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Semantic Empowered Digital Library System

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Libraries play a critical role in the dissemination of Knowledge and serve as repositories of knowledge. Internet has been instrumental in delivering digital information worldwide. With the advent of …

Libraries play a critical role in the dissemination of Knowledge and serve as repositories of knowledge. Internet has been instrumental in delivering digital information worldwide. With the advent of semantic web, there has been a paradigm shift from digital libraries (DL) to semantic digital libraries (SemDL) to address the issues and challenges of DL. Semantic Web aims at transforming the current web, dominated by unstructured and semi-structured documents into a "web of data". SemDL is an initiative that allows the system to assist end users in retrieval of the most relevant content with respect to a description of their information needs. Semantic techniques have been considered from the perspective of DL and how it enhances the functioning of DLs. The key players of the semantic techniques in the context of DL are XML, XML Schema, RDF, RDF Schema, Web Ontology Language (OWL). Jerome DL is one such success story that shows the potentials of the semantic techniques to sort the problems/challenges of DL and how it improves browsing and searching of resources. The future tends to focus more keenly on the sharing of user knowledge and not merely Information Retrieval. One of the obvious outcomes is the advent of Social Semantic Digital Library (SSDL) to improve user benefits by empowering user interfaces and social networking.

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  • PROBLEM OF PRESENT WEB?High recall, low precisionResults are highly sensitive to vocabularyResults are single web pagesWeb pages are written in HTMLHTML describes the structure of informationHTML describes the syntax not the semantics
  • If computers can understand the meaning behind information...they can learn what we are interested inthey can help us better find what we wantThis is really what the Semantic Web is all about
  • Semantic Web provides a common framework that allows data to be shared and reused.The term was coined by Tim Berners-Lee for a web of data that can be processed by machines.
  • Unstructured-Type of information and its location is unknownWEB OF DATA- Semantic web is a web of data
  •  folksonomy collaboratively creating and translating tags to annotate and categorize contentbroad and narrow. A broad folksonomy is the one in which multiple users tag particular content with a variety of terms from a variety of vocabularies, thus creating a greater amount of metadata for that content. A narrow folksonomy, on the other hand, occurs when a few users, primarily the content creator, tag an object with a limited number of terms. both broad and narrow folksonomies enable the searchability of content by adding textual description - or access points - to an object, a narrow folksonomy does not have the same benefits as a broad folksonomy, which allows for the tracking of emerging trends in tag usage and developing vocabularies. [4] Folksonomies became popular on the Web applications such as social bookmarking and photograph annotation.7]
  • FOAF based on RDF. Evaluation based on reification.Include <foaf.knows> tag to evaluate the friendship. Dijkstra algorithm is used to understand the distance between two friends.
  • digital libraries on the Web identified by URIsallowing persistent and unique identification of a publication independently of its locationDOIs can be used to retrieve metadata for a given publication using a DOI resolver such as CrossRef
  • Universal: The repertoire must be large enough to encompass all characters that are likely to be used in general text interchange, including those in major international, national, and industry character sets. Efficient: Plain text is simple to parse: software does not have to maintain state or look for special escape sequences, and character synchronization from any point in a character stream is quick and unambiguous.Uniform: A fixed character code allows for efficient sorting, searching, display, and editing of text. Unambiguous: Any given 16-bit value always represents the same character. ++Although the present operating systems support a partial multi-lingual approach, they do not support all the scripts supported by Unicode++
  • HTML allows us to visualize the information on the web,it doesn't provide much capability to describe the information in ways that facilitate the use of software programs to find or interpret the information.
  • To represent the knowledge in a web page there is a document description framework developed known as RDF (Resource Description Framework).In resource discovery to provide better search engine capabilitiesIn cataloging for describing the content and content relationships available at a particular Web site, page, or digital library, by intelligent software agents to facilitate knowledge sharing and exchange, For describing intellectual property rights of Web pages For expressing the privacy preferences of a user as well as the privacy policies of a Web site. RDF with digital signatures will be key to building the "Web of Trust" for electronic commerce, collaboration, and other applications
  • RDFS is a language for describing RDF documents. It is complemented by several companion documents which describe the basic concepts and abstract syntax of RDF It provides mechanisms for describing groups of related resources and the relationships between these resources
  • Sesame is an open-source framework for querying and analyzing RDF data. It was created by the Dutch software company Aduna as part of the "On-To-Knowledge", a semantic web project that ran from 1999 to 2002. It contains implementations of an in-memory triplestore and an on-disk triplestore, along with two separate Servlet packages that can be used to manage and provide access to these triplestores, on a permanent server. The Sesame Rio (RDF Input/Output) package contains a simple API for Java based RDF parsers and writers. Parsers and writers for popular RDF serialisations are distributed along with Sesame, and users can easily extend the list by putting their parsers and writers on the Java classpath when running their application.Sesame is an open-source framework for querying and analyzing RDF dataSesame is a fast and scalable RDF database. It serves as one of the building blocks of the Semantic Web Sesame is based on open standards developed by W3C and is available under a liberal Open Source license .Support for several RDF query languages including SPARQL and SeRQL.
