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common freshwater fishes of kerala

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  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  “FISH are cold blooded aquatic vertebrates which breath by means of pharyngeal gills, propelling and balancing themselves by means of fins” (Jhingran, v.g).   History known from Indus-valley civilization itself. Major food item (India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan etc.,)  Abundant water resources  Improved cultural practices  Easy to catch  Biodiversity is large
  3. 3.  More than 30700 sps. (India-2500)  More  More  than 11650 are marine.(India-1570) than 8411 are fresh water.(India-930) Even though the present status of many of the fishes is found to be, RARE, THREATENED or ENDANGERED.  Dams which altered the river hydrology  Introduction  Illegal  of „economically desirable‟ sps. and unscientific exploitation Researches are more worthy , if it is focused on needs of the people.  Scientific documentation by inventory and systematic studies.
  4. 4. CONTRIBUTERS  Dr. Francis Day  „Fishes of Malabar‟‟(1865).  Dr. Sunderlal Hora  350 Papers on fish  Dr. A.G.K .Menon  Dr. K.C. Jayaram
  5. 5. KERALA – A PHYSIOGRAPHIC VIEW Latitude – 8 º 18 ¹ -12 º 48 ¹ Longitude – 74 º 52 ¹ - 77 º 22 ¹  Area 38864km² (1.8% of India)  580km coastal area  14 Dist.  Population – 3,34,06,061  Capital – Trivandrum  Major cities – Cochin, Kozhikode, and Trivandrum
  6. 6.  3 Natural Zones Lowland Midland & High land – (western ghats) Highest peak „Anamudi‟ (2695 ft)  44 Rivers, Backwaters, Estuaries etc.  Kole wet lands of kuttanadu are unique to kerala.  Avg. rain fall – 2615mm  Temp. – upto 32ºc
  7. 7. Lepidopygopsis typus Class ACTINOPTERYGII Order CYPRINIFORMES Family CYPRINIDAE Common name PENINSULAR HILL TROUT Malayalam name BRAHMANAKANDA  Endemic to periyar tiger reserve  First described by Raj (1941)  Occupancy of 30km²  Found in fast flowing streams with cobbles and bedrock as substrates  Feeds on aquatic insects and detritus
  8. 8.  Body - elongate, compressed, inferior, broad and transverse.  2 pair of small rostral and maxillary barbels.  Dorsal fin is short last unbranched ray  Scales are thin(54-60),arranged along lateral line so the name „Brahmanakanda‟  Back is olive brown  Flanks and belly silvery  Threatened by Declining habitat quality Competition with exotic sps. Pollution and Dams
  9. 9. Osteochilus longidorsalis Class ACTINOPTERYGII Order CYPRINIFORMES Family CYPRINIDAE Common name HIFFIN CARP Malayalam name MODON  First described from Vettilapara in Chalakkudy river  Inhabits in streams having clear water moderate canopy and bedrock as the substrate.  Herbivorous  Dorsal fin inserted closer to the snout tip, last unbranched ray is elongated  Lateral line is complete with 39-40 scales
  10. 10.  Dorsal region is almost dark and lateral region is greenish  Simple rays of all fins tipped with grey(except dorsal fin)  Caudal fin is dusky  Thretened by  Exotic species  Destructive fishing  Tourism  Hydroelectric power project &  pollution
  11. 11. Osteochilus nashii Class ACTINOPTERYGII Order CYPRINIFORMES Family CYPRINIDAE Common name NASH‟S BARB Malayalam name MACHALU,MAMMUL U
  12. 12.  Endemic to western ghats  Body, slightly compressed  Dorsal fin inserted closer to the snout tip  A dark lateral band is runs from the eye to caudal fin base, lateral line is complete with 40-43 scales.  Golden- yellow flanks are bluish, abdomen is bright silvery. Dorsal fin Is with a black blurred bloch on the anterior rays
  13. 13. Pterocryptis wynaadensis Class ACTINOPTERYGII Order SILURIFORMES Family SILURIDAE Common name MALABAR SILURUS
  14. 14.  First described from wayanad by Day in 1873.  Endemic to Western Ghats.  Inhabits fast flowing river, canals and streams(hides in holes on rocks).  Feeds on small fishes and crustaceans.  Short migrations for the purpose of breeding.  Threatened by –  Pollution  Decline in habitat quality
  15. 15. Wallago attu Class ACTINOPTERYGII Order SILURIFORMES Family SILURIDAE Common name BOAL Malayalam name VAALA, THOOLI  Commonly found in rivers  Voracious  Blackish above, pearly below, fins hyaline or more or less dusky below  Compressed body from side to side, head depressed.  Abdominal profile is more curved than that of back  Mouth is sub terminal, oblique, gape wide and its corner reaches far behind the eyes  Two pairs of barbels present.
