Theories of Motivation (Maslow, Alderfer, Adam, Herzberg, Vroom)
Case Incident 1
Prakash is an engineer in a large design engineer office. He hails from a poor but disciplined family. The family has a rural background. For prakash, it was “earn while you learn” althrough till he graduated in architecture.
Prakash is intelligent, capable and hard working. But his main fault is that he does not want to take risks. He hesitates to make decisions himself, and often brings petty and routine problems to his boss or to peers for decisions. Whenever he does a design job, brings it in rough draft to his boss for approval before finalizing it. Since prakash is a capable person his boss wants to motivate him to be more independent in his work.
The boss believes that this approach will improve prakash’s performance, relieve the boss from extra routine and give prakash more self confidence. However the boss is not sure how to go about motivating prakash to take initiative in his work.
IN THE ROLE OF THE BOSS, PLAN HOW WILL YOU MOTIVATE PRAKASH. GIVE REASONS.
What Is Motivation? Direction Persistence Intensity
Performance of an individual depends on his or her ability backed by motivation.
PERFORMANCE = f (ABILITY * MOTIVATION )
ABILITY is the skill and competence of a person to compete a given task.
MOTIVATION is the set of forces that causes people to behave in certain ways.
“ Motivation is the result of processes, internal or external to the individual, that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action ”
FRAMEWORK OF MOTIVATION 1. Identifies Needs 2. Search for ways to satisfy needs 3. Engage in goal directed behavior 4. Performs 5. Receives either rewards or punishments 6. Reassesses needs deficiencies EMPLOYEE
Importance of Motivation
A motivated employee is quality oriented.
Motivated workers are more productive.
They always look for better way of doing jobs.
EARLY THEORIES SCIENTIFIC MANGANGEMENT REINFORCEMENT PROCESS MASLOW HERZBERG ALDERFER Mc CLELLAND VROOM ADAM PORTER LAWLER CONTEMPORARY THEORIES HUMAN RELATIONS MODEL CONTENT Theories of Motivation
explain why people have different needs at different times
describe the processes through which needs are translated into behavior
Content vs. Process Motivation Theories
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self- actualization Esteem Belongingness Security Physiology Food Achievement Status Friendship Stability Job Friends Pension Base NEEDS General Examples Organizational Examples job Challenging title at work plan salary
Survival or physiological needs : Includes basic needs which are required for survival like food, drink, oxygen, sleep etc.
Security or safety needs : Includes preference for a secured income, the acquisition of insurance, a house etc.
Belonging needs : Includes affectionate relationship with others namely for a place in his family.
Self Esteem needs : Maslow has classified into self esteem and esteem from others. Self Esteem includes desire for competence, confidence, personal strength, achievement, independence. Later includes prestige, recognition, status, reputation.
Self Actualization : This is the desire to become everything that one is capable of becoming. To self actualize is to become the total kind of person that one wants to become to reach ones potential. Eg. A Beautiful Mind (John Nash)
From Organization's Point of view:
Physiological needs : Employees concern for salary and basic working conditions.
Safety needs : Job security, salary increases, safe working conditions, unionization and lobbying for protective legislation.
Belonging needs: Need for compatible work group, peer acceptance, professional friendship.
Self Actualization : Desire for excelling in ones job, successfully managing a unit.
Alderfer’s ERG Theory
How one individual relates to his/her social environment
Achievement and self actualization
Alderfer’s ERG Theory Satisfaction-Progression Frustration-Regression Growth Needs Relatedness Needs Existence Needs
Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory
Known as 2 factor theory or the motivation hygiene theory
The crux of 2 factor theory is based on this survey being done by Herzberg on 200 employees considering the factors which affect work motivation:
As per the survey, the respondents asked 2 questions (a) When did you feel particularly good about the job? (b) When did you feel exceptionally bad about the job?
Responses revealed that factors which made respondents feel good were totally different from those which made them feel bad.
Some factors lead to complete job satisfaction (as given in inner circle) called as motivators or satisfiers or job content whereas some lead to complete job dissatisfaction (outer circle) called as dissatisfiers or hygiene factors or job context factors.
Satisfaction is affected by motivators and dissatisfaction is affected by hygiene factors. This is the key idea of herzberg.
ACHIEVEMENT RECOGNITION WORK ITSELF RESPONSIBILITY GROWTH ADVANCEMENT COMPANY POLICY AND ADMINISTRATION SECURITY STATUS SALARY WORKING CONDITIONS MOTIVATORS HYGIENE FACTORS
Content Theories of Motivation- A Comparative Perspective Self- Actualization Esteem Belongingness Safety Physiological Growth Relatedness Existence Motivator--Hygiene Theory Motivators Hygienes ERG Theory Needs Hierarchy Theory
Exercise on herzberg’s theory
An interesting job
A good boss
Recognition and appreciation for the work I do
The opportunity for advancement
A satisfying personal life
A prestigious or status job
Good working condition(nice office)
Sensible company rules, regulations, policies
The opportunity to grow through learning new things