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  • 1. Chapter 36Europe and America After 1945 1
  • 2. Map of the World in 1945 2
  • 3. Map of the World in 2000 3
  • 4. Goals• Understand the shift of the Western art center and the growing interests in multiculturalism in art.• Understand the theories of Modernist formalism and their rejection in Postmodernism.• Recognize the various Modernist and Postmodernist styles, artists, and representative works of art.• Recognize the development of Modernist and Postmodernist styles in architecture.• Understand the cultural and self-criticism inherent in Postmodern art and architecture. 4
  • 5. World War II and Its Aftermath• Understand the shift of the Western art center from Paris to New York as a result of world events during the after World War II.• Recognize the interest in multiculturalism and the  acceptance of art forms beyond the Western canon.• Recognize various art styles that were popular during the second half of the 19th century and describe them• Recall leading artists and the respective styles and/or media with which they were associated 5
  • 6. 36.1 Painting and Sculpture 1945-1970• Examine the issues, themes, and forms of art from 1945- 1970• Realize that due to World War II, New York City becomes the center of the art world• Identify the following art styles and details about their appearance and goals (if any) – Post-War Expressionism – Abstract Expressionism (Gestural and Chromatic) – Post-painterly Abstraction – Minimalism and other forms of sculpture – Pop Art 6
  • 7. Figure 36-2 ALBERTO GIACOMETTI, Man Pointing, (no. 5 of6), 1947. Bronze, 5’ 10” x 3’ 1” x 1’ 5 5/8”. Des Moines ArtCenter, Des Moines (Nathan Emory Coffin Collection). 7
  • 8. Figure 36-3 FRANCIS BACON, Painting, 1946. Oil andpastel on linen, 6’ 5 7/8” x 4’ 4”. Museum of ModernArt, New York. 8
  • 9. Figure 36-4 JEAN DUBUFFET, Vie Inquiète (Uneasy Life), 1953. Oil on canvas, 4’ 3” x 6’ 4”. Tate Gallery, London. 9
  • 10. Abstract Expressionism• Understand Abstract Expressionism as the first major avante-garde art style to be developed in the United States.• Examine the two main processes of Abstract Expressionism, gestural abstraction and chromatic abstraction• Compare and contrast gestural and chromatic abstraction• Pollock and De Kooning are generally considered gestural abstraction painters (action painters)• Newman and Rothko are recognized as chromatic abstraction painters• Discuss what the Abstract Expressionists were expressing through their work 10
  • 11. Figure 36-5 JACKSON POLLOCK, Number 1, 1950 (Lavender Mist), 1950. Oil, enamel, and aluminum paint on canvas, 7’3” x 9’ 10”. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. (Ailsa Mellon Bruce Fund). 11
  • 12. Figure 36-6 Hans Namuth, Jackson Pollock paintingin his studio in Springs, Long Island,New York, 1950.Center for Creative Photography, University ofArizona, Tucson. 12
  • 13. Figure 36-7 WILLEM DE KOONING,Woman I, 1950–1952. Oil on canvas, 6’ 3 7/8”x 4’ 10”. Museum of Modern Art, New York. 13
  • 14. Figure 36-8 BARNETT NEWMAN, Vir Heroicus Sublimis, 1950–1951. Oil on canvas, 7’ 11 3/8” x 17’ 9 1/4”. Museumof Modern Art, New York (gift of Mr. and Mrs. Ben Heller). 14
  • 15. Figure 36-9 MARKROTHKO, No. 14, 1961 Oilon canvas, 9’ 6” x 8’ 9”. SanFrancisco Museum of ModernArt, (Helen Crocker RussellFund Purchase). 15
  • 16. Modernist Formalism• Understand the origins of modernist formalism and its theoretical basis.• Recognize the formal elements of the art styles known as Post-Painterly Abstraction and Minimalism.• Identify individual artists and representative works of art. 16
