed. However, this scheme was left without funding and its decision capacity was minimal, due to the lack of an implementation mechanism and the intense local small-scale political issues that have arisen within the management units.

The participatory system has been proven to be rather ineffective, because of the lack of a strategic national planning, institutional support and funding. In the meantime, the former central system remains valid, but is not really applied on the ground, due to the transition period. The future is uncertain. What is needed is a stronger political commitment from the side of the decision makers to devote the necessary funds (an equivalent amount of money for a sufficient operation of the protected areas system in Greece would be the amount needed for the construction of about 10 kms highway) and the political will to act against small local interests and short term policies.

The main obstacles for a successful operation of the Greek protected areas are:
• Lack of interest from the side of the public
• Lack of political will
• Institutional problems and administration gaps
• Reactions against protection in a local level

Following the EU Habitats Directive, Greece has proposed 263 areas for protection, including the already existing ones. No progress has been performed ever since, for the reasons mentioned above. Greece has currently 10 National Parks, 11 Ramsar Wetlands, 19 Aesthetic Forests, 52 Monuments of Nature, 2 Marine parks and several game reserves. Almost all terrestrial protected areas are located on high mountains.

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  • 1. Protected areas in Greece The Pindos mountain Aristotelis C. Papageorgiou General Directorate of Forests Ministry of Agriculture Greece
  • 2. Amountainous country 18 February 2013 Ministry of Agriculture, Greece 2
  • 3. Highbiodiversity 18 February 2013 Ministry of Agriculture, Greece 3
  • 4. From subtropical…18 February 2013 Ministry of Agriculture, Greece 4
  • 5. …to alpine18 February 2013 Ministry of Agriculture, Greece 5
  • 6. Administration and management• Responsibility of the Forest Service since 1938.• No special administration units for protected areas.• Implementation problems during the last 20 years, due to the shrinkage of the Forest Service• No public participation18 February 2013 Ministry of Agriculture, Greece 6
  • 7. A participatory approach• Law 1650 established in 1985 and activated in 1999.• Management of Protected Areas is assigned to a “management unit” where local representatives, NGOs and national authorities take part.• Time consuming and complicated procedures.• Lack of funding and central guidance.• Several conflicts in the local level.• One park established, which is ineffective.18 February 2013 Ministry of Agriculture, Greece 7
  • 8. A transition phase• New system is still ineffective and the old system is still valid – coexistence• Lack of political commitment and support (€ needed = 10 Kms of highway)• Lack of interest from the public• Institutional problems and administration gaps• Reactions in the local level18 February 2013 Ministry of Agriculture, Greece 8
  • 9. Protected areas• 263 “Natura 2000” sites• 10 national parks• 11 “Ramsar” wetlands• 19 aesthetic forests (protected landscapes)• 52 monuments of nature• 2 marine parks• several game reserves18 February 2013 Ministry of Agriculture, Greece 9
  • 10. Pindos • Near the Greek – Albanian borders • Divides Greece in East and West • Many peaks, such as Smolikas, Tymfi, Lyngos • Large variety in ecosystems18 February 2013 Ministry of Agriculture, Greece 10
  • 11. Biodiversity• 34 biotope types• More than 1500 species of flora in Tymfi alone• 32 mammals, 166 birds, 14 amphibians and 12 fish species• Many endemics and endangered species18 February 2013 Ministry of Agriculture, Greece 11
  • 12. Important fauna18 February 2013 Ministry of Agriculture, Greece 12
  • 13. …and floraColchicum autumnale Anacamptis pyramidalis18 February 2013 Ministry of Agriculture, Greece 13
  • 14. National Park “Vikos – Aoos”• Founded in 1973 and covers an area of 12.300 ha• Includes two goarges (Vikos and Aoos) and the main massif of Tymfi.• Mediterranean ecosystems, oaks, black pines, heldreich pines, firs.• Impressive rock formations, cliffs and caves18 February 2013 Ministry of Agriculture, Greece 14
  • 15. 18 February 2013 Ministry of Agriculture, Greece 15
  • 16. 18 February 2013 Ministry of Agriculture, Greece 16
  • 17. 18 February 2013 Ministry of Agriculture, Greece 17
  • 18. National Park of Pindos• Founded in 1966 and covers and area of 6838 ha• Includes the plateau of “Valia Kalda” (1350m), several peaks over 2000m (Avgo, Pyrostia, Flega) and the river “Arkoudorema”• Subalpine landscapes, forests of black pines, heldreich pines and beech.18 February 2013 Ministry of Agriculture, Greece 18
  • 19. 18 February 2013 Ministry of Agriculture, Greece 19
  • 20. 18 February 2013 Ministry of Agriculture, Greece 20
  • 21. 18 February 2013 Ministry of Agriculture, Greece 21
  • 22. Management• The National Parks are managed by the Forest Service.• A new large National Park including the two existing ones and six Natura 2000 sites is planned (participatory system).• Tensions and conflicts have arised18 February 2013 Ministry of Agriculture, Greece 22
  • 23. Main problems of the area• Poaching• Uncontrolled tourism• Waste management• Ineffective management• Gaps and overlaps in responsibilities between authorities18 February 2013 Ministry of Agriculture, Greece 23

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