  16. 16. Hyporhamphus limbatus Class ACTINOPTERYGII Order BELONIFORMES Family HEMIRHAMPHIDAE  Coastal species sometimes strictly freshwater  Found at surface levels of tidal freshwaters  Feeds mainly on insects  Breeds twice in a year  23-37 gill rackers on the first gill arch  Greenish above with a silvery lateral stripe on the flanks, ventral side is white, tip of the jaw is reddish, and fins are hyaline
  17. 17. Hyporhamphus xanthopterus Class ACTINOPTERYGII Order BELONIFORMES Family HEMIRHAMPHIDAE Common name RED-TIPPED HALF BEAK Malayalam name ARACHUNDAN, MURICHUNDAN  First discovered by valenciennes(1847) rediscovered by kurup and Samuel(1980) in vembanad lake.  Restricted to 1-3 lakes(Ashtamudi,vembanad, and Vellayani lake) in Kerala depending on sesons.  Record of this sps. Out side Kerala is of wrong identification.
  18. 18.  Not reported in any protected area.  41-53 gill rackers on the first gill arch.  Greenish above and with a silvery lateral stripe on the flank, Ventral side is white, Tip of the lower jaw is reddish, Fins are hyaline.
  19. 19. Xenentodon cancila Class ACTINOPTERYGII Order BELONIFORMES Family BELONIDAE Common name FRESH WATER GARFISH Malayalam name KOLAN, KUZHALA  Fairly common in kerala  Body is elongate  Jaws with large canine teeth  Dorsal and anal fins are of equal length  Caudal fin is truncate
  20. 20.  Scales are small  Lateral line is placed low  Dorsum is greenish and flanks are silvery and fading to whitish below, caudal fins are dark at the tips  A lateral band is runs along the flank
  21. 21. Ambassis commersoni Class ACTINOPTERYGII Order PERCIFORMES Family CHANDIDAE  Grows up to 9.4 cm  Snout about equal to inter orbital space, mouth is very oblique  Chin is prominent  Teeth are seen on tongue  Orbital rim is rough, two rows of scales on cheek  Colour is yellowish brown with a silvery lateral band
  22. 22.  Fin membrane between second and third dorsal spine is dusky blackish in distal part  First dorsal spine is minute, second one is stronger and longer than the other  Pectorals shorter than head, but longer than ventrals .  Caudal fin is deeply forked  Lateral line is continuous  Present In both fresh as well as brackish water habitats
  23. 23. Ambassis dussumeiri Class ACTINOPTERYGII Order PERCIFORMES Family AMBASSIDAE Common name BARE HEAD GLASS FISH  Attains a total length of 4 inches  Mxilla extends to beneath the anterior margin of orbit  Nostrils rather large  Pre orbital and six strong denticulation  Teeth are villiform,small and equal scales are not very decidous
  24. 24.  Back and summit of head is greenish minutely dotted with fine black points fading to silvery along the sides and abdomen,bright silvery line passing from opercle to the centre of the tail.  Cheeks are silvery, fins are transparent with a yellowish tinge  Blackish between second and third dorsal spine  Caudal fin with a blackish margin  Iris silvery upper half is blackish
  25. 25. Ambassis gymnocephalus Class ACTINOPTERYGII Order PERCIFORMES Family AMBASSIDAE Common name BALD GLASSY PERCHLET  Wide spread species  Considerable taxonomic confusion because lack of distinguishable diagnostic characters  Supra orbital ridge is also dentate sub and inter opercula are entire
  26. 26.  Scales are large and lateral line is interrupted in the middle and with 24-28 scales in longitudinal series.  12-15 scales are present before the dorsal fin.  Body is silvery with a bright longitudinal band  Common in coastal areas
  27. 27. Ambassis nalua Class ACTINOPTERYGII Order PERCIFORMES Family AMBASSIDAE Common name SCALLOPED PERCHLET  Inhabits tropical fresh and brckishwater  Feeds on molluscs, annelids, crustacean and small teleostes  Attains a total length of 5 inches  Scales are large and lateral line is complete with 24-28 scales,11-13 scales are present before the dorsal fin
  28. 28.  Body is pale green above and glossy purple below  A black staining is seen in the membrane between 2nd and 3rd dorsal spines  A dark stripe is present in the 2nd dorsal and anal fins