  • 17. Post-Painterly Abstraction• Examine the formal elements of the style described by Clement Greenberg as the cool and rational Post-Painterly Abstraction.• Discuss the artistic values/priorities of the Post-Painterly Abstraction artists• Discuss the difference between the Abstract Expressionism and Post-Painterly Abstraction 17
  • 18. Figure 36-10 ELLSWORTH KELLY, Red Blue Green, 1963. Oil on canvas, 6’ 11 5/8” x 11’ 3 7/8”. Museum ofContemporary Art, San Diego (gift of Dr.and Mrs. Jack M. Farris). 18
  • 19. Figure 36-11 FRANK STELLA, Mas o Menos (More or Less), 1964. Metallic powder in acrylic emulsion on canvas, 9’10”x13’8 1/2”. Musée National d’Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris (purchase 1983 with participation of ScalerFoundation). 19
  • 20. Figure 36-12 HELEN FRANKENTHALER, The Bay, 1963. Acrylic on canvas, 6’ 8 7/8” x 6’ 9 7/8”.Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit. 20
  • 21. Figure 36-13 MORRIS LOUIS, Saraband, 1959. Acrylic resin on canvas, 8’ 5 1/8” x 12’ 5”. Solomon R. GuggenheimMuseum, New York. 21
  • 22. Figure 36-14 David Smith, Cubi XIX,1964. Stainless steel, 9’ 4 ¾” X 4’ 10 ¼” X3’ 4”. Tate Gallery, London. Art © Estate ofDavid Smith/Licensed by VAGA, NewYork. 22
  • 23. Minimalism and Other Forms of Sculpture• Examine the formal elements of Minimalism, a predominantly sculptural movement and its emphasis on objecthood.• Recall other sculptors, their preferred media, and stylistic features of their work• Discuss the artistic qualities of Minimalism.• Are Minimalism and Post-Painterly Abstraction valid forms of art? Explain. 23
  • 24. Figure 36-15 TONY SMITH, Die, 1962. Steel, 6’ x 6’ x 6’. Museum of Modern Art, New York (gift of Jane Smith inhonor of Agnes Gund). 24
  • 25. Figure 36-16 DONALD JUDD, Untitled, 1969. Brass and colored fluorescent Plexiglasson steel brackets, 10 units, 6 1/8” x 2’ x 2’ 3” each, with 6” intervals. HirshhornMuseum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. (gift ofJoseph H. Hirshhorn, 1972). Art Judd Foundation/Licensed by VAGA, New York. 25
  • 26. Figure 36-62 MAYA YING LIN, Vietnam Veterans Memorial, Washington D.C., 1981-1983 26
  • 27. Expressive Sculpture• Understand the diverse ideas, feelings, influences, and forms of sculpture in contrast to the Minimalist forms. 27
  • 28. Figure 36-17 LOUISE NEVELSON, Tropical Garden II, 1957–1959. Wood painted black, 5’ 11 1/2” x 10’ 11 3/4” x 1’.Musée National d’Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris. 28
  • 29. Figure 36-18 LOUISE BOURGEOIS, Cumul I, 1969. Marble, 1’ 10 3/8” x 4’ 2” x 4’. Musée National d’Art Moderne,Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris. Art © Louise Bourgeois/Licensed by VAGA, New York. 29
  • 30. Figure 36-19 EVA HESSE, Hang-Up, 1965–1966. Acrylic on cloth over wood and steel,6’ x 7’ x 6’ 6”. Art Institute of Chicago,Chicago (gift of Arthur Keating and Mr. andMrs. Edward Morris by exchange). 30
  • 31. Pop Art• Understand the popular trends of traditional artistic devices and consumerism in Pop Art.• Discuss possible reasons for the development of Pop Art• Identify artists associated with Pop Art and characteristic elements of their work 31
  • 32. Figure 36-20 RICHARDHAMILTON, Just What Is ItThat Makes Today’s Homes SoDifferent, So Appealing?, 1956.Collage, 10 1/4” x 9 3/4”.Kunsthalle Tübingen,Tübingen, Germany. 32
  • 33. Figure 36-21 JASPER JOHNS, Flag, 1954–1955, dated on reverse 1954. Encaustic, oil, and collage on fabric mounted onplywood, 3’ 6 1/4” x 5’ 5/8”. Museum of Modern Art, New York (gift of Philip Johnson in honor of Alfred H. Barr, Jr.).Art © Jasper Johns/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY. 33
