The United States court system, as part of the federal system of government, is characterized by dual
hierarchies: there are both state and federal courts. Each state has its own system of courts, composed of civil
and criminal trial courts, sometimes intermediate courts of appeal, and a state supreme court. The federal court
system consists of a series of trail courts (called district courts) serving relatively small geographic regions (there
is at least one for every state)a tier of circuit courts of appeal that hear appeals from many district courts in a
particular geographic regions, and the Supreme Court of the United States. The two court systems are to some
extent overlapping, in that certain kinds of disputes (such as a claim that a state law is in violation of the
Constitution) may be initiated in either system. They are also to some extent hierarchical, for the federal
system stands above the state system in that litigants (persons engaged in lawsuits) who lose their cases in the
state supreme court may appeal their cases to the Supreme Court of the United States.
Thus, the typical court case begins in a trial court - a court of general jurisdiction - in the state or
federal system. Most cases go no further than the trial court : for example, the criminal defendant is convicted
(by a trial or a guilty plea) and sentenced by the court and the case ends; the personal injury suit results in a
judgment by a trial court (or an out - of - court settlement by the parties while the court suit is pending) and
the parties leave the court system. But sometimes the losing party at the trial court cares enough about the
cause that the matter does not end there. In these cases, the “loser” at the trial may appeal to the next higher
1. What does the passage mainly
1. impression of movement 2. inclusion of many human forms
3. portrayal of skyscrapers 4. application of forceful colors
2. According to the passage, district courts are also known as
1. circuit courts 2. supreme courts
3. intermediate courts 4. trial courts
3. In the last sentence of the first paragraph, the phrase “engaged in” could best be replaced by which of
1. committed to 2. in volved in
3. attentive to 4. engrossed in
4. The passage indicates that litigants who lose their cases in the state trail court may take them to a
1. different trail court in the same state 2. court in a different geographic region
3. federal trial court 4. state supreme court
5. It can be inferred from the passage that typical court cases are
1. always appealed 2. usually resolved in the district courts
3. always overlapping 4. usually settled by the Supreme Court
6. Which of the following is most likely to be the subject of the paragraph following the passage?
1. The process of an appeal 2. Out - of court settlements
3. The state court structure 4. Sentencing procedures
As the south was beginning to find itself after the American Civil War, the North, too, focused its on
the interest on the lands below the Mason - Dixon line. Northerners swarmed over the South : journalists,
agents of prospective investors, speculators with plants for railroads, writers anxious to expose themselves to a
One of these was Constance Fennimore Woolson, a young woman from New Hampshire, a grandniece
of James Fennimore Cooper, who like many Northerners, was drawn to the unhappy South by affection,
compassion, admiration, or the charm of the life there. With her singular gift of minute observation and a
talent for analysis, her imagination lingered over the relics of the ancient South, the quaintly emblazoned tables
and colonial tombs, the wrecked old mansions that stood near by, perhaps in ruined rice lands, amid desolated
fields and broken dikes. Such was the dwelling on the Georgia sea island that sidled and learned in Jupiter
Lights with one of its roofless wings falling into the cellar. After St. Augustine , Charleston especially
attracted Miss Woolson, crumbling as it was but aristocratic still.
In a later novel, Horace Chase, one of the best of all her books, she anticipated Thomas Wolfe in
describing Asheville, in which the young capitalist from the North who falls in love with the Southern girl
sees the “Lone Star” of future mountain resorts.
Miss Woolson was a highly conscious writer, careful, skillful, subtle, with a sensitive, clairvoyant
feeling for human nature, with the gift of discriminating observation that characterized Howells and Henry
James. She was surely best in her stories of the South, fascinated as she was by its splendor and carelessness,
its tropical plants, flowers, odors and birds, and the pathos and beauty of the old order as she saw it in decay.
7. Which of the following is the best title for the passage?
1. The Rebuilding of the South
2. Literature After the Civil War
3. Thomas Wolfe’s Influence on Woolson
4. Constance Fenimore Woolson and Her Works
8. Which of the following are NOT mentioned in the passage as the kind of people who went to the South
after the Civil War?
1. Railroad builders 2. Newspaper writers
3. Northern politicians 4. Investment agents
The Federal Theater of the Works Progress Administration was a desperate relief measure of the 30’s,
conceived in a time of misery and despair. It “artistic” policy was based on the assumption that unemployed
actors got just as hungry as anybody else, that they wanted to work, and that millions of American would
enjoy the results of this work if it could be offered free or at prices they could pay. At its peak the Federal
Theater had 15,500 theater works on its payroll at an average wage of approximately $20 a week. During the
four years of its existence it played to an estimated total of 15 million people over.
