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LinuxIdentity magazine - Ubuntu 10.10 Maverick Meerkat



The November 2010 issue of LinuxIdentity Magazine

The November 2010 issue of LinuxIdentity Magazine



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LinuxIdentity magazine - Ubuntu 10.10 Maverick Meerkat LinuxIdentity magazine - Ubuntu 10.10 Maverick Meerkat Document Transcript

  • EditorialWhy Ubuntuwhen I have many other options? C omputing era in the 19th Still all these points may seem only as a pleading century was dominated to you all. So why exactly should you pick only Ubuntu just by 3 Operating Sys- among 1000’s of other attractive and fancy Linux distri- tems: Windows, Mac OS X and butions? I am trimming down a list of reasons for exactly Linux. I am not being biased this purpose. Read them in any order you want and by here by not including other Op- the time you finish the list, you would know why: erating Systems which made significant changes to Personal J Ubuntu ships free promotional CDs/DVDs (totally Anurag Computing, which is what we free of cost but may depend on availability and Upadhaya now experience on our desk- purpose) and who doesn’t love freebies? tops, laptops, netbooks and tab- J Ubuntu has the largest active developer and sup-lets. OSes like DOS, Unix and others had their fair share port community among all the Linux distributions.and without them we would probably not be using our For an average user it means that many bugs areLinux, Windows and Mac OS X as we do now. detected and patched, even before you come to The success of Linux OS is all because of its Open know that they existed on your system. LTS (LongSource nature. One major factor resulting from its Open Term Support) versions of Ubuntu are released ev-nature is fragmentation, resulting in more number of Li- ery 2 years and are supported for a longer time.nux distributions (distro) in the world today that you can J Stuck in a doubt about something in your Linuxeven think of. When fragmentation of Linux distributions distribution? Having problem with hardware driv-started many majors pitched in with their own special ers? Want to install a software application that iscrafted Linux distros, noticeable being Novell, Red Hat not available in the official repository of your Linuxand others. Most of these distros were released free but distribution? You want to go fancy and do every-were targeted towards enterprise computing and hence thing the geeky way right from your terminal, buttheir development and support were also targeted to- couldn’t exactly remember that command towards them only. achieve the task? For these and similar many oth- Canonical, the company behind Ubuntu decided and er problems the official Ubuntu Forum comes topitched in an area where no one really dared to tread rescue. It is the best supporting group of usersupon. Red Hat also tried to throw in a great distribution who help you out very fast with any doubt aboutas Fedora and active community support also backed it, anything related to Ubuntu.but most of activity of Fedora community for bug track- J No one is born geek and I do know the pain of be-ing and patching only benefit the next iteration of Red ing the first time “Moving from Windows to Linux”Hat Linux for enterprises. As the tagline reads, Ubuntu is user. I am not saying that using Windows makesreally the “Linux for Human beings”. Probably 5-7 years you dumb, but I would surely say that the usersbefore, normal PC users were not much familiar with who start their personal computing with WindowsLinux and the large number of choices they have with go only Windows’ way. They face a hard time get-Linux distributions. Ubuntu Linux made them aware that ting used to do many things that could be easilyLinux can in fact be a very useful, easy, attractive and done right from the Linux terminal. I myself usepromising option for their computing needs. If you say GUI and especially Gnome a lot as my primarythat Microsoft has done justice to personal computing desktop but getting used to some 10-20 terminalwith Windows and Apple has done justice to design of commands really makes most the tasks in yourconsumer electronics, then you would have to agree daily computing a lot easier. And Gnome version ofthat Ubuntu Linux has done the same needed justice to Ubuntu provides the right blend of GUI and termi-the Linux community. nal computing. Mark Shuttleworth, Canonical and Ubuntu brought J New Ubuntu versions come very frequent, packedthe real openness in world of Linux distributions. Ubun- with all the updated applications and integratingtu today has pitched in the gap which fragmentation of all the requested features. Most noticeable prog-Linux distributions had created. If you want to go by the ress that I have seen right from the time I am track-stats, Ubuntu runs on the largest chunk of Linux boxes ing new Ubuntu versions is that it is trying to movein the world. towards the way where most of the mainstream4 Linux Identity Office