  • 34. Figure 36-22 ROBERTRAUSCHENBERG, Canyon, 1959. Oil,pencil, paper, fabric, metal, cardboardbox, printed paper, printedreproductions, photograph, wood, painttube, and mirror on canvas, with oil onbald eagle, string, and pillow, 6’ 9 3/4” x5’ 10” x 2’. Sonnabend Collection. Art ©Robert Rauschenberg/Licensed byVAGA, New York. 34
  • 35. Figure 36-23 ROYLICHTENSTEIN,Hopeless, 1963. Oil oncanvas, 3’ 8” x 3’ 8”.Kunstmuseum, Basel. ©Estate of RoyLichtenstein. 35
  • 36. Figure 36-24 ANDY WARHOL, Green Coca-ColaBottles, 1962. Oil on canvas, 6’ 10 1/2” x 4’ 9”.Collection of Whitney Museum of American Art, NewYork. 36
  • 37. Figure 36-25 ANDY WARHOL, Marilyn Diptych, 1962. Oil, acrylic, and silk-screen enamel on canvas, each panel 6’8”x4’9”. Tate Gallery, London. 37
  • 38. Figure 36-26 CLAES OLDENBURG, various works exhibited at the Green Gallery, New York, 1962. 38
  • 39. Superrealism• Examine Superrealism, its fidelity to optical fact and attention to minute detail and commonplace objects. 39
  • 40. Figure 36-27 AUDREY FLACK, Marilyn, 1977. Oil over acrylic on canvas, 8’ x 8’. University of Arizona Museum, Tucson(museum purchase with funds provided by the Edward J. Gallagher, Jr. Memorial Fund). 40
  • 41. Figure 36-28 CHUCK CLOSE, Big Self-Portrait,1967–1968. Acrylic on canvas, 8’ 11” x 6’ 11”Walker Art Center, Minneapolis (Art CenterAcquisition Fund, 1969). 41
  • 42. Figure 36-29 DUANEHANSON, SupermarketShopper, 1970. Polyesterresin and fiberglasspolychromed in oil, withclothing, steel cart, andgroceries, life-size.Nachfolgeinstitut, NeueGalerie, SammlungLudwig, Aachen. Art ©Estate of DuaneHanson/Licensed byVAGA, New York. 42
  • 43. 36.2 Painting and Sculpture since 1970• Recognize some of the artists associated with Neo- Expressionism and describe characteristics of their work• Recall major feminist artists and characteristics associated with each of them. What were the goals or objectives of feminist artists? What specific features in their various works expressed these goals/objectives?• Study other forms of social and political art and the diverse methods the artists used to convey their different messages. What were some of the social and political issues that artists sought to address through their work? 43
  • 44. Figure 36-30 SUSAN ROTHENBERG, Tattoo, 1979. Acrylic paint on canvas, 5’ 7” x 8’ 7”. Walker Art Center,Minneapolis (purchased with the aid of funds from Mr.and Mrs. Edmond R. Ruben, Mr.and Mrs. Julius E. Davis, the ArtCenter Acquisition Fund, and the National Endowment for the Arts, 1979). 44
  • 45. Figure 36-31 JULIAN SCHNABEL, The Walk Home, 1984–1985. Oil, plates, copper, bronze, fiberglass, and Bondo onwood, 9’ 3” x 19’ 4”. Broad Art Foundation and the Pace Gallery, New York. 45
  • 46. Figure 36-32 ANSELM KIEFER, Nigredo, 1984. Oil paint on photosensitized fabric, acrylic emulsion, straw, shellac, reliefpaint on paper pulled from painted wood, 11’ x 18’. Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia (gift of Friends of thePhiladelphia Museum of Art). 46
  • 47. Figure 36-33 JUDY CHICAGO, The Dinner Party, 1979. Multimedia, including ceramics and stitchery, 48’ x 48’ x 48’.Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn. 47
  • 48. Figure 36-34 MIRIAM SCHAPIRO, Anatomy of a Kimono (section), 1976. Fabric and acrylic on canvas, 6’ 8” x 8’ 6” high.Collection of Bruno Bishofberger, Zurich. 48
  • 49. Figure 36-35 CINDY SHERMAN, Untitled Film Still#35, 1979. Gelatinsilverprint, 10” x 8”. Privatecollection. 49
  • 50. Figure 36-36 BARBARA KRUGER, Untitled(Your Gaze Hits the Side of My Face), 1981.Photograph, red painted frame, 4’ 7” x 3’ 5”.Courtesy of Mary Boone Gallery, New York. 50
  • 51. Figure 36-37 ANA MENDIETA, Flowers on Body, 1973.Color photograph of earth/body work with flowers,executed at El Yaagul, Oaxaca, Mexico . Courtesy of theEstate of Ana Medieta and Galerie Lelong, New York. 51
