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  • Class XII UNIT I: Reproduction Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Modes of reproduction – Asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction; Modes­Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants. Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination­types, agencies and examples; Outbreeding devices; Pollen­Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes­apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation. Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis Spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea). Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control­Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness). UNIT II: Genetics and Evolution Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism­Incomplete dominance, Co­dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination­In humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked inheritance­Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans­Thalassemia; Chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes. Molecular basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation­Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA finger printing. Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution from Paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution­Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow
  • and genetic drift; Hardy­Weinberg’s principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution. UNIT III: Biology and Human Welfare Health and Disease; Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis. Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of immunology­vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse. Improvement in food production; Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification; Apiculture and Animal husbandry. Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers. UNIT IV: Biotechnology and Its Applications  Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).  Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms­Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues­Biopiracy and patents. UNIT V: Ecology and environment Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions­mutualism competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes­growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution. Ecosystem: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services­Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release. Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries. Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warning; Ozone depletion; Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.