Dental caries
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Dental caries



keeping the mouth clean

keeping the mouth clean



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Dental caries Presentation Transcript

  • 1.  Dental caries is a post eruptive localised pathological process of external origin involving the softening of dental hard tissues and progressing to cavity formation due to demineralization of the inorganic components and destruction of the organic portion.
  • 2. There are four major factors responsible for the aetiology of Dental Caries namely; The tooth The diet Dental plaque Time
  • 3. Although these four factors are the major aetiological factors of Dental caries, there are also some sub- factors that also aid the afore mentioned factors. They are; Saliva Fluoride Socioeconomic status Education/knowledge Immune system
  • 4. DENTAL PLAQUE: This is a soft tenacious material found on the tooth surface and can’t be easily rinsed or washed away with water. They are formed as a result adherence of saliva pellicle which are soft cell free, structure less material which after adherence, are invaded by microorganism colonies such as the Streptococcus mutans . This bacteria accounts for 70-80% of the bacteria in the plaque before it is now joined by other filamentous microbes (Lactobacillus and Actinomyses spp). These microbes altogether secrete extracellular polysaccharide which assists in further adherence and thickness of the plaque.
  • 5. THE DIET: The diet basically means the kind of food we eat. This has been more or less the most important risk factor for DC, it can also affect DC either positively or negatively. The most common substrate that is acted upon by the bacteria is usually Carbohydrate to release acid and mucopolyssacharide which demineralizes the tooth and eventually leads to DC. There are some things to note when we talk about the diet with regards to DC; The physical nature of the diet: the physical nature of the food we eat also increases the susceptibility of a man to caries. For example, a sticky meal are more susceptible to be acted on by the dental plaque bacteria than the liquid or solid substrates. Chemical composition of the food: the chemical composition of the food substrate also goes a long way in telling the suseptibility of one to caries, it is known that monosaccharaides are more cariogenic than disaccharides and polysaccharides.
  • 6.  Frequency of intake: this is also important, because the number of times a particular substrate is taken also gives us an idea of the person being caries prone.  Presence of other diets: the presence of other diets such as protein and fats have been found out to reduce the cariogenic effects of carbohydrates. NB :- Sucrose is the most cariogenic sugar and is the most abundantly consumed sugar.
  • 7. THE TOOTH FACTOR: We all know that the teeth are important tissues that are found in the oral cavity(mouth). Therefore, there were investigations carried out to determine whether there is a relationship between the chemical composition of the tooth and a carious tooth. It was discovered that there was no difference in CA+, Phosphorus, Carbonate and Magnesium ion in either enamel of both sound tooth and carious tooth, but there was a difference in the their fluoride content. it was found that fluoride in sound enamel of the tooth was higher than in carious tooth and it inhibits demineralization. there are some factors that must be taken into consideration when talking about the tooth factor they are; MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TOOTH:- the form and structure of the tooth also affects the susceptibility of a tooth to caries for example,
  • 8.  The presence of deep pits and fissures on the occlusal surface of the tooth serve as stagnation areas for food which are then acted upon by the bacterial plaque, leading to caries formation.  The proximal surfaces of contact areas also serve as stagnation areas.  TOOTH POSITIONING:- Malpositioned or malrotated teeth can produce stagnation areas which may become difficult to clean, thereby increasing the chances of caries attack on the teeth.  DISTURBANCES IN THE FORMATION OF TOOTH STRUCTURE:- a disturbance in the formation of tooth structure such as amelogenesis imperfecta and other disturbances also influence the progression of Dental Caries.
  • 9. There are various side-effects that Dental caries cause they are; Pain Tooth loss Infections
  • 10. Dental caries are classified clinically according to the following;  Sight of caries attack  Extent of caries  Rate of spread  Caries attacking intact surfaces or margin of restorations  Others e.g. active or arrested caries.
  • 11. Dental caries is diagnosed using the following methods;  Visual:- This is by inspection with the eyes, they appear as white spot lesion or as frank cavitations on tooth surface.  Tactile:- The cavitations that are present on the pits and fissures on the occlusal surface of the tooth can be detected by tactile sensation, using the tip of a blunt explorer.  Radiographic:- Dental caries appear as radiolucent areas on periapical or bite wing radiographs. NB:- Mouth mirrors, explorers, good light and radiographs are still the commonest and most reliable methods of caries diagnosis.
  • 12. Since dental caries formation is a condition that progresses or regresses as a result of both demineralization and remineralization respectively, its necessary to educate people and then gain control by either reducing the demineralization factor and enhancing the remineralization factor  Reducing the demineralizing factors  Enhancing protective Factors  Preventive measures provided by dental professionals.
  • 13.  Frequency of intake of fermented CHO:- This is the most common and significant cariogenic factor. Therefore dietary counseling is essential in controlling such etiological factors.  Effective Oral Hygiene:- The first oral hygiene routine should be carried out before or after breakfast. This is because the primary objective is removal of plaque rather than demineralization of food debris. Also topical fluoride application by brushing with a fluoride containing toothpaste should be carried out twice daily.
  • 14.  Basically this has to do with the saliva since it’s a significant protective factor because it bathes the entire dentition constantly. It is a great buffer of the oral cavity because of its great calcium, phosphorus and also to a minimal extent the fluoride ions. Therefore a condition such as xerostomia also known as dry mouth would favor demineralization and therefore saliva stimulants are prescribed.
  • 15.  Pits and Fissure sealants:- Use of flow able resin bounded firmly to the enamel surface which then isolates the pits and fissures from the cariogenic environs. They are used to seal deep pits and fissures.  Restorations:- filling of deep pits and fissures with amalgam to prevent caries.  Extraction of carious teeth/tooth.  Fluoride therapy:- this is the use of topical fluoride application in the dental clinic to strengthen the teeth. This is done for younger people rather than teenagers and adults.