  • Introduction personal computing is interested, ap- pealing and streamlined UI with all the fancy effects. Many people argue that Ubuntu and similar distributions are Summary copying Mac OS X in visual UI. That is not entirely true. Mac has really inspired such effects but Ubuntu is trying to bring Difference between Ubuntu, it’s own flavors of such effects and UIs Kubuntu, Xubuntu, Mythbuntu and if supported on a decent hardware and Ubuntu Netbook Edition . . . . . . . 6 configuration it surely looks amazing. Anurag Upadhaya Ever saw jelly like bouncing Windows? :) J Ubuntu has been branched and crafted Installing Ubuntu 10 .10 . . . . . . . . . . 9 for nearly every specific type of work that Anurag Upadhaya you intend to do with it or on every type of device that you want it to run on. If you What to do after you install Ubuntu? . . 13 are into post production of films, anima- Radu Cotescu tion and music you have Ubuntu Studio. If netbooks have caught your fancy of Installing Multimedia Codecs late, you can install Ubuntu Netbook Edi- and Video Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 tion. For students and educational pur- Bhaskar Kandiyal poses you have Edubuntu. In fact there are so many different lightweight distros Personalizing the Desktop . . . . . . . . 20 that are branched from Ubuntu and uses Bhaskar Kandiyal its repositories for software applications like Xubuntu, Crunchbang, Mint and so How to backup your files . . . . . . . . . 22 on, that you are sure to find one Ubuntu version specially crafted for your needs. Tiago Boldt Sousa Also Ubuntu comes with option of using every popular desktop environment like Online file storage − Gnome, KDE, Xfce Fluxbox and others Dropbox vs . Ubuntu One . . . . . . . . . 26 which makes you feel at home. Radu Cotescu J Ubuntu has brought a whole new way of commercialization and marketing for Li- Reading Windows files . . . . . . . . . . 31 nux distributions. No longer is Linux OS Tiago Boldt Sousa meant for geeks and remains just a plat- form for study and demonstration in Shotwell, the new photo manager schools. Enterprises are swiftly shifting to in Ubuntu 10 .10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Ubuntu and similar distributions for real- Guy Van Sanden time and resource hungry computations. Major desktop and laptop manufacturers, Security Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 like DELL, are providing pre-installed Bhaskar Kandiyal Ubuntu Linux as the Operating System with their computers. Most of companies Terminal Command Guide – and servers are shifting to Ubuntu Linux Network Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 because of the active support they get Bhaskar Kandiyal from the Ubuntu community without even paying a single penny for it, that is the FAQ’s And Where To Get Help . . . . . . 41 way Red Hat does its business. Bhaskar KandiyalI can go on and on about several such rea-sons that have compelled me and other usersto opt for Ubuntu as the main (not alternative)OS on their computers. In this issue we areproviding an in-depth review of the newest it-eration of the Ubuntu OS i.e. Ubuntu 10.10codenamed as Maverick Meerkat. Hope thereviews provide a nice guide for the alreadyexisting users and be an inspiration for theusers still unknown of the Ubuntu magic.www.linuxidentity.com 5
  • Ubuntu and its derivatives Difference between Ubuntu, Kubuntu, Xubuntu, Mythbuntu and Ubuntu Netbook Edition Anurag Upadhaya M aking decisions when you have based on packages from Debian’s un- several options regarding to the stable branch. technology you can use, could be J Canonical, the parent company behind a very tough task. Every smart device today Ubuntu, currently endorses and pro- needs a customized OS to run upon, which vides support for three additional harness its resources efficiently and espe- Ubuntu derived distros: Kubuntu, cially provides a UI which is adjusted to the Edubuntu and Ubuntu Server Edition. display that it supports. As we pointed out J All the new versions of Ubuntu are re- earlier, Ubuntu has customized version for leased every six months and provide most of the devices on which you perform support for next eighteen months by your computing. The officially supported ver- providing security fixes, patches to crit- sions of Ubuntu we are discussing here are ical bugs and upgrades to programs. Ubuntu Server Edition, Kubuntu, Xubuntu, Long Term Support (LTS) versions are Mythbuntu and Ubuntu Netbook Edition. released every two years, and are sup- While there may be several differences ported for three years on desktop and