  • Jena is an open source Semantic Web framework for Java. It provides an API to extract data from and write to RDF graphs. The graphs are represented as an abstract "model". A model can be sourced with data from files, databases, URLs or a combination of these. A Model can also be queried through SPARQL and updated through SPARUL.Jena provides persistent storage of RDF data in relational databases.fine-grained API operations at the cost of storage over a normalized triples and nodes schema.It reduce storage consumption.
  • It is designed specifically to meet the needs of the World Wide web.It’s syntax is nearly identical to RDF’s but OWL is intended to better describe the semantics (like relationships, definitions, and rules) of concept and allow inference of new data based on these semantics. OWL lite- OWL Lite was originally intended to support those users primarily needing a classification hierarchy and simple constraints. For example, while it supports cardinality constraints, it only permits cardinality values of 0 or 1. It was hoped that it would be simpler to provide tool support for OWL Lite than its more expressive relatives, allowing quick migration path for systems using thesauriand other taxonomies.Owl DL- support inference and additional relationship. OWL DL was designed to provide the maximum expressiveness possible while retaining computational completeness OWL full- its provide the ability for the user to extend the language, OWL Full is based on a different semantics from OWL Lite or OWL DL, and was designed to preserve some compatibility with RDF Schema
  • An ontology can be expressed in structure languages such as XML or RDF, but as the ontology develops and grows larger , maintaining the structure of these knowledge sources quickly becomes overwhelming and difficult to manage. Tolls for building ontologies attempts to simplify the task of creating an using an ontology. Most tools provide some ability to visualize the relationship among concepts and nearly all can generate the ontology into two or more ontology language.
  • Protégé is one of the most well-known tools, created by Stanford Center for Biomedical Informatics Research and supported by grants from the National Library of Medicine , Defense advance research project agency, ebay Inc etc.It supports the creation, visualization and management of ontologies in a number of formats.Allows the user to export ontologies into OWL, RDF Schema, XML and other language format.
  • Content managementis the set of processes and technologies that support the collection, managing, and publishing of information in any form ormedium.Data integration involves combining data residing in different sources and providing users with a unified view of these data.Customization: to modify, make, or build according to individual specifications or preference.A domain model in problem solving and software engineering is a conceptual model of all the topics related to a specific problem. It describes the various entities, their attributes, roles, and relationships, plus the constraints that govern the problem domain.Semantic Annotation helps to bridge the ambiguity of the natural language when expressing notions and their computational representation in a formal language. By telling a computer how data items are related and how these relations can be evaluated automatically, it becomes possible to process complex filter and search operations. Imagine your search engine understands that "Barcelona" is a city in "Europe", it can answer a search query on "IT Companies in Europe" with a link to a document about Yahoo Office in Barcelona, although the exact words "Barcelona" or "Yahoo" never occur in your search query.A web portal is most often one specially-designed Web page at a website which brings information together from diverse sources in a uniform way.
  • Interoperability: ability of a system (as a weapons system) to work with or use the parts or equipment of another system
  • Aquaring is a portal on European resources of the Aquatic world, offering a multilingual semantic search engine, a semantic tag cloud adapted to user context, map, exhibitions, etc. The initial aim was to offer a multilingual and unique access point to a heterogeneous and distributed collection of digital resources. Application area of SW technologies: portal, semantic annotation, domain modeling, improved search, customization, and data integrationSW technologies used: public vocabularies, public datasets, RDF, SPARQL, OWL, and OWL DLSW technology benefits: rapid response to change, service reuse, multilinguality, and share and re-use dataEuropeana provides access to millions of objects gathered from hundreds of libraries, archives, museums and other cultural institutions throughout Europe. To do so, it gathers descriptive metadata and links to Web resources from all of these institutions. The result is a set of highly heterogeneous metadata.Application area of SW technologies: content management, improved search, data integration, domain modeling, and portalSW technologies used: RDFa, RDF, SPARQL, RDFS, SKOS, public datasets, public vocabularies, and in-house vocabulariesSW technology benefits: open mode, data integration, rapid response to change, share and re-use data, and interoperabilityTata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS) has research labs across the globe that focus on a wide range of domains of interest. One of the areas of research in TCS is to investigate natural language interfaces to business applications. A framework called NATAS has been developed, that enables users to interact with a business application in natural language by posing questions and invoking tasks. NATAS analyses, interprets and evaluates user input and responds back appropriately. The architecture of NATAS uses a Semantic Web based ontology of the domain to aid in the retrieval of relevant data and concepts from the application. The main advantage of such a system is that the user is free to enter any information in a raw form. It is then the job of the system to process the raw information and get whatever else is required.
  • In order to provide a standard format for publishing the thesaurus as a whole, and also to decouple the publication process from the highly proprietary thesaurus maintenance application, we looked for a standardized, highly expressive intermediate format. It turned out that no common serialization format for thesauri yet exists. The mapping of the thesaurus concepts and relations to SKOS proved to be quite straightforward. Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) is a W3C recommendation designed for representation of thesauri, classification schemes, taxonomies, subject-heading systems, or any other type of structured controlled vocabulary. SKOS is part of the Semantic Web family of standards built upon RDF and RDFS, and its main objective is to enable easy publication and use of such vocabularies as linked data.
