3. 1. INTRODUCTION„Where there is a beginning…there is an end!‟It is the beginning which is a big question mark in Information Technology ServiceManagement(ITSM)...at what point do you embark on ITSM projects? What will the project cover, for howlong will it go on? These are the questions usually asked...and finally how do we make sure that theproject is executed in the right manner?This paper attempts to explain the ease in implementing ITIL®(version 2) best practices when governedby project management principles. Both PMBOK® and ITIL® standardize terminology.PMBOK isapplicable to any domain though it does borrow concepts from manufacturing while ITIL® is applicable toIT domain but practically service support and delivery processes can be implemented across domains.A Project Manager grasps key concepts to put IT Service Management into practice while an ITSMimplementation gains better effectiveness and efficiency following PM processes.The PMBOK Guide defines Project Management as “application of knowledge, skills, tools andtechniques to project activities to meet project requirements.”ITIL® is a best practices framework for IT Service Management. When I say ITSM, it involves end to endmanagement of the lifecycle of IT Services starting with strategizing and then moving onto designing,transitioning, operating and finally continual improvement. ITIL only lists the processes in terms of „what‟is to be done...the „how‟ in terms of implementing the processes is entirely up to the implementer.AUDIENCEThis white paper is intended for IT Service Management (ITSM) consultants involved in defining anddeploying processes, based on IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) version 2 and other frameworks, to bringabout business-IT alignment.REFERENCES ® PMBOK Guide by The Project Management Institute (PMI) ® Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) version 2 by the UK Office of Government of Commerce Project experiences
4. 2. PMBOK® GUIDE & ITIL®The PMBOK Guide published by The Project Management Institute, Inc. (PMI) provides an overview ofgood practices for project management. These practices are documented with consensus frompractitioners across the globe and applicable to all domains. There are 9 Project Management KnowledgeAreas: Project Integration Management Project Scope Management Project Time Management Project Cost Management Project Quality Management Project Human Resource Management Project Communications Management Project Risk Management Project Procurement Management Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL®), published by the U.K Office of Government ofCommerce, is a framework of best practices for IT Service Management. There are mainly two categoriesof processes: Service Support and Service Delivery. T he Business, Customers & Users Management Tools Service Requests Difficulties Communication Queries, Enquiries Updates Incidents Incidents Workarounds Incident Service Desk Changes Service Reports Problem Releases Incident statistics Audit Reports Problem Statistics Change Trend Analysis Problem Reports Problem Reviews Change Schedule Diagnostic Aids CAB Minutes Release Audit Reports Change Statistics Change Reviews Release Schedule Audit Reports Release Statistics Configuration Release Reviews Secure Library Testing standards CMDB Reports CMDB Statistics Problems Changes Audit Reports Incidents Policy/Standards Known Errors Releases Audit Reports CMDB CIs CIs RFCs/Change Release Relationships Relationships Documentation Documentation Figure 1: Service Support processes Queries Business, Customers and Users Communications Enquiries Updates Reports Availability Service Management Level SLAs, SLRs, OLAs Management UC‟s Service Reports Service Catalogue Availability Plan Requirements SIP Desig n Criteria Targets Targets/Thresholds Capacity Achievements Reports Management Financial Management Capacity Plan for IT Services Targets/Thresholds IT Service Alerts & Reports Exceptions Financial Plan Continuity Changes Cost Models Management Charges Budgets & IT Continuity Plans Forecasts BIA & Risk Analysis Management Audit Reports DR Contacts Tools Reports Figure 2: Service Delivery processes
5. 3. ITIL® IMPLEMENTATION USING PMBOK®A typical ITSM initiative to implement ITIL® bears the following approach: Conducting Gap Assessment and identifying Improvement Opportunities Defining and Deploying New Processes Evaluating the newly defined ProcessesEvery ITSM initiative kicks off as a project in itself and requires intense Project Management to scrutinizethe project schedule and deliverables. Following are the reasons for ITSM project failures: Frequently changing scope of work Lack of clarity Too many people wanting to manage the project Difficulty in managing stakeholdersThis is when an IT Project Manager leverages the knowledge areas of PMBOK® like Project ScopeManagement and Project Time Management and integrates it with ITIL® best practices. ProjectManagement ensures that each activity in the project adheres to timelines and milestones while ITSMensures that the right processes are defined.Many organizations look to ITSM as a means to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of IToperations. So, how can IT project manager leverage ITIL® and PMBOK® together, and how might thatintegration change the nature of his or her project management practices? The ensuing section focuseson answering this question.