To those of us who were lucky enough to be a part of it, it offered a unique and exhilarating
experience. Added to the satisfaction of our essential tasks was that very rare and special excitement that is
generated when the theater is suddenly projected into the historical mainstream of its time.
The Federal Theater’s guiding personnel was drawn mostly from outside the “commercial” hierarchy,
from among the dreamers and eggheads of the American theater.
9. The Federal Theater was designed to give…
1. experience in the theater to the eggheads and dreamers.
2. a new concept of the theater to the country.
3. a large government surplus of money to the needy.
4. employment to theater people.
10. The Federal Theater played to…
1. the government hierarchy. 2. almost a million Americans.
3. small audiences. 4. the whole country.
11. The author feeds that the Federal Theater project was…
1. poorly organized. 2. a mistake.
3. a good experience 4. a good way to keep actors out of trouble.
12. The “artistic” policy of the Federal Theater was based on an assumption that was…
1. practical. 2. opposed by the actors.
3. never clearly stated. 4. too commercial.
13. The author feels that the Federal Theater was unique because…
1. it was a government project.
2. every one was desperate.
3. it was part of the historical mainstream.
4. the actors were eager to work.
The late Benjamin Franklin has brought affliction to millions of boys whose fathers have read his
biography. A boy cannot follow a single natural instinct without tumbling over one of Franklin’s everlasting
pieces of wisdom and hearing from him on the spot. If he wants to spin a top when he has done his work,
his father quotes, “Procrastination is the thief of time”. And a boy is hounded to death and robbed of his
natural rest, because Franklin said once, in one of his inspired flights of meanness, “Early to bed and early to
rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise”.
The result of my parents’ experimenting on me with that wise saying is my present state of general
poor health, unemployment and confusion. My parents used to get me up before nine 0’clock in the morning.
If they had let me take my natural rest where would I have been now? Keeping store, no doubt, and respected
And what a sharp old adventure Franklin was! So he could fly his kite on Sunday he used to hang a
key on the string and let on to be fishing for lightning. A guileless public would go home chirping about the
“wisdom” and the “genius” of the white – haired Sabbath breaker.
My grandfather knew him well and he says Franklin was always ready. If somebody, during his old
age, happened on him unexpectedly when he was catching flies or sliding on a cellar door, he would
immediately rip out a wise saying, and walk off his nose in the air and his cap on backwards, trying to
appear absent – minded and eccentric.
14. The writer described his present state as….
1. that of an old adventurer.
2. being ill, confused, and without a job.
3. that of a respected storekeeper.
4. being hounded to death and without proper rest.
15. The tone of this attack on Franklin can best be described as….
1. embarrassing. 2. humorous.
3. fair. 4. petty.
16. The author says that whenever a boy follows one of his natural instincts, he is….
1. wasting his time. 2. inspired by Franklin.
3. endangering his health. 4. tripped up by one of Franklin’s maxims.
17. The passage shows that the public’s view of Franklin is shared by…
1. fathers. 2. boys.
3. the author’s grandfather. 4. the author.
18. The author uses the story that his grandfather told to prove that…
1. his grandfather really did know Franklin.
2. Franklin acted childishly in his old age.
3. Franklin carried a ready supply of wise saying in a book.
4. Franklin was absent – minded.
In the early 1800’s the factory system in the United States at first flourished most actively in New England,
especially in Massachusetts, though it later branched out into the more populous areas of New York, New Jersey, and
Pennsylvania. New England was favored for a number of reasons : A relatively dense population provided labor, while
the seaports made possible the easy import of raw materials and the export of finished products. In addition, the rapid
rivers provided abundant water power to operate the machines. The war of 1812 brought a period of increased
productivity to American factories.