  • Publishing the data on the Web was one of the main goals of the project. To achieve the goal they used these steps:RDFa (or Resource Description Framework in Attributes[1]) is a W3C Recommendation that adds a set of attribute-level extensions to HTML, XHTMLand various XML-based document types for embedding rich metadata within Web documents.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Semantic empowered Digital Library System Colloquium2 DRTC 2nd sem ISIBC
    • 2. INTRODUCTION Anwesha Bhattacharya
    • 3. “My two favourite things in life are libraries and bicycles. They both move people forward without wasting anything” ~Peter Golkin~
    • 4. What is a library? A building or room containing collections of books, periodicals, and sometimes films and recorded music for use or borrowing by the public or the members of an institution.
    • 5. An electronic library (colloquially referred to as a digital library) is a focused collection of digital objects that can include text, visual, audio, video materials, stored as electronic media formats along with means for organizing, storing, and retrieving them.
    • 6. Having computers understand things more like human beings do…
    • 7. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in co-operation. [Tim Berners-Lee , 2001]
    • 8. How is semantics related to Web? The Semantic Web aims at converting the current web, dominated by unstructured and semi- structured documents into a "web of data“.
    • 9. Let’s introduce Prof. Dutta With the traditional web model he has the following…
    • 10. A faculty page
    • 11. A faculty page A research page
    • 12. A faculty page A research page A blog
    • 13. A faculty page A research page A blog A staff listing page
    • 14. The content of these site is fine but there are no linkages between the data So visitor find it difficult to get all the information they need quickly and easily
    • 15. That’s where the Semantic web comes in…
    • 16. Using code we can create relationships between websites, people and events… These can then be understood by the browser and interpreted in a helpful way
    • 17. The semantic web With all this data being able to be displayed simply it provides a much richer user experience and offers information that previously might not have been exposed.
    • 18. Well that’s exciting stuff. But how do we go about getting onboard with semantic web? There are a few different ways we’ll have a quick and brief look at it
    • 19. You Are Here! Where are we in the “Semantic Web layer cake”?
    • 20. TOPIC SPEAKER 1. Evolution in SDL Manasa Rath 2. Semantic techniques and technologies Manash Kumar, Mohit Garg 3. Jerome DL Tanmay Mondal, Dibakar Sen, Shiv Shakti Ghosh 4. Semantic techniques in practice Sandip Das, Jayanta Kr Nayek 5. Conclusion Samhati Soor
    • 21. Evolution in SDL Manasa Rath
    • 22. Tim World Wide Web or WWW or Web as defined in Wikipedia It is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. Who proposed it ? Tim Berners- Lee INTERNET WEB Network of Computers Service which runs on the network • Tim Berners-Lee proposed WWW 1989
    • 23. Web 1.0 ScreenShot of msn.com from the year 1995 Most of the pages were static There were only images(mostly animate GIFs..) and hyperlinks Readers or Users were unable contribute to the site
    • 24. Web 2.0 Pages are made dynamic Users or readers are allowed to participate with the website and contribute their views to web. Technologies widely used in Web 2.0
    • 25. WEB 2.0 for LIBRARY PROFESSIONALS Vertical Search Features RSS Social Bookmarking BOOK CATALOG Library Thing Group Extension services BOOK Information Review Ask the Librarian Global Tag Cloud Social Information View New Reader Features BLOGS Information
    • 26. Towards a Semantic Web -Tasks often require to combine data on the Web -Humans combine these information easily -Sort catalogues on the Web environment -Making the web more meaningful
    • 27. EVOLUTION OF WEB
    • 28. How HTML5 helps to make a semantic web <dl> <dt>Name<dt> <dd>Mark Zuckerberg</dd> <dt>Position</dt> <dd><span >Developer advocate</span> for <span>Google, Inc.<span></dd> </dl> Part of a normal webpage Make it more meaning full… <dl> <dt>Name<dt> <dd itempprop=“name”>Mark Zuckerberg</dd> <dt>Position</dt> <dd><span itempprop=“title”>CEO</span> for <span itempprop=“company”>facebook</dd> </dl>
    • 29. Towards Semantic Digital Library- Examples Library Services Semantic Web Response to information abundance Library to digital library is developed since the abundance of information increased Semantic Web was initiated as a means to more effectively manage and take advantage of the increased amount of digital data Missions grounded in service, information access, and knowledge discovery Objectives, goals serve the purpose to facilitate information; Semantic Web strives to allow data to be shared and reused across applications, enterprises, and community boundaries. It is a collaborative effort led by W3C and partners, based on the Resource Description Framework (RDF) Part of society’s fabric Part of life, for all walks, in all types, physically and virtually Current Web is any indication of Semantic Web‟s reach, which seems quite logical, the Semantic Web will surely impact millions of people‟s lives daily.