  • 52. Figure 36-38 HANNAH WILKE, S.O.S.--- Starification Object Series, 1974. Ten black-and-white photographswith 15 chewing-gum sculptures in Plexiglas cases mounted on ragboard, from a series originally made forS.O.S. Mastication Box and used in an exhibition-performance at the Clocktower, January 1, 1975, 3’ 5” X 5’8”. Courtesy Ron Feldman Fine Arts, New York. Art © Marsie, Emanuelle, Damon and AndrewScharlatt/Licensed by VAGA, New York. 52
  • 53. Figure 36-39 GUERRILLA GIRLS, The Advantages of Being A Woman Artist, 1988. Offset print, 17”x22”.Collection of the artists. 53
  • 54. Figure 36-40 KIKI SMITH, Untitled, 1990. Beeswax andmicrocrystalline wax figures on metal stands, femalefigure installed height 6’ 1 1/2”; male figure installedheight 6’ 4 15/16”. Collection Whitney Museum ofAmerican Art, New York (purchase, with funds from thePainting and Sculpture Committee). 54
  • 55. Figure 36-41 FAITHRINGGOLD, Who’s Afraid of AuntJemima?, 1983. Acrylic on canvaswith fabric borders, quilted, 7’ 6” x6’ 8”. Private collection. 55
  • 56. Figure 36-42 LORNA SIMPSON, Stereo Styles, 1988. 10 black-and-white Polaroid prints and 10 engraved plastic plaques,5’ 4” x 9’ 8” overall. Private Collection. 56
  • 57. Figure 36-43 MELVIN EDWARDS, Tambo,1993.Welded steel, 2 4 1/8" x 2 1 1/4". SmithsonianAmerican Art Museum,Washington, D.C. 57
  • 58. Figure 36-44 CHRIS OFILI, The Holy Virgin Mary,1996. Paper collage, oil paint, glitter, polyesterresin, map pins, elephant dung on linen, 7’ 11” x 5’11 5/16”. The Saatchi Collection, London. 58
  • 59. Figure 36-45 DAVID HAMMONS, Public Enemy, installation at Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1991. Photographs,balloons, sandbags, guns, and other mixed media. 59
  • 60. Figure 36-46 JAUNE QUICK-TO-SEE SMITH, Trade (Gifts for Trading Land with White People), 1992. Oil and mixed mediaon canvas, 5’ x 14’ 2”. Chrysler Museum of Art, Norfolk. 60
  • 61. Figure 36-47 LEON GOLUB, Mercenaries IV, 1980. Acrylic on linen, 10’ x 19’ 2”. Courtesy Ronald Feldman Fine Arts.Art © Leon Golub/Licensed by VAGA, New York. 61
  • 62. Figure 36-48 DAVID WOJNAROWICZ, "When I Put My Hands On Your Body", 1990. Gelatin-silver print and silk-screened text on museum board, 2’ 2” x 3’ 2”. Private collection. 62
  • 63. Figure 36-49 KRZYSZTOF WODICZKO, TheHomeless Projection, 1986. Outdoor slide projection at theSoldiers and Sailors Civil War Memorial, Boston. 63
  • 64. Figure 36-50 MAGDALENAABAKANOWICZ, 80 Backs, 1976–1980.Burlap and resin, each 2’3”high. Museum ofModern Art, Dallas. 64
  • 65. Figure 36-51 JEFF KOONS, Pink Panther, 1988. Porcelain, 3’5” x 1’ 8 1/2” x 1’ 7”. Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago(Gerald S. Elliot Collection). 65
  • 66. Figure 36-53 MARK TANSEY, A Short History of Modernist Painting, 1982. Oil on canvas, three panels, each 4’ 10” x 3’ 4”.Courtesy Curt Marcus Gallery, New York. 66
  • 67. Figure 36-52 ROBERT ARNESON, California Artist, 1982. Glazed stoneware, 5’ 81/4” x 2’ 3 1/2” x 1’ 8 1/4”. San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (gift of theModern Art Council). Art © Estate of Robert Arneson/Licensed by VAGA, NewYork, NY. 67
  • 68. Figure 36-54 HANS HAACKE, MetroMobiltan, 1985. Fiberglass construction, three banners, and photomural, 11’ 8” x 20’x 5’. Musée Nationald’Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris. 68
  • 69. 36.3 Architecture and Site-Specific Art• Examine the organic and fluid forms developed as new models for modernist architecture.• Recognize the distinctions between the works of Modernist and Postmodern architects. Support your distinctions with examples of both movements.• Examine the development of site-specific art movements such as earthworks 69