  29. 29. Parambassis dayi Class ACTINOPTERYGII Order PERCIFORMES Family CHANDIDAE Common name DAY‟S GLASSY PERCHLET  Originally described as Parambassis dayi by Bleeker(1874), from cochin Kerala  Distributed along the west coast of southern western Ghats  It attains a total length of 17.5 cm  Body is long and laterally compressed, supra orbital ridge is smooth and with two spines on its posterior ridge  Sub orbital region is dentate
  30. 30.  Mouth is moderate to large and the tongue is dentate  Lateral line is curved and complete with 30 scales, 15 scales are present before the dorsal fin and six rows in the cheeks  It is silvery shot with purple.  The membrane between the 2nd and 3rd spine is dusky.  Soft dorsal, caudal and are dusky at their edges.  It is common in chalakkudypuzha and periyar
  31. 31. Parambassis thomassi Class ACTINOPTERYGII Order PERCIFORMES Family CHANDIDAE Malayalam name ATTUNANDAN, POONANDAN  It was originally described as Ambassis thomassi by Day(1870) from calicut and mangalore, India  Widely distributed in the west coast of southern west coast
  32. 32.  Body is long and compressed, lateral line is curved and complete with 40-42 scales,15 to 19 scales are present before the dorsal fin 4 rows in the cheeks  It is greenish with a sikvery tinge .  Second dorsal spine is slightly dusky at its anterior side.  Fins are hyaline  Second dorsal fin is slightly dusky on its anterior side
  33. 33. Pelates quadrilineatus Class ACTINOPTERYGII Order PERCIFORMES Family TERAPONIDAE  Distributed along Indo-west pacific.  They croak when taken from the water  Usually they forms schools  Juveniles in seagrass beds and in mangrove bays
  34. 34.  Feeds on small fishes and invertebrates  Eggs are guarded and fanned by the male parent  Attains a maximum length of 30 cm  Gently silver in colour, with 4-6 dark horizontal lines ,black blotch behind head and below dorsal origin and another infront of dorsal fin may be present:caudal fin pale or slightly dusky
  35. 35.  Originally described as Scieana jarbua by forsskal(1775)  Otherwise known as Target fish, Crescent prcch or Tiger bass is a Grunter from the Indo-pacific  It is a aquarium trade  Grows up to a size of 36 cm  It get its name from the concentric circle pattern that can be seen from above, resembling a target  Feeds on insects, plant matter, small fish , fish scales and crustaceans.
  36. 36. Terapon jarbua Class ACTINOPTERYGII Order PERCIFORMES Family TERAPONIDAE Common name TARGET FISH
  37. 37. Leognathus bindus Class ACTINOPTERYGII Order PERCIFORMES Family LEOGNATHIDAE Common name PONY FISH Malayalam name NALLA MULLAN  Otherwise known as Silver bellies  Important in inshore fisheries  There are 7 sps., among that this one is the most abundant in the malabar coast  Very little information is available on the biology and fishery of this one
  38. 38. Nandus nandus Class ACTINOPTERYGII Order PERCIFORMES Family NANDIDAE  It is commonly collected in summer months  Shows camouflage against its environment  Body is long and laterally compressed  Mouth is large and highly protrusible.  Teeth are villiform in jaws
  39. 39.  Caudal fin is rounded  Scales are ctenoid  Lateral line is interrupted with 46-57 scales in series  Body is greenish brown with brassy reflections  Three broad patchy blotches are present along the flanks  Fins - greenish or yellowish with narrow bands of spots across the soft portions of dorsal, anal and caudal fins  The eye has two brown stripes passing through it;one running from the mouth to the origin of the dorsal fin, and the other running from the throat to the eye  The fins are grayish, also with brown marking
  40. 40. Etroplus maculatus Class ACTINOPTERYGII Order PERCIFORMES Family CICHILIDAE Common name ORANGE CHROMIDE Malayalam name PALLATHI  It is very common in paddy fields, or piece of fresh water  It is yellowish with a greenish back, and about seventeen horizontal lines of deep golden spots along the dorsal fin, the back, and the abdomen occasionally a few also exist on the anal  Between the dorsal spines and rays there are more spots, some being brown and others yellow.