    • 30. Examples Library Services Semantic Web Advancement via international and national standards Libraries consolidated development of cataloging codes; formalized classificatory and verbal systems; and encoding/communication standards (International Bibliographic Description (ISBD) and Machine Readable Cataloging (MARC), many metadata schemes, Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (1998), and Resource Description and Access (RDA) The Semantic Web has followed a similar path as evidenced by a collection of information standards: eXtensible Markup Language (XML), RDF, OWL, Friend Of A Friend (FOAF), and Simple Knowledge Organizations System (SKOS). Collaborative spirit American Library Association, Association of Library Collections and Technical Services, Cataloging and Classification Section (ALA/ALCTS/CCS), committees review cataloging polices and standards, and interact with international organizations (e.g.., IFLA and the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative). All of the enabling technologies/standards listed above (RDF, OWL, FOAF, and SKOS) have been developed through working groups and public calls for comment.. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), the home of the Semantic Web, involves academic, research, and industry members
    • 31. Semantic Web Development Traditional Services Semantic Web Services Collection development Semantic Web selection Cataloging „Semantic metadata‟ representation Reference Semantic Web reference service Classification Knowledge representation
    • 32. Semantic techniques and technologies Manash Kumar
    • 33. Two characteristics for the construction of the semantic web- Downward compatibility Agents fully aware of a layer should also be able to interpret and use information written at lower levels. For example, agents aware of the semantics of OWL can take full advantage of information written in RDF and RDF Schema. Upward partial understanding On the other hand, agents fully aware of a layer should take at least partial advantage of information at higher levels. For example, an agent aware only of the RDF and RDF Schema semantics can interpret knowledge written in OWL partly, by disregarding those elements that go beyond RDF and RDF Schema. Semantic web architecture
    • 34. Semantic Web Stack Semantic Web Stack Illustrates the architecture of the semantic web Show hierarchy of languages used to create semantic web Shows how the technologies are organised to make semantic web possible
    • 35. Semantic Web Stack
    • 36. UNICODE Unicode provides a unique number for every character no matter what the platform. no matter what the program. no matter what the language.
    • 37. URI Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is an Internet Standard. It's a string of characters used to identify a name or a resource on the Internet. Such identification enables interaction with representations of the resource over a network (typically the World Wide Web) using specific protocols. Schemes specifying a concrete syntax and associated protocols define each URI. It has several component parts: A scheme name (http) A domain name (www.xxx.com) A path (/sa/edu/yuc/index.html) An URI identifies a resource either by location, or a name, or both. A URI has two specializations known as URL, URN .
    • 38. XML: Extensible Markup Language It is a general purpose markup Language for creating specific purpose mark-up languages Follows the SGML-standards (Standard Generlised Markup Language)  With XML the single users can create their own tags (which is not possible with HTML)
    • 39. RDF: Resource Description Framework RDF is a general-purpose language for representing information in the web Useful to represent metadata about Web resources RDF describes resources (Both abstract or concrete subjects) identifiable via an URI The syntax of RDF is based on XML RDF-documents are written as XML-documents with the tag rdf:RDF
    • 40. RDF Statements A RDF-statement is described by a triple (S, P, O) S= Subject of the statement (It‟s a URIref) P= Property (Predicate) of the statement (URIref) O= Object
    • 41. Graphical Representation of a RDF statement (subject, predicate, object) 3/21/2014 48 https://www.facebook. com/SudhirShivaramP hotography Sudhir Shivaram creator Resource Property Type Property Value
    • 42. RDF-Schema RDF schema provides a way of building a object model from which the actual data is referenced and which tells us what things really mean. RDFS allows users to define resources with classes, properties and values This allows resources to be defined as instances of classes, and subclasses of classes.
    • 43. Semantic techniques and technologies (contd) Mohit Garg
    • 44. SEMANTIC WEB ARCHITECTURE
    • 45. Ontology? ● Study of existence in philosophy. ● Ontology is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations. ● A data model that represents knowledge as a set of concepts within a domain and the relationship between these concepts. ● It is concerned with the fundamental questions of “what is being?” and “what kinds of things are there?”
    • 46. Example ● Ontology for a people of DRTC PEOPLE FACULTY RES. SCH. MASTER STU. Prof A.Prof JRF SRF 1st Year 2nd Year
    • 47. Ontology Vocabulary ● Vocabulary ==> context-less list of terms, with no defined interrelationships. ● Ontology Vocabulary used to describe (a particular view of) some domain. -how concepts should be classified. ● Examples:- 1.Man 2.Vegetarian 3. Non-veg
    • 48. SPARQL ● Simple Protocol and RDF Query Language ● SPARQL is SQL-like language, but uses RDF triples and resources for both matching part of the query and for returning results of the query. ● Since both RDFS and OWL are built on RDF, SPARQL can be used for querying ontologies and knowledge bases directly as well. Note that SPARQL is not only query language, it is also a protocol for accessing RDF data.
    • 49. The Proof/Rule layer ● rule: informal notion ● rules are used to perform inference over ontologies ● rules as a tool for capturing further knowledge (not expressible in OWL ontologies)
    • 50. Rule Layer ● Natural form of expressing knowledge in some domain of interest are rules that reflect the notion of consequence. ● Rules come in the form of IF-THEN constructs and allow to express various kinds of complex statements. ● The IF part is also called the body of a rule, while the THEN part is also called its head.