between different officially supported ver- five years for servers. The latest LTS sions of Ubuntu, yet all of them share some version of Ubuntu was 10.04 Lucid common similarities: Lynx, which was released on April 29th 2010. Ubuntu releases are generally J All the versions are primarily focused timed about one month after Gnome to provide usability, ease of installation releases, so every new version of and security on the devices they run. Ubuntu comes with an updated ver- J All the versions use GNU GPL license sion of both Gnome and X.org. Also and the packages in all of them are there are two Ubuntu releases per year, using the year and month of the re- lease as the version number. Ubuntu releases are also given code names, using an adjective and an animal (e.g. Lucid Lynx and Maverick Meerkat). J All the official versions of Ubuntu in- clude the Live CD option with their in- stallers, using which Ubuntu can be run directly from the CD and allows a user to test-drive the OS for hardware com- patibility and driver support. All the ver- sions include Ubiquity installer which allows Ubuntu to be installed on the hard disk from within the Live CD envi- ronment, without the need for restart- ing the computer prior to installation. J To install a specific version of Ubuntu users can download a disk image (.iso)Figure 1 . Ubuntu Desktop (CD or DVD version), which can either be6 Linux Identity Office
  • Ubuntu and its derivatives written on CD or DVD. The CD image includes the new hassle free and interactive GUI install- er and the DVD image contains both the new and the older in- staller and some additional in- stallation options. Ubuntu Desk- top Edition and Kubuntu can be booted and run from a USB Flash drive. The Live installer CD of Ubuntu also includes an option of Wubi. Wubi allows Ubuntu to be installed and run separately from Windows, with- out the need to partition Win- dows user’s hard drive.Ubuntu Desktop andUbuntu Server Edition Figure 2 . Kubuntu DesktopThe default Ubuntu version which the best KDE Linux distro you can find as the email and contact manage-runs on most of the computers is with all the flashy effects and KDE ment program. For instant messag-the Ubuntu Desktop edition. One of software support. Kubuntu has the ing Kubuntu has Kopete, which letsthe most stable and popular version KDE counterparts of applications that you chat with your friends over mul-of Ubuntu is Ubuntu Server Edition, you find on Gnome Ubuntu desktop. tiple networks and protocols, from awhose development and bug tracking You can find KDE kind of card, single interface. Kubuntu’s defaultgoes along with Ubuntu Desktop Edi- board, logic, arcade and strategy music player is the popular Amarok.tion. Both these versions use Gnome games like Klondike (Sol- Table1 . System Requirementsas the default desktop environment. itaire), Spider, Breakout The desktop version of Ubuntu and so on on a Kubuntu Minimum Desktop Servercurrently supports Intel x86, AMD64 machine. The Okular Requirementsand ARM architectures. Minimum re- reader in Kubuntu lets Processor 300 MHz 1 GHzquirements for Ubuntu Desktop and you open ebooks, PDF, (x86)Ubuntu Server Edition are presented PS, DVI and more docu-in Table 1. ments out of the box. Memory 128 MB 512 MB Ubuntu Server is right blend of Kubuntu comes pre-easy integration, virtualization, secu- installed with Konquer- Hard Drive 1 GB 5 GBrity and easy administration. Ubun- or, the KDE web brows- (free space)tu Server mixes effortlessly with er, but also comes along Display 640x480 1024x768Ubuntu, Windows or Mac OS X envi- the popular Firefox. Resolutionronments. All clients can share au- Kubuntu uses Kontactthentication, swap files and accessservices, while Open LDAP, Likewise-Open and PAM authentication comeas standard. You can virtualize yourserver with Ubuntu Server and KVM.You can use a lean version of Ubuntuas a guest operating system for yourapplication and create virtual ma-chine images in minutes. KVM, Xen,VMWare and LXC are all supported.You can build flexible computing en-vironments in your own infrastruc-ture with Ubuntu Enterprise Cloud(UEC) or deploy to Amazon EC2 usingUbuntu Server Edition images.KubuntuKubuntu is the Ubuntu with KDE asthe desktop environment. Kubuntu is Figure 3 . Xubuntu Desktopwww.linuxidentity.com/us/ 7