  • 70. Figure 36-55 FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, 1943-1959. 70
  • 71. Figure 36-55 alternate view FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum (exterior view from thenorthwest), New York, 1943–1959 (photo 1962). 71
  • 72. Figure 36-56 LE CORBUSIER, Notre Dame du Haut, Ronchamp, France, 1950–1955. 72
  • 73. Figure 36-57 LE CORBUSIER, interior of Notre-Dame-du-Haut, Ronchamp, France, 1950-1955. 73
  • 74. Figure 36-59 JOERN UTZON, Sydney Opera House, Sydney, Australia, 1959–1972. 74
  • 75. Figure 36-58 EERO SAARINEN, Trans World Airlines terminal (terminal 5), John F. KennedyInternational Airport, New York, 1956-1962. 75
  • 76. Figure 36-60 LUDWIG MIES VANDER ROHE and PHILIP JOHNSON,Seagram Building, New York, 1956-1958. 76
  • 77. Figure 36-61 SKIDMORE, OWINGS ANDMERRILL, Sears Tower, Chicago, 1974. 77
  • 78. Figure 36-63 CHARLES MOORE, Piazza d’Italia, New Orleans, Louisiana, 1976-1980. 78
  • 79. Postmodern Architecture• Examine the elements and issues of Postmodern architecture in its use of classical and colonial forms as well as later deconstructivist forms. 79
  • 80. Figure 36-64 PHILIP JOHNSON and JOHNBURGEE (with Simmons Architects), AT&T (nowSony) Building, New York, 1978–1984. 80
  • 81. Figure 36-65 MICHAEL GRAVES, The Portland Building, Portland, Oregon, 1980. 81
  • 82. Figure 36-66 ROBERT VENTURI, JOHN RAUCH and DENISE SCOTT BROWN, house in eastern Delaware, 1978–1983. 82
  • 83. Figure 36-67 RICHARD ROGERS and RENZO PIANO, Georges Pompidou National Center of Art andCulture (the “Beaubourg”), Paris, France, 1977. 83
  • 84. Figure 36-68 GÜNTER BEHNISCH, Hysolar Institute Building, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 1987. 84
  • 85. Figure 36-69 FRANK GEHRY, Guggenheim Bilbao Museo, Bilbao, Spain, 1997. 85
  • 86. Figure 36-71 DANIEL LIBESKIND, Denver Art Museum, Denver, Colorado, 2006 86
  • 87. Site Specific Art• Understand the development of Environmental and Site Specific Art as an outgrowth of ecological and environmental concerns. 87
  • 88. Figure 36-72 ROBERT SMITHSON, Spiral Jetty, Great Salt Lake, Utah, 1970. Art © Estate of Robert Smithson/Licensedby VAGA, New York. 88
  • 89. Figure 36-74 RICHARD SERRA, Tilted Arc, 1981. Jacob K. Javits Federal Plaza, New York City, 1981. 89
  • 90. 36.4 Performance and Conceptual Art and New Media• Examine the innovative forms of Performance Art and Happenings which combined two- and three-dimensional art along with other arts.• Gain a basic understanding of the meaning of conceptual art• Recall some of the new media used to create art in the late 20th and early 21st centuries 90
  • 91. Alternatives to Modernist Formalism• Examine the expressive qualities of directions in sculptural forms outside of Minimalism.• Examine the development of Performance Art and Happenings, combining two- and three-dimensional art forms along with other arts.• Examine the development of Conceptual Art and the elimination of the object. 91
  • 92. Figure 36-75 KAZUO SHIRAGA, Making a Work with His Own Body, 1955. Mud. 92
  • 93. Figure 36-76 CAROLEE SCHNEEMAN, Meat Joy,1964. Photograph of performance at Judson Church,New York. 93
  • 94. Figure 36-77 JOSEPH BEUYS, How to Explain Pictures to aDead Hare, 1965. Performance at the Schmela Gallery,Düsseldorf. 94
  • 95. Figure 36-78 JEAN TINGUELY, Homage to New York, 1960, just prior to its self-destruction in the garden of theMuseum of Modern Art, New York. 95
  • 96. Conceptual Art• Examine the development of Conceptual Art and the elimination of the object and the idea itself as a work of art. 96