    • 51. Logic layer ● rules, have been formalised using logic to give them a precise semantics. ● Without such a precise formalisation they are vague and ambiguous, and thus problematic for computational purposes. ● The most prominent and fundamental logical formalism classically used for knowledge representation is the “first-order predicate calculus”, or first-order logic.
    • 52. Cryptography layer ● Cryptography (Greek word: Kryptos, which means hidden secrets) ● It is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties. ● For reliable inputs, cryptography means are to be used, such as digital signatures for verification of the origin of the sources.
    • 53. The Trust layer ● SW top layer: support for provenance/trust ● Provenance: where does the information come from? ● how this information has been obtained? ● can I trust this information?
    • 54. Jerome DL
    • 55. Motivation and Overview Tanmay Mondal
    • 56. Existing Semantic Digital Library Systems BRICKS Fedora SIMILE JeromeDL
    • 57. BRICKSBRICKS ● Building Resources for Integrated Cultural Knowledge Services (BRICKS) is an open-source ● software framework for the managementof distributed digital assets.
    • 58. The Fedora repository system is an open source, digital object repository system using public APIs exposed as web services. Fedora
    • 59. SIMILE = Semantic Interoperability of Metadata In unLike Environments motivated by DSpace, repository for storing, indexing, preserving, and redistributing digital assets, jointly developed by Hewlett-Packard Research Labs and the MIT Libraries. SIMILE
    • 60.  Joint effort of DERI, National University of Ireland, Galway and Gdansk University of Technology (GUT).  Distributed under BSD Open Source license.  Digital library build on semantic web technologies to answer requirements from: librarians, scientists and communities. JeromeDL
    • 61. † JeromeDL has been installed in a number of locations ; the two most user are- DERI Galway library WBSS at Gdansk University of Technology ‡ serve their community of users in everyday activities. USERS
    • 62. Services in JeromeDL JeromeDL allows librarians to maintain and use the following controlled vocabularies: authority files - with a list of authors, editors and publishers; Classification taxonomies- such as DMoz or DDC, for annotating resources with topics; WordNet dictionary, for specifying keywords
    • 63. Structure Ontology  Modern digital library systems not only store bibliographic metadata.  They also manage an electronic representation of the content itself.  The structure of the content might, however, depend on the type of the resource.
    • 64. The key feature of every digital library system is- making bibliographic resources accessible which involves- • domain (topic) categorization of a resource from the WordNet dictionary. Support for Legacy Information
    • 65. Resource management Each resource is described by the semantic descriptions according to the JeromeDL core ontology. Additionally a fulltext index of the resource‟s content and MARC21, and BibTEX bibliographic descriptions are provided
    • 66. Retrieval features JeromeDL provides searching and browsing features based on Semantic Web data
    • 67. MultiBeeBrowse allows to browse unstructured metadata represented as an RDF graph. It consist of access to resource, search services, filter service, similar service, related service, combination service ( conjunction, sum, difference,binding, on two given sets of results). MultiBeeBrowse (MBB)
    • 68. Communication link The content of the JeromeDL database can be searched not only through the web pages of the digital library But also from the other digital libraries another web applications
    • 69. Social bookmarking Users can allow others to see their bookmarks and annotations and share their knowledge within a social network. JeromeDL can also treat a single library resource as a blog post. Users can comment the content of the resource and reply to others‟ comments and this way create new knowledge.
    • 70. Delicious is the leading bookmarking service to save, organize, and discover interesting links on the web.
    • 71. Bottom layer provides a service for a flexible and extendable electronic representation of objects; The middle layer offers information retrieval and identity management services. Top layer in the semantic digital library stack utilizes benefits from engaging community of users into annotating and filtering resources Architecture
    • 72. Architecture (Bottom & Middle layer) Dibakar Sen
    • 73. Bottom layer ● The bottom layer handle the physical representation of resources, their structure and provenance. ● It provides a flexible and extendable electronic representation of objects with its structure ontology.
    • 74. Structure ontology in JeromeDL
    • 75. Bottom layer (contd.) ● For knowledge organisation Jerome DL provides - authority files, with a list of authors, editors and publishers; - classification taxonomies, such as DMoz or DDC, for annotating resources with topics; - WordNet thesaurus, for specifying keywords (domain categorisation).
    • 76. AUTHORITY FILE
    • 77. CLASSIFIFCATION TAXONOMY
    • 78. THESAURUS
    • 79. MIDDLE LAYER • Lifts up legacy bibliogrphic description to semantic level; • A mediation standard like MarcOnt Ontology is used to dissolve the problem of heterogeneity of different standard (MARC 21, BibTex, Dublin Core).
