Forestry development and biodiversity in the enlarged European Union
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Forestry development and biodiversity in the enlarged European Union

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In 2003 1o new member states joined the EU. How did this affect forests, forestry and forest policy in Europe?

In 2003 1o new member states joined the EU. How did this affect forests, forestry and forest policy in Europe?

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    Forestry development and biodiversity in the enlarged European Union Forestry development and biodiversity in the enlarged European Union Presentation Transcript

    • Forestry Development andBiodiversity in the Enlarged European Union Aristotelis C. Papageorgiou Garifallos Arabatzis Stelios Tampakis Democritus University of Thrace Dept. of Forestry & Management of Environment & Natural Resources
    • Presentation plan• The evolution of the biodiversity concept• The forest & environmental approach of BD• The forest ecosystems of the enlarged EU• Challenges and obstacles for BD in the EU forest policies• The role of the new EU members21/03/2003 2
    • Nature protection & biodiversity• The environmental movement started in the 50s and 60s – emphasis on the protection of wild ecosystems and species.• First approach: the maintenance of the existing populations or ecosystems – absolute protection – meeting aesthetic & spiritual targets – focused on specific nature issues.• Consideration of nature dynamics – ecology, genetics, wildlife biology & applied sciences – integration of policy, social, economic aspects.21/03/2003 3
    • Biodiversity & Conservation• Conservation Biology & Conservation Planning developed in the 80s – a new concept was needed: scientific, dynamic, inclusive, policy oriented – Biodiversity• Most official definition: CBD Rio 1992 – the main environmental concept ever since• The EU has signed, ratified and followed up the CBD – EU Biodiversity Strategy (1998) – Birds and Habitats Directives.• BD became part of other EU policies (i.e. CAP).21/03/2003 4
    • The biodiversity concept• Biodiversity is not the # species / ha – includes all the features ensuring the dynamic processes in an ecosystem• BD conservation: a) conservation of specific elements, b) sustainable use of resources, c) equal share of benefits to society.• Main features: – The complexity of BD levels – The variation in interpretations of the concept21/03/2003 5
    • 21/03/2003 6
    • 21/03/2003 7
    • Forest biodiversity• Conservation of forests has gained a significant part of conventions, treaties and action plans for biodiversity conservation.• forests are in many parts of the world the most “wild” and complex terrestrial ecosystems and at the same time the most impressive ones,• forests are decreasing world-wide,• forest science is the most developed, applied, on the ground, nature management scientific discipline.21/03/2003 8
    • Biodiversity & forestry• The production of timber in a sustainable way was considered enough to maintain other benefits.• SFM includes three main parameters: economic, environmental, social.• BD was integrated in recent forest policy documents in all levels.• The forest perception: SFM for production, while respecting BD and other externalities.• The environment perception: SFM is a tool (among others) to secure BD conservation.21/03/2003 9
    • The forest perception Biodiversity conservation as an externality of SFM21/03/2003 10
    • The environment perception SFM as a tool to achieve biodiversity conservation21/03/2003 11
    • Linking the perceptions• Environmental agencies consider BD as a priority in all management activities• Parties representing the forest sector prefer to see the economic character of forestry as a priority.• BD conservation and SFM are linked: – Complexity of both concepts – Long term character• “Ecosystem approach” & “close to nature” forestry• Tools, such as SFM certification, “criteria & indicators”, National Forest Programmes21/03/2003 12
    • Agreements containing measures for forest biodiversityLevel Origin of the Legally binding Non-legally binding instruments instrument instrumentsInternational Environment Ramsar Convention World Charter for Nature (1982) (1972) Statement of Forest Principles World Heritage (1992) Convention (1972) Agenda 21, chapter 11 on CITES (1973) Combating Deforestation (1992) CBD (1993) IUCN Protected Area Management Categories (1994) Forest ITTA (1983, 1994)  European Environment EU Birds Directive The Pan-European Biological and (1979) Landscape Diversity Strategy EU Habitats Directive (1992) Forest Protocol on Mountain MCPFE H2 (1993) & L2 (1998) Forests of the Alpine Work programme on the Convention (1991) conservation and enhancement of biological and landscape diversity in forest ecosystems 1997-2000 (1997) 21/03/2003 13