19. What is the main topic of the passage?
1. Importing and exporting at Eastern seaports
2. Early industrialization in the United States
3. The problems of farming in New England
4. The most populous states in the United States
20. Which of the following states had the highest level of industrial activity at the turn of the century ?
1. New York 2. New Jersey
3. Massachusetts 4. Pennsylvania
21. All of the following are reasins for the industrialization of the Northeast EXCEPT
1. A good labor pool
2. A good source of natural power
3. Easy access to the sea
4. Abundance of native raw materials
22. According to the passage, why was New England an especially good area for the location of factories ?
1. There were many stones with which to build factories.
2. There were many tree branches to use for fuel.
3. There was plenty of energy from the rivers.
4. There was abundant farmland available on which to build factories.
23. The passage would most likely be required reading for a course in
1. history 2. geography
3. agriculture 4. oceanography
24. The paragraph following the passage would most likely discuss what topic ?
1. Rivers in New England
2. Laborers in Massachusetts factories
3. The War of 1812
4. The development of factories in 1800
Directions: Choose the one word or phrase that best completes the sentence.
25. Nearly every aspect of economics life is affected by __________ .
1. they are seasonal variations 2. variations are seasonal
3. that seasonal variations 4. seasonal variations
26. …………. of structure and environment distinguishes the architectural projects.
1. Integration Carefully 2. The integration is careful
3. A carefully integrated 4. A careful integration
27. Microscopes makes small things appear larger than __________ .
1. really are 2. are really
3. are they really 4. they really are
28. …………. is to arrange them in groups or sequences according to a plan.
1. Things classified 2. In classifying
3. As classification of things 4. To classify things
29. It is difficult for the casual observer to distinguish …………. artificial and natural lakes.
1. to 2. therefore
3. onto 4. Between
30. The lens of a camera performs …………. the lens of the eye.
1. in the same function 2. the same function as
3. the function is the same as 4. and has the same function
31. Acids are chemical compounds that, in water solution, have…………..
1. tastes sharp 2. sharp – tasting
3. a sharp taste 4. tasting sharp
32. Uniform acceleration occurs …………. the rate of change remains the same over successive and equal
intervals of time.
1. according 2. if
3. which 4. under
33. Freezing preserves meat because …………. , slows down the rate of enzyme action, and lowers the
speed of spoilage.
1. the growth of microorganisms is prevented
2. preventing microorganisms from growing
3. microorganisms are prevented from growing
4. it prevents the growth of microorganisms
34. Instead of trying to imitate reality in their works, many artists of the early twentieth century………….
their feelings and ideas in abstract art.
1. in beginning to travel 2. revealed the beginning
3. began to reveal 4. to begin revealing
35. Rabbits make their homes in fields and prairies …………. hide their young under bushes or among tall
1. can where they 2. where they can
3. where can they 4. where can
Directions: Write the letter of the underlined part that you think is grammatically wrong.
36. According procedures can be development for any type of organization, not simply for profit –
1 2 3
37. Many doctors tell patients that they should not overwork theirselves.
1 2 3 4
38. In the opinion of psychologists, the customer people wear to parties sometimes expresses subtle insight
into their true personalities.
39. The increase in tourism has not yet had any effect on people in the rural area of Thailand.
1 2 3 4
40. The apartment which he lives was ransacked by a thief living nearby last night.
1 2 3 4
41. One of the essential features of the modern skyscraper is being the elevator.
1 2 3 4
42. Hares frequently are often mistaken for rabbits, but hares are larger and usually have longer legs and ears
1 2 3
than do rabbits.
43. Because his family was not prepared for the tragic news, they came as a shock.
1 2 3 4
44. The Chairman of the Board of directors made it clear at the meeting that he will not step down from
1 2 3
his position as chairman.
45. Melody is believed to have been derived the patterns of spoken words.
1 2 3 4
Directions: Fill in the blank with the best response.
Situation 1: Chart, a matayomsuksa 6 student, is discussing with a counselor what he should study in a university.
Chart : I would like to know what I should study at university.
Counselor : What do you like to do?
Chart : I am not sure. But I know one thing for sure. I don’t like sciences.
Counselor : But you are in the science program, 46 ?
Chart : Yes, but I don’t like any sciences, biology, chemistry, physics or whatever.
Counselor : What do you like to do then?
Chart : I like painting, drawing 47 , that sort of things.
Counselor : I understand that you don’t like sciences. What you need to consider is your future 48 , too.
How Many painters can make a 49 in our society?
Chart : I don’t want to think about that. I love the arts. It is my life. I will live and die for it.
Counselor : Well, think carefully. It is your life. I will accept and respect your 50 whatever it is.
Chart : Thank you.