    • 80. Example of BibTex format @article{ahu61, author={Arrow, Kenneth J. and Leonid Hurwicz and Hirofumi Uzawa}, title={Constraint qualifications in maximization problems}, journal={Naval Research Logistics Quarterly}, volume={8}, year = 1961, pages = {175-191} }
    • 81. Legacy format 00688nam 22001817a 450000100090000000300040000900500170001302000240003 010000520005424500860010625000120019226000520020465 000450025694200180030199900170031995200880033695200 8200424#92005291#XYZ#20140307062926.0# #a0152038655 #c$15.95#1 #aSandburg, Carl,#d1878- 1967.#0(San Esteban)54449#1 #aArithmetic /#cCarl Sandburg ; illustrated as an anamorphic adventure by Ted Rand.# #a2nd ed.# #aSan Diego :#bHarcourt Brace Jovanovich,#cc1993.# 0#aArithmetic#xJuvenile poetry.#0(XYZ)86352# #2ddc#cAUDIO#n0# #c31980#d31998# #w2014-03-07#yAUDIO#r2014-03- 07#40#00#936532#bWCCC#10#d2014-03- 07#70#2lcc#g0.00#aWCCC# #w2014-03- 07#70#yAUDIO#r2014-03- 07#40#2lcc#00#936533#bWCCC#10#d2014-03-07#aWCCC##
    • 82. XML Format <collection> <record> <controlfield tag="001"> 92005291 </controlfield> <controlfield tag="003">DLC</controlfield> <datafield tag="020" ind1=" " ind2=" "> <subfield code="a">0152038655 :</subfield> <subfield code="c">$15.95</subfield> <datafield tag="100" ind1="1" ind2=" "> <subfield code="a">Sandburg, Carl,</subfield> <subfield code="d">1878-1967.</subfield> </datafield> <datafield tag="245" ind1="1" ind2="0"> <subfield code="a">Arithmetic /</subfield> <subfield code="c">Carl Sandburg ; illustrated as an anamorphic adventure by Ted Rand.</subfield> </datafield> <datafield tag="250" ind1=" " ind2=" "> <subfield code="a">2nd ed.</subfield> </datafield> <datafield tag="260" ind1=" " ind2=" "> <subfield code="a">San Diego :</subfield> <subfield code="b">Harcourt Brace Jovanovich,</subfield> <subfield code="c">c1993.</subfield> </datafield> <datafield tag="650" ind1=" " ind2="0"> <subfield code="a">Arithmetic</subfield> <subfield code="x">Juvenile poetry.</subfield> </datafield>
    • 83. Bibliographic (MarcOnt) Ontology in JeromeDL
    • 84. Middle layer (contd.) ● JeromeDL delivers RDF query service to be able to act as a mash-up sevice. ● Protocols like Z39.50, OAI-PMH are used for the communication purpose. ● Natural language querry “show me ... written by ...” Regular Expression ● Tagstree map
    • 85. EXAMPLE OF REGULAR EXPRESSION
    • 86. TAGSTREE MAP
    • 87. Top Layer (Social Services & Semantics in Use) Shiv Shakti Ghosh
    • 88. Social Services in JeromeDL • Involve users into sharing knowledge – Blogs – comments and discussions about documents and resources – Tagging – collaborative classification – Wikis – collaboratively edited additional descriptions, such as summaries and interesting facts.
    • 89. FOAF - Describing Social Networks • FOAF - Stands for Friend-of-a-Friend • Defines properties for a person (but it does not have to be a person, can be an “agent”) • FOAFRealm
    • 90. Evaluation of friendship between Person A & Person B
    • 91. Identity management with FOAFRealm Distance between owner and requester Friendship level between owner and requester, calculated across digraph of social network • Support for single registration and sign on • Distributed identity management with HyperCuP (“D-FOAF”) • FOAFRealm is currently implemented as a plugin for Tomcat (Realm/Valve implementation), with PHP and .NET versions coming soon
    • 92. Social Networks in Digital Libraries Resourc e xfoaf:Annotation user_Ccreator_B foaf:knows marcont:hasCreator creator_A foaf:knows foaf:knows xfoaf:Director y user_D xfoaf:owns xfoaf:linksTo xfoaf:isIn
    • 93. JeromeDL – Delivering Semantic Content • Providing semantic annotations during uploading process: – open module for handling any taxonomies – keywords based on WordNet and free tagging. – defining structure of resources in the JeromeDL ontology • Social Semantic Collaborative Filtering: • . Catalogs can include (transclusion) friend's catalogues • Access to catalogues can be restricted with social networking- based polices • SSCF delivers: – Community-oriented, semantically-rich taxonomies – Information about a user's interest – Flows of expertise from the domain expert – Recommendations based on users previous actions
    • 94. JeromeDL – Semantic Information In Use • Searching: – Keyword-based search with semantic query expansion – Semantic search: • Direct RDF quering • Natural language templates • Browsing – Exibit • Sharing: – Social Semantic Collaborative Filtering – Semantically Interlinked Online Communities • Heterogeneous communication
    • 95. Information Retrieval in JeromeDL Fulltext Index Structure Repository MarcOnt Repository Resources’ Content FOAFRealm Repository (typed) keywords RDF & NL Query OpenSearch RSS collaborative filtering local interface distributed interface types translation semantic query expansion RDF Repositories Secure Snapshot
    • 96. Networks of Digital Libraries • ELP (Extensible Library Protocol) implementation – communication within JeromeDL network – adapters for communication with other networks • D-FOAF integration (distributed user profile management) – single sign on and single registration within D-FOAF network • HyperCuP integration (scalable P2P network) 0 0 11 0 0 11 0 2 2 22
    • 97. Semantic techniques in practice Sandip Das
    • 98. •Digital libraries identifier. •DOIs are a specific type of URI and similar to the (ISBN) • DOIs can be used to retrieve metadata Source : http://www.tomw.net.au/2003/domains.html URI
    • 99. UNICODE  The Unicode Standard was designed to be : Universal Efficient Uniform Unambiguous  The present version is Unicode 3.0 covers 49,194 characters of all the scripts in the world and many other symbols  Problems with Unicode : Operating systems Source : http://michaelseiler.net/2013/08/05/unicode-characters-in- html/
    • 100. XML • visualize the information on the web • it doesn't provide described information • we can use our own tags • To define a resource “book” titled “Prolegomena to Library Classification” authored by “S. R. Ranganathan”, can be represented in a XML document as <book> <title> Prolegomena to Library Classification</title> <author>S. R. Ranganathan</author> </book> Source : https://www.google.co.in/search?q=RDF+Storage+:+Jena&rlz=1C2SNJF_enIN574IN574&source=lnms&tbm=isch &sa=X&ei=2nwcU-
    • 101. RDF • To represent the knowledge in a web page • To provide better search engine capabilities • In cataloging for describing the content • For describing IPR • For expressing the privacy preferences
    • 102. RDF schema • Describe RDF • Provides a data-modelling vocabulary for RDF data • Describing groups of related resources.