  41. 41.  Along the lateral line, there are three black finger markls, the central one being the largest  Ventral and anal fins stained with a deep black  Scales are ctenoid same as in the E.suratensis  The pectoral fins arises close behind the opercle and the commencement of the dorsal is slightly in advance of it, the finless space on the tail is short  Dorsal spines strong and occupying eleven fourteenths of the entire fin  Inter spinous membrane deeply notched and longer than the spines  Anal spines are strong , and occupying seven tenths of the entire base of fin, the rays are the same as in the dorsal  Both dorsal and anal spines can be laid flat in a groove
  42. 42. Etroplus suratensis Class ACTINOPTERYGII Order PERCIFORMES Family CICHILIDAE Common name PEARL SPOT Malayalam name KARIMEEN
  43. 43.  Common in all pieces of freshwater  Grows up to a feet  It takes bite easily, but can‟t captured easily in net-it bury it self in the mud  Specimens are of a deep purple colour, bands almost black, and white spots on nearly every scales gleams like a small pearl;  Very young fish has a large black ocellus surrounded bye a white margin, extending from the fourth to the tenth soft rays of the dorsal fin
  44. 44.  Mouth is oval,very compressed and situated below the center of the body  Profile rises abruptly to the base of the dorsal, but is rather concave between the snout and the upper margin of the orbit, Lower profile not slightly so rounded as upper.  Lower jaw is slightly the longest,Maxilla extends more than halfway to the orbit  Preopercle oblique and entire  Nostrils are situated about midway between the eye and the snout  Scales are ctenoid, covering the opercles, none on the snout, between the eyes, or on the orbitals, but they are extended on to the caudal, and along the base of dorsal and anal fins in the form of a scaly sheath
  45. 45. Anabas testudineus Class ACTINOPTERYGII Order PERCIFORMES Family ANABANTIDAE Common name CLIMBING PERCH Malayalam name KAITHAKORA  Very good eating by the natives  They are to move in two ways through ground-either by lying on their sides, flapping their tail and by moving their pectoral fins.  Will erect their scales and fins at pleasure , this willhelp themto climb small distances-climbing perch  Accessory respiratory structures-helps to thrive in oxygen deficit conditions, enable them to take short migrations
  46. 46.  Body is long and compressed at the posterior region  Operculum is serrated with spines  Mouth is large-small conical teeth  Large scales-21-29 scales of lateral series  Greenish to dark on dorsal side and flanks, fading to pale yellow over the ventral side  Well marked blotch at the base of caudal fin, black dot at the base of pectoral fin, pectoral and caudal fin are dark grey  Common in all small water bodies
  47. 47. Gerres filamentosus Class ACTINOPTERYGII Order PERCIFORMES Family GERRIDAE Common name THREADFIN SILVER BIDDY  Grows up to 8 inches in length  Body is compressed and elevated  Snout elevated, maxilla extends up to the first fourth of the orbit  Teeth can be found at the jaws as a velvety structure  Dorsal fin commences slightly behind the pectoral, but opposite the origin of the ventral, and the anal opposite to the 4th ray of the dorsal
  48. 48.  Pectoral is pointed, and is extends to above the first anal ray  Ventral spine weak, first ray prolonged  First spine of anal weak, and slightly longer than the 3rd, the rays gradually decrease in length  Scales cover the body and opercles  Summit of the head and back pale greenish grey, rest of the body is silvery with reddish reflections  Above and folowing the lateral line , there are two parallel series of large oval blackish spots  Caudal is deeply forked, The posterior margin of the caudal pale blackish, ventrals and pectorals white  Iris is pale golden
  49. 49. Channa orientalis Class ACTINOPTERYGII Order PERCIFORMES Family CHANNIDAE Common name WALKING SNAKE HEAD  Commonly called Ceylon snake head  Some times may grow up to 4 inches  Predatory, mainly feeds on plankton, insects and some times small amphibians  They can breath in land for short periods-can survive in land for 4 days at wet conditions  High tolerance to acidity
