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NLA/NEMA Human Trafficking 101 & Data Issues 10-7-11-post to nla

NLA/NEMA Human Trafficking 101 & Data Issues 10-7-11-post to nla






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  • Temp visas and services (via refugee services for international victims) to keep international victims in the U.S. to help with prosecution process. No guarantee for staying afterward. Victims have to apply for residency permits themselves. Similar to a witness protection program.
  • TVPA focused on sex trafficking. The reauthorization focused on labor and child trafficking and add domestic trafficking as parts of the act – extend the services to domestic victims. GAO called for better data, so the reauthorization included data and research in the mandate.
  • Joy’s research ~ terms found : Sexual torture, sexual exploitation, undocumented immigrants, child labor trafficking, child sexual abuse, forced prostitution, international marriages, mail-order brides, servile marriages, bride trafficking, contract slavery, debt bondage, abduction, comfort women, etc. Article on organ trafficking: http://berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2004/04/30_organs.shtmlProfessor Nancy Scheper-Hughes, Anthropology professor at UC Berkeley, the lead researcher on this topic: http://anthropology.berkeley.edu/users/nancy-scheper-hughes
  • Image: An ex-maid has accused Philippine diplomat Lauro L. Baja Jr., flanked by Philippine President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo and British Prime Minister Tony Blair at the United Nations in 2005, of making her work 126-hour weeks with no pay.
  • Before TVPA in the U.S. women trafficked into prostitution were considered criminals, not victims. For Native American women’s issues, check out the U.S. Senate Committee on Indian Affairs: http://indian.senate.gov/issues/2011-08-15.cfmSee also ‘Stolen Sisters’ report on Canadian Aboriginal women: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/AMR20/001/2004And what the Native Women’s Association of Canada is doing about it: http://www.nwac.ca/programs/sisters-spirit
  • Minors = under 18 years old.
  • NHTRC has identified > 4,000 potential trafficking victims
  • The data are in low number for many reasons:Lack of uniform crime report. HT cases can be reported and counted as kidnaps, assaults, etc. depending on the charges and law statues used in arrests, prosecution (to pursue formal charges) and/or convictions (found guilty).Hidden crime. In the video, you will find out how victims will be found, but not by the police investigation. Some cases are found by other investigations (e.g. drug, prostitution raids, but not by HT investigation). Not a priority for law enforcement. Traffickers = acquaintances or family members. Reluctant to chargeimplicate them. Victims’families were under threat/debt bondage by traffickers, or labor agents.Lack of trust in law enforcement (here and abroad, LEAs are seen as those who would side with traffickers or are themselves traffickers).Language barrier made them dependent on traffickers who mostly were fromtheir ethnic groups and could speak their languages. Psychological and other controls (such as armed guards on the farms) by traffickers, prevented victims from escaping. Prosecutors – HT laws are too new and too unfamiliar to them. Therefore, they lacked the confidence to use them to win the cases. They opted for more familiar legal statues,so the convictions are filed under other statues, not under the HT laws (for example, under kidnapping, frauds (in civil lawsuits), sexual or physical assaults, etc.)In some cases, there is no category, HT, for police or investigators to file the cases under.
  • This is a map of Human Trafficking Data Reporting and Collection Project: http://www.humantrafficking.neu.edu, which includes the special report, Characteristics of Suspected Human Trafficking Incidents, 2008-2010. The data in this report are from the collection via the Human Trafficking Reporting System (HTRS) submitted by the federally funded task forces of state and local law enforcement as shown in the map above.
  • The map of Human Trafficking Task Forces include the major cities which are ports of entry (international flights, ship ports, borders, etc.), and also with big tourism and agricultural industries (CA and FL, for example).
  • The NE anti-trafficking law (2006) did not specify or fund state agencies to collect statistics on human trafficking. Attorney General Report in consultation with the Nebraska Dept of Health and Human Services to Clerk of the Nebraska Legislature (2006). (Personal copy obtained from the clerk per my request).-No agencies collecting data on human trafficking to be reported to the Attorney General Office (as of 2006).-The pilot program proposed by DHHS to assist prostitution-related victims (education and treatment) was denied funding by the governor.
  • An informal task force is formed as Nebraska Network Against Trafficking of Humans, under the coordination of the NE Network of Domestic Violence Sexual Assault Programs.
  • To download the state ratings map @ http://www.polarisproject.org/what-we-do/policy-advocacy/state-policy/current-lawsWhat the rating for Nebraska means, per the download NE State Report from the above webpage: “Rating: OrangeTotal Points: 4Credited Categories: 1 Sex Trafficking; 2 Labor Trafficking; 3(b) Investigative Tools; and 7 Lower Burden of Proof for Sex Trafficking of Minors.Categories Still Needed: 3(a) Asset Forfeiture; 3(b) Investigative Tools; 4(a) Training for Law Enforcement; 4(b) Human Trafficking Task Force; 5 Posting of the National Hotline; 6 Safe Harbor; Protecting Sex Trafficked Minors; 8 Victim assistance; 9 Access to Civil Damages; and 10 Vacating Convictions for Sex Trafficking Victims.”
  • *Some states also have their own reports. CA, FL, MN, WI, etc. that I am aware of, so far. But state data are also buried in different studies, with different years of publications over the years. I hope to compile and analyze more U.S. data sources in the future project. Some data information is also a part of a grant proposal that I cannot share at this time. So what you see here is only a scratch on the surface of the data sources out there.
  • *There are many more new groups, NGOs working on HT since 2009, but no time to add them to Delicious website. So this list is not updated as much as it should be.
  • Bolkovac, Kathryn, and Cari Lynn. The Whistleblower: Sex Trafficking, Military Contractors, and One Woman's Fight for Justice. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011. "When Nebraska police officer and divorced mother of three Kathryn Bolkovac saw a recruiting announcement for private military contractor DynCorp International, she applied and was hired. Good money, world travel, and the chance to help rebuild a war-torn country sounded like the perfect job. Bolkovac was shipped out to Bosnia, where DynCorp had been contracted to support the UN peacekeeping mission. She was assigned as a human rights investigator, heading the gender affairs unit. The lack of proper training sounded the first alarm bell, but once she arrived in Sarajevo, she found out that things were a lot worse. At great risk to her personal safety, she began to unravel the ugly truth about officers involved in human trafficking and forced prostitution and their connections to private mercenary contractors, the UN, and the U.S. State Department. After bringing this evidence to light, Bolkovac was demoted, threatened with bodily harm, fired, and ultimately forced to flee the country under cover of darkness--bringing the incriminating documents with her. Thanks to the evidence she collected, she won a lawsuit against DynCorp, finally exposing them for what they were. This is her story and the story of the women left behind."– Publisher’s description. (*The movie will be at the Ross starting on Oct. 14. )Bales, Kevin, and Ron Soodalter. The Slave Next Door: Human Trafficking and Slavery in America Today. Berkeley, Calif: University of California Press, 2010.Ehrenreich, Barbara, and Arlie R. Hochschild. Global Woman: Nannies, Maids, and Sex Workers in the New Economy. New York: Metropolitan Books, 2003Bales, Kevin. Understanding Global Slavery: A Reader. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005Kara, Siddharth. Sex Trafficking: Inside the Business of Modern Slavery. New York: Columbia University Press, 2009

NLA/NEMA Human Trafficking 101 & Data Issues 10-7-11-post to nla NLA/NEMA Human Trafficking 101 & Data Issues 10-7-11-post to nla Presentation Transcript