    • 103. RDF Storage : Sesame • For querying and analyzing RDF data • Features : Highly scalable RDF storage High query performance Support for several RDF query languages
    • 104. RDF Storage : Jena • Jena provides persistent storage of RDF. • The Jena layout enables faster insertion and retrieval for fine-grained API. • Reduce storage
    • 105. Web Ontology Language (OWL) • Designed to meet the needs of WWW • It‟s syntax is nearly identical to RDF‟s. • Three variations of OWL OWL Lite OWL DL OWL Full • An ontology written in OWL DL could be extensively used in Digital Libraries. Source : http://www.mycutegraphics.com/graphics/owl/polka-dot-owl- books.html
    • 106. Tools for Building ontology • The are many Ontology tools are available in the present times such as Protégé, OntoEdit, Ontolingua, OilEd, pOWL etc. Source : http://www.riversmead.org.uk/your-home/shared-owners/repairs- and-maintenance/
    • 107. Ontology editors : Protégé • Protégé is a free open-source ontology editor. • Created by Stanford Center for Biomedical Informatics Research. • Support creation, visualization • Export Ontology into different languages. Source : http://protege.stanford.edu/download/protege/4.1/installanywhere/Web_Installers/
    • 108. Semantic techniques in practice Jayanta Kr Nayek
    • 109. Semantic Web Technologies OWL OWL DL RDF RDFs RDFa SKOS SPARQL Control Vocabularies
    • 110. Application area of SW Technology Semantic Annotation Content Management Customization Data Integration Domain modeling Improved search Portal
    • 111. Benefits of SW technology open modeinteroperability data integration share and re- use data Multilinguality service reuse rapid response to change
    • 112. LIST OF CASE STUDIES • Online resource for information on aquatic sciences/Spain July 2009. • Enriching and sharing cultural heritage data in Europeana, June 2012. • Use of SWT in Natural language interface to Business Applications, April2007. • Publishing STW thesaurus for Economics as linked open data, Germany June 2009.
    • 113. Case Study Publishing STW Thesaurus for Economics as Linked Open Data in German National Library of Economics (ZBW), Germany. by Timo Borst and Joachim Neubert June 2009
    • 114. Facets •Activity area: • library, public institution and publishing •Application area of SW technologies: • semantic annotation, improved search, content management, domain modeling, and data integration •SW technologies used: • RDF, SPARQL, RDFa, and SKOS •SW technology benefits: • open mode, rapid response to change, service reuse, and share and re-use data
    • 115. Features of ZBW • Provides a high-level taxonomy of subject categories. • Thousands of keywords (“descriptors”) and tens of thousands of both synonyms and links between the thesaurus concepts. • The media items are indexed with descriptors from this thesaurus. They can be retrieved by these descriptors through the library catalog ECONIS.
    • 116. Challenges • First, to improve web-based presentation of STW. • Second, to foster precision of search results by actively suggesting preferred terms from STW. • Third, to support the integration of STW into other indexing or retrieval environments. • Fourth, to induce third-party reuse of the STW data, e.g. for customizing the vocabulary. • Finally, to establish anchor points for linking to other vocabularies and datasets.
    • 117. Solutions • The “SKOS - Simple Knowledge Organization System” however, built within the Semantic Web community by vocabulary experts and targeting thesauri, classifications, folksonomies. • Since SKOS is inherently multi-lingual, preferred and alternate labels (synonyms) in English could be attached to concepts as easily as their German equivalents. “Related”, “narrower” and “broader” relations. • Mapped nicely to the according SKOS properties such as publisher, version and licensing information were added seamlessly through the use of other RDF vocabularies (e.g., Dublin Core).