  50. 50.  Mouth brooder, male carries the eggs while the female guard the territory during this time male is less active, and often seen to the surface, fry is ejected via gill openings  40-50 scales are present in longitudinal series, 12-13 scales are present before the dorsal fin  Dorsum and flanks –green, ventral side-faint bluish colour  Dark oblique band –above and below the lateral line  Pectoral fin with alternating pale orange crescentic bands  Outer margin of the caudal fin is bright orange and barred, black ocellus at the end of dorsal fin  This is the most important snake head in kerala
  51. 51. Eleotris fusca Class ACTINOPTERYGII Order PERCIFORMES Family ELEOTRIDAE Grows up to 4 inches Body broad in front, compressed behind, and nearly as wide across the shoulder as it is high, abdominal profile is more curved than the back(nearly straight) Head is depressed, upper jaw oblique, and slightly protrusible, extending posteriorly to the beneath the centre of the orbit, lower jaw horizontal
  52. 52. Preopercle with the posterior limb directed slightly backwards, its angle rounded, sharp spine directed downwards and a little forwards, the horizontal limb rather longer than the vertical one Snout is short and depressed Scales are exposed, quadrangular, extend over the body and upper surface of the head as far as snout, where they are small, and on the opercles it is minute Colour depends on inhabiting water, in clear water; back is lighter than abdomen and pectoral fin with a black base
  53. 53. Macrognathus guentheri Class ACTINOPTERYGII Order SYNBRANCHIFORMES Family MASTACEMBELINAE Common name TIRE TRACK SPINY EEL Malayalam name AARAKAN  Originally described from Thrissur by day(1865)  Common in low land areas, and never recorded from high land areas  Grows up to 7 inches  Pre opercle with 2-3 spines
  54. 54. Body is greenish brown, a yeowish white streak passes from just above the eye along the lateral line to the center of the caudal  Abdomen-dull yellowish white, with a number of blotchy markings  Caudal with a black bar at the base, and 4-5 lighter ones between that, anal irregularly spotted  Dorsum - greenish or brown, flanks and ventralside - dull yellow  A few black bands radiate from the eyes that cross the jaws below  A light band running along the upper edge of the lateral line  Oblique bars or marbling are present on the body and vertical fins  Usually found in crevisces of the boulders and sandy or muddy bottoms of the freshwater bodies
  55. 55. Mastacembelus armatus Class ACTINOPTERYGII Order SYNBRANCHIFORMES Family MASTACEMBELINAE Common name ZIG-ZAG EEL Malayalam name KALARON, KALLAROKON  Very common, and also widely used as food  Dangerous to handle due to the presence of its spines  Grows up to two feets  Body is elongate and laterally compressed in the caudal region pre opercular spines are present rostrum is simple and devoid of tooth plates
  56. 56.  It is rich brown in colour with zigzag bands on the dorsal profile and usually forms a network of brownish bands  Anterior part of the abdomen is dirty white, caudal and pectorals fins are barred  Scales are very minute and covers the opercles and head  A row of black spot is present along the base of the dorsal fin  Dorsal fin with 32-40 spines and 64-92 branched rays  Pectoral fin is with 3-4 rows of discontinuous spots
  57. 57. Megalops cyprinoides Class ACTINOPTERYGII Order ELOPIFORMES Family MEGALOPIDAE Common name OX EYE TARPON Malayalam name PALAN, PALANKANNI  Otherwise known as indo-pacific tarpon or ox eye  May grow up to 60 cm  The large mouth is turned upwards, lower jaw is prominent and contains elongated hony plates,  The last ray of the dorsal fin is longer than the other and extend up to the tail, caudal fin is deeply forked
  58. 58.  Eyes are large and located at the middle of the head  It is dark greenish on the back and the flanks are silvery  Swim bladder is present  Spawns at sea and larvae anadromic in nature  Mainly feeds on smaller fish and crustaceans  It is known to live up to 44 years
  59. 59. CONCLUSION  India occupies the 9th position in terms of fresh water biodiversity  Kerala, as a part of India is blessed with all the components needed for the existence of such a great ichthyodiversity  This topic very wider, but I mainly stressed on the fishes which are edible  Many of them are under threat due to the over exploitation and unscientific fishing methods  The existing data are highly confusing, so many research works have to be done to conserve existing sps., explore the new sps.
  60. 60. THANKS