  • Ubuntu and its derivatives desktop onto their installation. This can easily be done via the Mythbun- tu Control Centre. The Mythbuntu Control Centre is a custom GUI used to configure the system. From here you can select what kind of system (Backend, Fron- tend or Both) you want. You can also install different desktops such as ubuntu-desktop and kubuntu-desk- top. You can also install Plugins, configure MySQL, set passwords, in- stall proprietary drivers, proprietary codecs, setup remote controls, and a range of other features all from one convenient program. A Mythbuntu CD can also be usedFigure 4 . Mythbuntu as a live frontend. This comes handy if you want to turn a laptop or desk-Xubuntu over a standard Ubuntu installation. top into a quick frontend or quicklyXubuntu is an official version of Ubun- Mythbuntu is an add-on for Ubuntu test hardware compatibility. The livetu Linux that uses the Xfce desktop focused upon setting up a stand- frontend provides a GUI to mountenvironment. It is designed for low- alone MythTV based PVR system. network shares, configure a remote,specification computers, and for lean It can be used to prepare a stand- hostname, location of your masterand minimalistic desktop lovers. alone system or for integration with backend and a place to save settings. But you should not underestimate an existing MythTV network. Unlike All settings can be saved directly backthe Xubuntu machine. It contains all similar projects, Mythbuntu keeps to a flash drive for easy portability.the applications you need − a web close ties with Ubuntu and all de-browser, document and spreadsheet velopment is given back to Ubuntu. Ubuntu Netbook Editionediting software, instant messaging The development cycle of Mythbun- Ubuntu Netbook Edition brings alland much more. Xubuntu contains tu closely follows that of Ubuntu, re- the advantages of Ubuntu to yourall the applications for your normal leasing every six months along side netbook. Ubuntu Netbook Editionday-to-day tasks. Xubuntu comes Ubuntu releases. (UNE), known as Ubuntu Netbookwith Firefox web browser, the light- Mythbuntu uses the light-weight Remix prior to the release of Ubuntuweight yet feature-rich Abiword for Xfce desktop. All unnecessary stan- 10.04, is a version of the Ubuntuall your word-processing needs, and dard Ubuntu applications such as distribution that has been optimizedGnumeric for the creation and ma- OpenOffice.org, Evolution, and a full to enable it to work better on net-nipulation of spreadsheets. Gnome desktop are not installed in books and other devices with small a default Mythbuntu install. If at any screens or with the Intel Atom com-Mythbuntu time a user wants to, they can install puter processor.Mythbuntu is not exactly a separate ubuntu-desktop, kubuntu-desktop, Ubuntu Netbook Edition de-Ubuntu version rather an addon or xubuntu-desktop and add a full velopers continuously collaborate with Moblin project (now known as Meego) to ensure optimization for lower hardware requirements and longer battery life. But beginning with version 10.10, Ubuntu Netbook Edition uses the Unity desktop as its desktop interface. The minimum system require- ments for UNE are: 1.6 GHz Intel Atom processor, 512 MB RAM and 4 GB of Flash disk (SSD) or Hard disk. The standard applications on UNE include Firefox as the web browser, Evolution for email, Empathy for IM, Rhythmbox as media player, F-Spot for viewing photos and OpenOffice.Figure 5 . Ubuntu Netbook Edition org as the office suite.8 Linux Identity Office
  • InstallationInstalling Ubuntu10 .10Anurag UpadhayaI n this article we will show step-by-step Try Ubuntu before you install procedure of installing Ubuntu 10.10 on (Live CD) your desktop/laptop. For the installation As you can see, Ubuntu always gives youpurpose we are using the official release an option to try out the latest build via Tryof Ubuntu 10.10 named ubuntu-10.10- Ubuntu without installing option and testDVD you can find on DVD 1 attached to this system compatibility, before you are readymagazine. This DVD double sided containsversion i386 (32-bit) on side 1 and versionamd64 (64-bit) on side 2. This installationwill show how you can install Ubuntu 10.10alongside your existing installation of Win-dows or as the only OS on your computer.RequirementsWhile many people take the minimum re-quirements of their system for Ubuntu light-ly, it may affect the performance of your in-stallation considerably. Ubuntu 10.10 spe-cifically demands that your computer musthave a minimum of 256 MB of RAM and 4.6GB of free Hard Disk space for a success-ful installation. But for a smoother perfor-mance, we recommend you to install it on acomputer with at least 512 MB of RAM and10 GB of free Hard Disk space. Figure 1 . Boot screen of Ubuntu 10.10 Maverick MeerkatBootInsert the double sided DVD in your desktop/laptop and reboot. The computer should au-tomatically boot from the DVD, if not, checkthe setting on your computer to keep yourDVD drive as the first boot device. This is the boot-screen that you will get(Figure 1), confirming that your machine isbooting from the Ubuntu 10.10 installationDVD. This is the place you can choose a lan-guage of your installation. Take a look on thebottom menu (Figure 2). You can change heremany preinstallation options using functionkeys. The most popular are: [F2] – languagereselection and [F3] – keyboard layout selec-tion. The most powerful options are availablethrough [F6]. These switches are advised tobe used only in a situation there are prob-lems with your installation to start. Figure 2 . Options on the installation DVD of Ubuntu 10.10www.linuxidentity.com/us/ 9
