Airports Authority of India Industrial Training Presentation
Anubhav Mahajan Bharati Vidyapeeth’sCollege of Engineering
Airports Authority of India (AAI)• Formed under the act of parliament- AIRPORTS AUTHORITY OF INDIA ACT 1994.• Organization under the Ministry of Civil Aviation that manages all the airports in India.• Major revenue is generated from airports development, landing/parking fees and fees charged for providing Air Traffic Control services to aircraft over the Indian airspace.
Services Provided by AAI• Control and management of the Indian air space.• Installation and maintenance of various communication, navigation and surveillance aids.• Design, development, operation and maintenance of passenger terminals.• Development and management of cargo terminals.• Passenger facilities and information system.• Rescue and fire services.• Anti-Hijacking cell.
Air Traffic Control• A wing of AAI.• Provides control over air traffic.• Decides air-routes over Indian airspace.• Responsibilities also includes 1.) Area flight information. 2.) Notice to air-men (NOTAM) 3.) Communication services. 4.) Navigational services. 5.) Surveillance services.
CommunicationProcess of transferring information from one source toanother.• Ground to Ground: Communication among stations on the ground.• Ground to Air: Between pilot and the air traffic controller.• Air to Air: Between the pilots of two aircrafts in the air.
Communication• HF or VHF is used for communication between controller and pilot.• Aeronautical Fixed Telecommunication Network(AFTN) is used for communication among ground stations.• AFTN uses basic copper wire as communication media.
Navigation and NAV-AIDSIt is a process of reading and controlling themovement of an aircraft from one place to another.• NDB: Transmits guiding signals towards a particular aircraft at a particular frequency.• DVOR: Directional VHF omni-range measures the angular orientation of the aircraft with respect to the magnetic north.• DME: Gives the slant distance of the aircraft from the equipment.
Navigation and NAV-AIDS• CDI: Guiding signals received by avionics of the aircraft are indicated to pilot through Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) needles.• ILS: Instrument Landing System which helps the aircraft to land safely and includes. • Localizer: provides runway centerline guidance to aircraft. • Glide Path: Provides Gliding angle to the aircraft. • Markers: Provides runway threshold to the aircraft.• Air Traffic Control: Air traffic controllers in direct contact with the pilots and guide them to move forward.
Surveillance• Monitoring from a distance, by means of equipment installed at each airport, the movement of all the aircrafts within its region of operation.• Primary and secondary radars are used to aid surveillance in civil as well as military aviation.• Surface Movement Radar is used to monitor the movement of the aircraft on runways or taxiways.
Flight Information Region (FIR)• Vast Indian airspace is divided into five FIRs viz Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai and Guwahati.• An FIR is airspace with some dimensional bounds.• Each FIR has a separate ATC that provides ATC Services for that area only.• Each FIR has a separate controller for: • Area (approx. 250NM) • Approach (approx. 50NM) • Tower (approx. 10NM)
VHF• The VHF (very high frequency) range of Radio Spectrum is the band which extends from 30 MHz to 300 Mhz.• Band used for communication at the airport is 118- 136 MHz.• Ideal for short distance terrestrial communication practically at LOS.• Less affected by atmospheric noise and interference from electrical equipment.• Easily blocked by land features than HF.
HF• The HF (high frequency) range of Radio Spectrum is the band which extends from 3 MHz to 30 Mhz.• Ionosphere wave propagation.• At oceanic regions no LOS communication is possible, hence HF is used.• Noise immunity is very low.
Radars at ATCPrimary Radar:• No role of target.• Detection range upto 60NM.• Frequency range is between 2 to 4 GHz.• Operates at 15RPM.• Consumes more power.Secondary Radar:• Target has to participate in the detection process.• Target uses a transponder to reflect signal back.• Detection range is upto 220 NM.• Frequency range is between 1 to 2 GHz.
Radars at ATC• Operates at 5RPM.• Consumes less power.Surface Movement Radar:• Detection range upto 5 NM.• Frequency range is between 8 to 12 GHz.• Operates at 60RPM.• Provides very fast updates due to short range as well as highest quality images are obtained.
Radars at ATCServices:• Runway and Taxiway surveillance.• Airport airspace surveillance.• Precision approach control.• Air route and air movement surveillance.
Automatic Message SwitchingSystem (AMSS) Accurate and speedy exchange of aeronautical information, such as Air Traffic Service (ATS) messages consisting of Flight Plan, Departure and Estimates messages etc. between stations to enable them to control the air space and movement of Air traffic in an orderly mannerNetwork Topology: All networking within AAI is established mainly using three topologies which are1.)Mesh : Fully connected2.)Bus : Main cable3.)Star : Employes a hub
Categories of Networks• Local Area Network (LAN) • to allow resources to be shared between personal computers or workstations within same station • to connect various servers of that station with workstations• Wide Area Network (WAN) • long-distance communication among stations • utilize public, leased, or private communication lines (AFTN), usually in combinations • Connects centralized servers of AAI to computers in a station
AMSS• Three desired characteristics: • Correct delivery: Data must reach only the intended recipient • Accurate delivery: Data sent must be received in the same form • Timely delivery: Data must travel from the sender to the receiver in a finite amount of time.
Conclusion• Very enriching experience• Practical application of theoretical concepts in form of various equipments and processes• Cooperative and encouraging staff makes it a true learning experience