UNIT I: Reproduction
Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for
continuation of species; Modes of reproduction – Asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction;
ModesBinary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in
Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female
gametophytes; Pollinationtypes, agencies and examples; Outbreeding devices; PollenPistil
interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events Development of endosperm and embryo,
Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modesapomixis, parthenocarpy,
polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.
Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis
and ovary; Gametogenesis Spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation,
embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation
(Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).
Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted
diseases (STD); Birth controlNeed and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of
Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT,
GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).
UNIT II: Genetics and Evolution
Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from MendelismIncomplete
dominance, Codominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy;
Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes
and genes; Sex determinationIn humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex
linked inheritanceHaemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humansThalassemia;
Chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.
Molecular basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material;
Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription,
genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulationLac Operon; Genome and human
genome project; DNA finger printing.
Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution from
Paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin’s
contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolutionVariation (Mutation
and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow
and genetic drift; HardyWeinberg’s principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.
UNIT III: Biology and Human Welfare
Health and Disease; Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis,
Ascariasis. Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of
immunologyvaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.
Improvement in food production; Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification;
Apiculture and Animal husbandry.
Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage
treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.
UNIT IV: Biotechnology and Its Applications Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic
engineering (Recombinant DNA technology). Application of Biotechnology in health and
agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified
organismsBt crops; Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issuesBiopiracy and patents.
UNIT V: Ecology and environment
Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations;
Population interactionsmutualism competition, predation, parasitism; Population
attributesgrowth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
Ecosystem: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of
number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession;
Ecological ServicesCarbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.
Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of
Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms,
extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries.
Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals
and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect
and global warning; Ozone depletion; Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories
addressing environmental issues.