  • Installation to install it on your computer. While this op- tion maybe a little sluggish in performance, booting your system via Live CD/DVD and checking for video performance and driv- er compatibility is always recommended. When you click on the Try Ubuntu without installing option, your computer will restart with loading the Ubuntu OS in your primary memory (RAM) and you will get a desktop like in the Figure 3. Booting from Live CD/DVD option gives you a shortcut on the desktop to install Ubuntu 10.10. But the steps involved in in- stalling Ubuntu by first booting through Live CD and then going for installation on your Hard Disk, are the same as you would get when directly clicking on the Install Ubuntu on the installation screen. We will be usingFigure 3 . Ubuntu 10.10 desktop, after booting through Live CD/DVD the second option i.e. directly booting from the installation CD and then clicking on the Install Ubuntu option on the installation screen. Prepare to Install The Figure 4 gives you 3 important recom- mendations. J That you must have 4.6 GB available in your drive space. J That you are plugged into a power source. J That you are connected to the inter- net. While the first 2 recommendations are real- ly needed, the third recommendation is not necessary for a successful installation. You only need to be connected to the internetFigure 4 . Things to check before continue with installation of if you want to download additional codecsUbuntu 10.10 and upgraded packages. One of the really useful options you’ll get on the same screen is to download and install the most impor- tant MPEG Layer-3 decoder which is neces- sary for playback of your MP3 files. Before Ubuntu 10.04, users had to go through a lot of pain in terminal to install the “restricted- packages” in Ubuntu for MP3 codec, flash plugin and such things. For the same rea- son novice users used to complain a lot about media support of Ubuntu distro. But in Ubuntu 10.04 and in the latest Ubuntu 10.10 you just have to click on an option in the installer to take care of such things. That’s evolution. Partitioning The next screen (Figure 5) in installation gives you three options for your Ubuntu in-Figure 5 . Partition options in Ubuntu 10.10 stallation.10 Linux Identity Office
  • Installation J Install alongside other operating sys- tems – the installer will try to find a free place on your Hard Disk. It’s so smart it will also try to shrink existing partitions (not filled with data) to re- trieve a space for your new system. It’s an automatic option – please double check if you like the proposition of the new partitioning scheme. You can back to the previous step and define partitions manually. J Erase and use entire disk – fast and easy. Your Ubuntu will fill up the select- ed disk space. All existing partitions and data will be lost. J Specify partitions manually – we get a handy partition manager to create and specify different partitions needed to Figure 6 . Manually creating partitions install Ubuntu (Figure 6).Two specific partitions that are necessaryfor installation and smooth operation ofyour Ubuntu OS are the “/” partition and a“swap” partition. We recommend “/” parti-tion to be at least 5 GB in size using the ext4file system, while swap partition should justbe double the size of your RAM (but no morethan 2 GB). While you can just move on with parti- Figure 7 . Creating a partition with “Ext4 file system”tion manager by just creating the “/” instal-lation partition, creating a swap partition ishighly recommended. But Linux users al-ways love modify their systems to suit theirexact needs and that is where the power ofa Linux distro like Ubuntu lies. To create anew partition through the partition manag-er, you can select your empty hard disk areaand click on the Add... button. For instance, firstly to create a “/” parti-tion, choose the partition type as “Primary”,enter the size of the partition in MB, choose Figure 8 . Creating a swap partitionthe “Ext4 file system” in “Use as” andchoose “/” in the “Mount Point” drop-downlist (Figure 7). Likewise to create a Swap partition,choose either “Primary” or “Logical” as thepartition type, but logical is recommended(we have explained later why), enter the par-tition size in MB, select “swap area” in “Useas” and the “Mount point” will be disabledautomatically. You can create a “/” partition for instal-lation and a “swap” partition to act as thevirtual RAM (Figure 9 – /dev/sda1 repre-sents a Windows partition). If you decide to mount and keep all users’data safe, you can even create a separatepartition and mount as “/home”. Similarlyto keep your variable data like man pages, Figure 9 . Essential partitionswww.linuxidentity.com/us/ 11