46. 1. aren’t you 2. are you 3. do you 4. don’t you
47. 1. maps 2. lines 3. conclusion 4. pictures
48. 1. study 2. career 3. life 4. progress
49. 1. job 2. living 3. life 4. wealth
50. 1. future 2. thinking 3. study 4. decision
Directions: Choose the one word or phrase which would best keep the meaning of the original sentence if it
were replaced for the underlined word or words which would complete the original sentence.
51. Tourism is an important source of revenue for many states un the United States.
1. credit 2. investment 3. endowment 4. income
52. A lens is a transparent disk with either two cured surfaces or one plane and one curved surface.
1. flat 2. blank 3. upright 4. angular
53. Some medications cause drowsiness and should not be used by people who operate machinery.
1. drunkenness 2. nervousness 3. sleepiness 4. unhappiness
54. The heavier the molecules of a particular gas are, the more slowly that gas diffuses.
1. a rare 2. an inert 3. a specific 4. an enclosed
55. Marian Anderson’s first performance at the Metropolitan Opera House was milestone in American
1. battleground 2. windfall 3. mainstay 4. landmark
56. The Indian Ocean is less than half as large as the Pacific Ocean and somewhat smaller than the
1. supposedly 2. much 3. slightly 4. no
57. Thiamine is necessary for the conversion of starches and sugars into glucose.
1. combination 2. transformation 3. transfer 4. linkage
58. The long summers and plentiful rainfall in Georgia are favorable for a wide variety of crops.
1. necessary 2. predictable 3. advantageous 4. responsible
59. In recent years, many cities have made significant cutbacks in the provision of municipal services.
1. reductions 2. payoffs 3. improvements 4. breakdowns
60. The governor of New Hampshire is elected to a four – year term and many serve only two terms
1. at the outset 2. in the meantime 3. at most 4. in succession
Directions: Choose the correct answer from the words given below for the blanks provided.
While not enough is known about women’s …….61……. status, even less is known about women’s
status relative to men. To illustrate, the situation of poor women is surely a major …….62……. of relative
status, but there is still little…….63……. about the …….64……. and magnitude of poverty in the region, and
how and whether this is changing. It is clear that poverty …….65…… on a large – scale, but … .66… .
of its intensity, …….67……. and distribution …….68……. greatly.
Very little information is …….69……. about changes in the …….70……. of women during the decade.
Instruments to collect information and measure change may be deficient, especially if they have missed small
but significant long term changes.
61. 1. abrupt 2. absolute 3. abusive 4. abstinent
62. 1. aspect 2. asset 3. access 4. act
63. 1. acknowledge 2. acquirement 3. agreement 4. adjournment
64. 1. level 2. linkage 3. limit 4. load
65. 1. expands 2. exits 3. excavates 4. exploits
66. 1. establishment 2. estimates 3. essence 4. essayist
67. 1. magnificence 2. magnet 3. magistrate 4. magnitude
68. 1. vary 2. vanish 3. vacate 4. validate
69. 1. audible 2. awkward 3. available 4. artificial
70. 1. statistics 2. status 3. state 4. standard
Athletes who inject themselves with synthetic insulin to boost their performance could soon be caught out by a
simple urine test. Athletes and bodybuilders sometimes inject insulin 71 it makes carbohydrates from food burn
more efficiently, 72 extra energy. It 73 prevents muscle breakdown.
Sports 74 banned insulin in 1998 amid rumours that bodybuilders were abusing it, but until now there
75 no test available to detect cheats. In the interim, new forms of insulin with longer-lasting effects have been
These synthetic forms of insulin 76 from the natural version by only a couple of amino acids.
Wilhelm Schnauzer and his colleagues at the German Sport University in Cologne have now managed to identify the
77 “fingerprint” of long-lasting insulin using a 78 called mass spectrometry. This breaks the insulin into
fragments and separates them according to 79 , generating a spectral pattern of peaks which would look different
for synthetic and natural insulin.
The test is being evaluated by the World Anti-Doping Agency and should be ready for the 2008 80 in
71. 1. whenever 2. because 3. although 4. until
72. 1. provide 2. provided 3. much 4. to provide
73. 1. much 2. next 3. also 4. probably
74. 1. players 2. authorities 3. supporters 4. audiences
75. 1. will have been 2. have been 3. had been 4. has been
76. 1. manage 2. differ 3. follow 4. protect
77. 1. unique 2. colorful 3. delighted 4. sizeable
78. 1. research 2. instrument 3. accessory 4. technique
79. 1. weigh 2. weighing 3. weight 4. weighed
80. 1. League championship2. Olympics 3. SEA Games 4. US Open