  • 97. Figure 36-79 JOSEPH KOSUTH, One and Three Chairs, 1965. Wooden folding chair, photographic copy of a chair, andphotographic enlargement of a dictionary definition of a chair; chair, 2’ 8 3/8” x 1’ 2 7/8” x 1’ 8 7/8”; photo panel, 3’ x 2’1/8”; text panel, 2’ 2’ 1/8”. Museum of Modern Art, New York (Larry Aldrich Foundation Fund). 97
  • 98. Figure 36-80 BRUCENAUMAN, The True Artist Helpsthe World by Revealing Mystic Truths,1967. Neon with glass tubingsuspension frame, 4’ 11” x 4’ 7”x 2”. Private collection. 98
  • 99. 36.7 Postmodernism in Painting, Sculpture, and New Media • Understand the inclusion of traditional elements, historical references, and artistic self-consciousness in Postmodern art. • Examine Neo-expressionist interest in intense emotions and in the physicality of paint and media combinations. • Understand the contemporary political content of feminist and cultural heritage art. • Examine the use of new video and digital technologies available in the making of art. • Understand cultural criticism as inherent to Postmodernism. 99
  • 100. Postmodern Painting and Other Media• Understand the traditional elements, historical references, and artistic self-consciousness.• Examine Neo-expressionist intense emotions and the physicality of media combinations. 100
  • 101. Postmodern Art as Political Weapon• Understand the social content and political statements of feminist art along with innovative and expressive use of materials.• Understand the use of art to express gender and cultural heritage issues, as well as the experimental forms and innovative use of materials. 101
  • 102. Figure 36-81 NAM JUNE PAIK, Video still from Global Groove, 1973. Color videotape, sound, 30 minutes. Collection ofthe artist. 102
  • 103. Figure 36-82 ADRIAN PIPER, Cornered, 1988. Mixed-media installation of variable size; video monitor, table, and birthcertificates. Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago. 103
  • 104. Figure 36-83 BILL VIOLA, The Crossing,1996. Video/sound installation with twochannels of color video projection ontoscreens 16high. Private collection. 104
  • 105. Figure 36-84 DAVID EM, Nora, 1979. Computer-generated color photograph, 1’ 5” x 1’ 11”. Private collection. 105
  • 106. Figure 36-85 JENNY HOLZER, Untitled (selections from Truisms, Inflammatory Essays, The Living Series, The Survival Series,Under a Rock, Laments, and Child Text), 1989. Extended helical tricolor LED electronic display signboard, 16” x 162’ x 6”.Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, December 1989–February 1990 (partial gift of the artist, 1989). 106
  • 107. New Technologies for Art• Examine the expressive use of video and digital technologies by Postmodern artists. 107
  • 108. Figure 36-1 MATTHEW BARNEY,Cremaster cycle, installation at the SolomonR. Guggenheim Museum, 2003. 108
  • 109. Criticism of Commodity Culture, Art History, and Art Institutions• Understand Postmodernist criticism of contemporary commodity culture, and criticism of galleries and museums.• Examine Postmodern art that draws attention to global social injustice and world problems. 109
  • 110. Figure 36-86 TONY OURSLER, Mansheshe, 1997.Ceramic, glass, video player, videocassette, CPJ-200 video projector,sound, 11” x 7” x 8” each. Private collection. 110
  • 111. Discussion Questions How are the two main processes of Abstract Expressionism different? Name and processes and one artist for each. What do Minimalist sculptors mean by the concept of objecthood? What is meant by Conceptual Art and the elimination of the object? Why do you think Modernist art and architecture alienated the public? Do you agree that Postmodern art and architecture are more in tune to the public’s interests? In what ways has new technology already changed our perception of what art is? 111