  • Installation databases, mail archives, logs and others on a separate partition, you can create a sepa- rate “/var” partition. This lets the users cus- tomize their Linux box to their exact needs. A user wanting to use Ubuntu installation as a media server can make “/” partition to take most of the available hard disk space and leaving rest for the system to work. While you can go ahead and make all the customized partitions like “/home”, “swap”, “/var” and so on as Primary, but there lies the catch. You cannot have more than 4 ac- tive Primary partitions in your system. So we have a tip for you: “/” is the only parti- tion you need to create as Primary partition, while the rest like “swap”, “/home” and oth- ers can be safely made as “Logical”. This lets you create any number of customizedFigure 10 . Selecting time zone partitions for your Ubuntu installation. You can either choose to install the boot loader on your Windows partition or on your Ubuntu “/” partition. In most cases it’s advised to stay with the first system disk selected. When you finished with partitioning, and you are sure the final schema is the one you want to copy to your hard drive – please push Install Now button. It’s a very impor- tant moment, as this step cannot be can- celed nor undone. Selecting Locale and Keyboard Layout After creating and selecting the partition, you get the next screen to select your lo- cale, which is automatically detected right in most of the cases. The next screen (Figure 11) just gives you option to select and figure out your key-Figure 11 . Selecting keyboard layout board layout. In most of the cases, the de- fault should be selected. Choosing Username and Logging Options The last choice screen in the installer if for you to enter your full name, your desired username and password. You can also make some optional choices like logging in automatically with a password and encrypt- ing your home folder. Now you can go to sip a hot cup of cof- fee and munch a couple of sandwiches, because installation takes a while to com- plete. By the time your return, installation must have completed and you will get a prompt that “installation is completed” and you need to reboot your computer. That’s it. After reboot, you will get your sweet and clean desktop of Ubuntu 10.10Figure 12 . Username and Logging options Maverick Meerkat. Enjoy!12 Linux Identity Office
  • Your first steps with UbuntuWhat to do afteryou install Ubuntu?Radu CotescuI nstalling Ubuntu probably did not take multiverse repositories must be enabled. To you more than 20 minutes. And keep in do this, you would have to launch “Software mind that after just 20 minutes of wait- Sources” from System −> Administration. Ifing you have a complete software stack with the “Software Sources” menu entry doesn’twhich you can already start to work. If you appear on your menu you can either enable itare a new user (let’s say from 0 to 2 weeks (from System −> Preferences −> Main Menu)of experience with Ubuntu), and especially or you can launch the “Synaptic Package Man-if you haven’t used a Linux distribution until ager” from System −> Administration and fromnow, you might want to get accustomed to “Synaptic” select Settings −> Repositories.your new operating system before you start It’s also a good idea to enable the part-to use it for production outcomes. ner repositories for packages related to Java, Adobe, etc. To do this click on theRead the manual “Other Software” tab from the “SoftwareThe previous release of Ubuntu was the first Sources” window and just check the addi-one to be accompanied by a community tional repositories.written manual. The idea belonged to Ben-jamin Humphrey who actually is the Team Step 2 . Assure that you are running theLead for this project. Because the manual best driver for your graphics cardis a 100% community project it means that Ubuntu will not have a problem running on yourthe book was written by Ubuntu users and PC using a default video driver implementation.not developers or technical writers. There- Though you should know that this will not of-fore there is very little technical jargon used. fer the best performance your graphics card isThe emphasis was actually put on ease of capable of. Ubuntu will warn you if proprietaryuse and easy comprehension of work flows drivers are available and will let you take the de-since the manual’s purpose is to teach new cision of using only open-source drivers or mix-Ubuntu users how to use their system, how ing the best of both worlds: proprietary driversto manage it and how to get things done for best performance