    • EU becomes richer!• Forest area of the EU increases by 18%• Forest cover decreases slightly• Timber production increases by 30%• Paper & pulp production increases by 6%• New member states have forests rich in biodiversity: Mediterranean (i.e. Cyprus), boreal (Baltic countries), mountainous forests (i.e. Czech & Slovak Republics).• Most forests are classified as “semi-natural”.21/03/2003 14
    • Forestry in the new Member States• Most have long forestry tradition.• Emphasis is given in benefits for society.• Most countries are timber producing.• Biodiversity conservation is in many countries a major pillar of forest policy.• Central forest administration.• Mostly state owned – changes since the 1990s.• Economies in transition.• Environmental problems mainly due to pollution.21/03/2003 15
    • Forest BD agreements CBD CBD MCPFE Ramsar WHC CITES signed ratified Cyprus 12/6/92 10/7/96     Czech Republic 04/6/93 03/12/93     Estonia 12/6/92 27/07/94     Hungary 13/6/92 24/02/94     Latvia 11/6/92 14/12/95     Lithuania 11/6/92 01/02/96     Malta 12/6/92 29/12/00     Poland 05/6/92 18/01/96     Slovak Republic 19/5/93 25/08/94     Slovenia 13/6/92 09/07/96    21/03/2003 16
    • Forest Cover EU 25200000 New States150000 EU 1510000050000 0 Source: FAO country profiles21/03/2003 17
    • Forest Cover of the EU 100% 80% 60% Other Land 40% Forest 20% 0% New States EU 15 EU 25 Source: FAO country profiles21/03/2003 18
    • Forest Production EU 25 350000 300000 250000 200000 New Members 150000 EU 15 100000 50000 0 Ro In W Sa W W du oo oo oo w un st nw d d- d dw ria Re Ba Fu oo oo lR el sid se d d ou d ue nd Pa s w ne oo ls d Source: FAO country profiles21/03/2003 19
    • Pulp & Paper EU 25 90000 80000 70000 New Members 60000 50000 EU 15 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 W Re Pa O th oo co pe er d ve ra F Pu re nd ib d lp re Pa Pa Pu pe pe lp rb r oa rd Source: FAO country profiles21/03/2003 20
    • Expected trends for production• Trade between EU & new members is today lower than expected (distance, income) – trade is expected to increase• Demand and consumption is increasing – pressures for higher production.• Accessibility to markets will improve.• Private bodies will press for participation and changes in ownership.• Short term perspective – short rotations.21/03/2003 21
    • Expected trends for protection• Demand for public goods will be increasing.• Need for adaptability of forest ecosystems (climate change, etc.).• Further need for protection from natural hazards (i.e. floods).• Importance of biodiversity in/of forest ecosystems will increase.21/03/2003 22
    • Trends for forest biodiversity• Liberalization in market mechanisms and the minimized role of the state in forest management will put pressure on biodiversity targets in forestry.• The public & the international environmental scene are interested in the maintenance of forest biodiversity and the benefits deriving from it.• The maintenance of BD in the forest is a prerequisite for the maintenance of its functions.• A need to secure the role of SFM in the EU from negative side – effects of economy transition.21/03/2003 23
    • The challenges for the EU• To improve the liberalization of the market, without risking the long term perspectives of forests.• To introduce techniques, legislation and instruments of the EU in the new members without losing their long forestry tradition – keep variety within the EU.• To modify the role of the state and keep its controlling, supporting and coordinating function.• To make best use of the public forests for the society & to assist the viability of private owners, securing the integrity of the forest ecosystems.• To improve the cross sectoral dialogue in the EU.21/03/2003 24
    • Forestry and biodiversity21/03/2003 25
    • The role of the new EU members• Bring their view in the EU and the international forest policy scene.• Promote the implementation of policy decisions on the ground, by changing and re-shaping the existing instruments.• Support the dialogue between parties and create national approaches for the linkage between BD conservation and forestry.• Work on capacity building, information exchange and alignment of forest data within the EU.21/03/2003 26