6. ITSM is implemented as a Continuous Service Improvement project and typically follows the phasesoutlined below:Phase 1: Conduct Gap Assessment and Identify Improvement Opportunities Activity Process Definition Team PM Process Group PM Knowledge Area Plan f or Gap Assessment Understand program objectives Initiate & Plan Scope Mgmt and goals Select project Time Mgmt Provide input on stakeholder Determine project objectives Cost Mgmt selection Determine high level Quality Mgmt Determine and f inalize project deliverables, estimate and Risk Mgmt team f inalize resource Resource Mgmt Plan and prepare f or Gap requirements Communication Mgmt Assessment Finalize Project Charter Develop the Process Def inition Finalize the WBS and Deployment Plan Finalize project Team Conduct training on ITIL,if Determine risks, required communication requirements and quality standards Finalize and approve project plan Hold kick of f meeting Gap Assessment Conduct process and project Execute Project Plan Quality Mgmt document reviews and interviews Complete Work Packages Communication Mgmt Quality Assurance Identif y gaps in current processes Manage project progress Prepare Gap Assessment Report identif ying Develop Roadmap Analyze Gaps Prioritize improvement actions Quality Mgmt Create process def inition and Communication Mgmt deployment plan Scope Mgmt Prepare ef f ort and schedule Time Mgmt estimates
7. Phase 2: Define and Implement New Processes Activity Process Definition Team PM Process Group PM Knowledge Area Process Definition Define “To Be Processes” Execute Project Plan Scope Mgmt Share best practices for Complete Work Packages Time Mgmt implementing process areas Quality Assurance Cost Mgmt Prepare and review process Manage project progress Quality Mgmt documents with inputs from Distribute information Risk Mgmt stakeholders Resource Mgmt Prepare process training material Communication Mgmt Process Deployment Plan for Pilot Train Pilot Team Execute Pilot Update process documentation Define metrics and KPIs Rollout processes throughout organization
8. Phase 3: Evaluate the newly defined processes Activity Process Definition Team PM Process Group PM Knowledge Area Process Reviews Conduct Process Compliance Controlling and Closing Scope Mgmt Reviews Integrated Change Control Time Mgmt Ensure Compliance and Project performance Cost Mgmt implement improvement actions measuring Quality Mgmt based on Review findings Performance Reporting Risk Mgmt Collect metrics periodically Quality Control Resource Mgmt Risk Monitoring and Control Communication Mgmt Schedule Control Cost Control Corrective Action Financial Closure Lessons Learnt End of project performance reporting Formal acceptance Project archives Release resources
9. 4. ITIL® VERSUS PMBOK®Each Process Definition activity fulfills project commitments when governed by Project Managementprocesses like Project Integration Management, Project Scope Management, Project Time Management,Project Cost Management, Project Quality Management, Project Human Resource Management, ProjectCommunications Management and Project Risk Management. ® ®Both PMBOK and ITIL framework is largely descriptive. ® ®:The table below depicts the coverage of processes within PMBOK and ITIL PMBOK ITIL Process Area Knowledge Area Integration Service Support and Delivery processes interrelate and feed into Configuration Management Scope Applicable to all processes Cost Financial Management of IT Services Time Applicable to all processes Human Applicable to all processes in terms of Roles and Responsibilities Resources Communications Applicable to all processes in terms of stakeholders Quality Applicable to all processes in terms of Document Quality and criteria Procurement Not covered directly ; partly covered as supplier mgmt in Service Level Management Risk Applicable to all processes ® ® Table 4: Comparing ITIL with PMBOK*PLEASE NOTE THAT MOST OF THE PMBOK KNOWLEDGE AREAS ARE NOW FULLY MAPPED TO THE PROCESSES INTHE SERVICE LIFECYCLE MODEL INTRODUCED IN ITIL V3
10. 5. CONCLUSIONThis white paper aims to contrast ITIL® framework and PMBOK® and yet present commonality betweenthe two frameworks. The conclusion to be drawn is that project management, when used in rightproportions brings a great deal of difference to ITIL® implementations and minimizes project risk.
11. 6. ACRONYMS ITIL Information Technology Infrastructure Library ITSM IT Service Management PMBOK Project Management Book of Knowledge PMI Project Management Institute