with open-source compo-more productively and efficiently. nents for maximum control and flexibility. If you ever find yourself in difficulties try-ing to use Ubuntu the manual might helpyou, although Ubuntu has a pretty intuitiveuser interface. The manual’s home page isat http://ubuntu-manual.org/ 15 easy stepsStep 1 . Enabling the all the availablesoftware repositoriesBy now you probably already know what re-positories are for, what they do specifically andhow you can use them. Most of the Ubuntuusers enable additional repositories in orderto be able to install a multitude of applica-tions that are not supported by Canonical butwhich work flawlessly on Ubuntu. By defaultan Ubuntu machine will only use the main anduniverse repositories. If an user wants to useproprietary drivers for devices (e.g. graphicscards) or software which is restricted by copy- Figure 1 . Ubuntu’s Software Sources (enabled reposi-right or legal issues, then the restricted and tories)www.linuxidentity.com/us/ 13
  • Your first steps with UbuntuFigure 2 . Additional Drivers Figure 3 . Visual Effects preferences To check if there are proprietary Step 4 . Improve your desktop because of licensing issues. Insteaddrivers available for your card you can space Canonical relies on the Ubuntu us-go to System −> Administration −> Have you ever fancied the Mac OS X ers to take the decision of using unli-Additional drivers. This will perform a dock? Not only that it looks nice but it censed codecs according to the coun-search for better drivers and will let also improves productivity and reduc- try laws in which they live. Installingyou know what are your options. es the desktop clutter. By not having these is a child’s play: look for the Running a proprietary driver will to use another panel just to see the package ubuntu-restricted-extras andallow you to use desktop effects opened windows with their full title all the gstreamer based packages.(e.g. compiz), play graphics inten- displayed you actually gain a lot moresive games without glitches or de- space to launch more applications Step 6 . Web compatibilitycoding High Definition content us- while still being able to switch through Although you won’t have any problemsing only your graphics card instead them using their own launchers. browsing the web with Ubuntu, sitesof your computer’s processor for a Ubuntu has the chance of having at might appear different to you thansmoother, more vivid experience. least three docking applications: AWN what you were used to. This is because (Avant Window Navigator – avant-win- of the fonts that come with Ubuntu.Step 3 . Enable desktop effects dow-navigator), GNOME Do (gnome-do) Since the majority of websites outfor some eye-candy but also and Cairo (cairo-dock). Try all of them, there make heavy usage of the fontsadded functionality but no simultaneously, and choose the usually found on a Windows box, it’sUbuntu ships by default with Compiz one that you like best. The author of better to have those fonts too. There isinstalled, although it’s not enabled this article is an avid AWN fan. a package for this: msttcorefonts.from the beginning. Turning Compiz onrequires that your graphics card is able Step 5 . Let the music play Step 7 . Let your video card to theto handle the effects. To enable it and Ubuntu won’t include by default co- hard work (only for NVIDIA cards)also to check if your graphics card is decs for the famous mp3 format, the High Definition content is start-up to the task, simply go to System −> newer mp4 and many others. This is ing to appear all over. Because ofPreferences −> Appearance andswitch to the “Visual Effects” tab. Hereyou will have three levels of settings.Choose the one that fits you best. Figure 4 . Avant Window Navigator For controlling what Compiz shouldbe able to do, you would have to in-stall the “Advanced Desktop EffectsSettings” package, which is actually Figure 5 . Gnome DO with Docky (plug-in)named ccsm. After you perform thisstep you will find the effects managerby going to System −> Preferences −>CompizConfig Settings Manager. Figure 6 . Cairo14 Linux Identity Office
  • Introductionwww.linuxidentity.com/us/ 15
