Massification ( a market driven phenomenon) The welfare of the nations is suported by educated people Massification of Higher Education The most ubiquitous global influence of the past half century. ( Philip Altbach) Higher Education at the level of the individual translate into the expectation of higher salary and social improvement
Internationalisation ( a market driven phenomenon) The welfare of the nations is suported by educated people Internationalisation of Higher Education Higher Education operates as a positional good
Increasing competitiveness of new rapidly growing economies
A European model of economic development to be based on knowledge and innovation.
Link between EHEA and ERA Graduates at all levels must have been exposed to a research environment and to research-based training in order to meet the needs of Europe as a knowledge society Ministers recognise the doctoral level as the third cycle in the Bologna Process.
1.Outside employment geared, including interdisciplinary training, development of transferable skills and operating within three to four years full-time as a rule.
2.Geographical as well as inter-sectoral mobility and international collaboration. Cooperation between universities and other partners.
3. Internationalisation strategy of the universities, attracting the best doctoral candidates from all over the world, encouraging mobility within doctoral programmes and supporting European and international joint doctoral programmes and co-tutelle arrangements.
Universities need to diversify sources of income. Research contracts, consultancy, knowledge tranfer and fund raising.
Compete , nationally and internationally for funds, with other universities and industry
Collaborate with other universities and industry.
Compete for brains. The potential of income trough research depends on attracting the good and retain the best.
The main issue of Governance If Europe is to be a leader in the global Knowledge economy- and if unversities are to produce the top-level research needed to achieve this- comprehensive reform of higher education is the order of the day. What matters for good performance is money and good governance. (Bruegel policy brief)
All over Europe there have a movement to modernize university governance and management. Making institutions more responsive. Models of governence alike the ones used in the corporate industry are becoming common. Leadership is what matters Leadership
Expansion and openness of HE. Nearly 3 million students studying abroad. Thousands of visiting scholars and posdocs across the borders. Global circulation of other professionals. Integration of HE across the world. Devellopment of cross-border projects, programmes, offshore campuses, instructional programmes and professional degrees.
Higher Education as Business Internationalisation is changing the world of higher education, and globalisation is changing the world of internationalisation. (Jane Knight)
Imbalance between educational need and educational capacity.
For the sending countries there is an externalization of the benefits and an internalisation of the costs. For the world as a whole there is an enlargement of the gap between the very rich and the very poor countries, resulting in an increased inequality
Established universities should build the capacity of universities in the develloping countries.