    • 118. Solutions (contd…) • From the RDF file, they generated an XHTML page for each concept in the thesaurus and embedded all of the data into this page using RDFa. • They assigned a persistent, language- and version-independent URI to each page. • Thus, the set of pages forms a highly interlinked network of semantic relations, usable for both humans and machines. • Web server content negotiation is used to deliver the format • (RDF/XML or XHTML, English or German) most appropriate to the request.
    • 119. Conclusion Samhati Soor
    • 120. LIMITATIONS OF SDL  VASTNESS  VAGUENESS  UNCERTAINTY  INCONSISTENCY
    • 121. PROBLEMS DUE TO LIMITATION  Digital libraries should not be for librarians only, but for average people  Concentration on delivering content/information, not on knowledge sharing within a community of users  Digital libraries have lost human-part of their predecessors
    • 122. SOLUTION  Making users/readers involved in the content annotation process  Allowing users/readers to share their knowledge within a community  Providing better communication between users in and across communities  Achieved through SSDL (SOCIAL SEMANTIC DIGITAL LIBRARY)
    • 123. SSDL  The social semantic digital library is an attempt to restore the collaborative approach to sharing knowledge.  The semantic services help # to enhance search and browsing features # to interconnect different systems and exchange data  The social services help # to gather relevant information from expertise of others # to improve high rank knowledge sharing in a digital library
    • 124. HEADING TOWARDS SSDL LIBRARY DIGITAL LIBRARY SEMANTIC DIGITAL LIBRARY SOCIAL SEMANTIC DIGITAL LIBRARY ORGANISED COLLECTION ONLINE, EASY SEARCHING WITH A FULL-TEXT SEARCH ACCESSIBLE THROUGH SEMANTIC WEB INVOLVED THE COMMUNITY INTO SHARING KNOWLEDGE
    • 125. HELPFULNESS  The social semantic digital library will help digital library to build heterogeneous networks of Semantic Web.  It may deliver more robust, user-friendly, adaptable search and browsing interfaces empowered by semantics.
    • 126. RESOUCES AND METADATA COMMUNITY DRIVEN ONTOLOGIES ONTOLOGIZED METADATA SSDL SDL DL RESOURCE 1 RESORUCE 2 RESOURCE n
    • 127. COMMUNITY ONTOLOGY
    • 128. Social Semantic Digital Library Services in e-Learning  Introducing Personal Learning Environments (PLEs)  Addressing some of the open research challenges in Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL)  Enabling effective and reliable mechanisms for managing various types of knowledge relevant for providing personalized learning experiences in online learning environments  Ability to preserve the semantics of this knowledge while sharing  Interaction with during the learning process
    • 129. Social Semantic Digital Library Services in e-Learning
    • 130. QUESTIONS ARISE…  Do the social and semantic services increase the quality of the answers provided by the users in response to given problems?  Do the social and semantic services increase the accuracy of the references provided by the users to answer given questions?  Do the social and semantic services increase overall satisfaction of using the digital library?  Which services, i.e., semantic, social, or recommendations,are found to be most useful by the end users?
    • 131. FUTURE WORK  Future research on semantic features should concentrate more on improving accuracy of automated recommendations services and usability of existing solutions.  Our future work in the domain of semantic digital libraries, and JeromeDL in particular, will focus on adapting research on the semantic web, web 2.0 and adaptive hypermedia to our system;we work on delivering wiki-like and faceted navigation features for JeromeDL.
    • 132. PERORATION...  Semantic Web digital library would contain features like semantic blogs semantic wikis semantic search social semantic digital libraries semantic social networks semantic social information spaces etc.  These will have open access - open information - open source (OPEN MANTRA)
    • 133. PERORATION... There are some other factors constraint the librarian to initiate and adopt the Social Semantic Web like: Communication barriers Absence of metadata representations Absence of user-friendly applications Limited available literature But, librarians need to participate in ontologies and social semantic-based conferences to explore the technology more and also to give wider coverage to their skills and talent.
    • 134. REFERENCES Finding the Concept, Not just the Word: A librarian’s guide to ontologies and semantics. By- Brandy E. king and kathy Reinold http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pcbi.1 000204 http://drtc.isibang.ac.in/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1849/72/I_unicode.pdf?se quence=2 http://books.google.co.in http://www.ieee-tcdl.org/Bulletin/v6n1/Yang/yang.html http://drtc.isibang.ac.in/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1849/26/D_Semanticweb_s neha.pdf?sequence=2 http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.105.9150&rep=rep1 &type=pdf http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/nkos/nkos2006/presentations/kruk.pdf
    • 135.  http://publications.drdo.gov.in/ojs/index.php/djlit/article/view/1101  http://www.contexta.cl/mediawiki/images/7/72/The_anatomy_of_a_Social_Se mantic_Digital_Library.pdf  http://aran.library.nuigalway.ie/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10379/395/3debevcu_ 1.pdf?sequence=1  http://www.researchgate.net/publication/45458737_Semantic_Web_Technolo gies_for_Digital_Libraries_From_Libraries_to_Social_Semantic_Digital_Libra ries_(SSDL)_Over_Semantic_Digital_Libraries_(SDL)  http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-540-85434-0_10#page-1  http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/sweo/public/UseCases  http://www.w3.org/standards/semanticweb/
    • 136. ACKNOWLEDGMENT