  • Your first steps with Ubuntu Step 8 . Cannot live without After installing the previous men- Adobe Acrobat Reader? tioned packages a script has to be run Adobe’s Acrobat Reader is avail- to install the keys used for decryption: able in the partner repositories. The package name is acroread and sudo /usr/share/doc/ ↵ you would have to install it either by libdvdread4/install-css.sh using the terminal (sudo apt-get install acroread ) either by using Now it’s just a matter of choosing Synaptic. the preferred multi-media player. Step 9 . Archiving tools Step 11 . Enjoy free internet Since there are a lot of archiving video calls with Skype formats used out there it’s not bad Skype is one of the most known pro- to have support for the most com- grams for VoIP or video calls. Although mon ones. Although you won’t have the client that runs on Linux machines a problem with .zip and all the other isn’t as feature full as the Windows Linux popular formats, Ubuntu still one, you do have the basic set of lacks default .rar and .7z support. features needed for performing one- This can be added in no time: to-one video calls or conference-typeFigure 7 . Skype application audio calls. Skype cannot be found inon Ubuntu sudo apt-get install rar unrar ↵ any of the Ubuntu repositories, but athe high processing bandwidth p7zip p7zip-full .deb package can be downloaded fromrequired for decoding this kind of http://www.skype.com/go/downloadcontent, some of the PC proces- Step 10 . Watching DVDssors might be a bit slow in doing Due to licensing problems, again, Step 12 . Virtualizationthis while your graphics card has Ubuntu cannot play DVDs by default. From time to time you might want tonothing to do. For NVIDIA graphics Many commercial DVDs are encrypted test other operating systems or youcards there’s an API called VDPAU in order not to allow playing them on might even want to have a special(Video Decode and Presentation unauthorized units. For a Linux user in development machine which is sand-API for Unix) which can be used to general, and for an Ubuntu user in par- boxed so that your physical machinedecode HD content using the mul- ticular, this means that some software won’t get affected in any way. Thistiple pipelines architectures of the decryption must be done. Unfortu- is usually obtained with the help ofnewer models. This means almost nately, this is not legal in all countries. virtual machines. There are a lot ofno CPU load while the graphics So to play it safe Canonical decided hypervisors available (a good articlecard is barely put to work. not to add DVD support by default. on the subject has been published in In order to be able to enjoy Installing the libraries needed Linux Identity Starter, Volume Two,graphics card HD decoded content, for DVD decryption is a thing that Number Two). Out of all, the easiestnot only that you have to own one of is left at the user’s discretion. Two one to use is by far VirtualBox.the supported models, but you also packages are required for the job: There are two versions of Virtual-have to run some special drivers libdvdnav4 and libdvdread4. Box available, depending on what youand use media players that knowhow to use this feature. There are two PPAs on Launch-pad which provide the most up-to-date drivers for NVIDIA and a recentversion of the MPlayer media player.To add these PPAs to your softwaresources list just open a terminal andwrite these commands: sudo add-apt-repository ↵ ppa:ubuntu-x-swat/x-updates sudo add-apt-repository ppa:rvm/ ↵ mplayer sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install nvidia- ↵ graphics-drivers nvidia- ↵ settings mplayer Figure 8 . VirtualBox16 Linux Identity Office
  • Your first steps with Ubuntu All you have to do now is to install display the menu of the focused ap- VirtualBox: plication as long as the application implements a GTK+ user interface. sudo apt-get update There are some exceptions, though: sudo apt-get install ↵ Firefox, Thunderbird, VirtualBox and virtualbox-3.2 all the OpenOffice.org suite use Qt for the GUI. Unfortunately Gnome Global Step 13 . Configure the firewall Menu cannot bind the Qt menus so Every Linux distribution has all the for these applications you won’t no- ports closed by default, protecting tice any improvement. itself this way against all kind of The Gnome Global Menu team network attacks. If iptables is not hasn’t yet created a repository spe- your way of getting things done cifically for Ubuntu 10.10 but theFigure 9 . UFW graphical user in- (although you should know that one for Ubuntu 10.04 can be usedterface iptables is the most used tool to without a problem. Open your /etc/would like to use. The open source edi- configure the firewall on Linux) apt/sources.list file and add the fol-tion doesn’t contain all the features then you’re lucky that ufw (Uncom- lowing lines at the end:the proprietary one does, but it’s free plicated Firewall) is installed byto use in any kind of environment. In- default and that it also has a nice deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/ ↵stead, the proprietary version can be GUI, called gufw, which has to be globalmenu-team/ppa/ubuntu ↵used without any restrictions as long installed separately, though. lucid mainas this is done for personal use. To do this either search for the deb-src http://ppa.launchpad. ↵ To install the proprietary version gufw package in whatever GUI pack- net/globalmenu-team/ppa/ ↵just add the VirtuaBox repositories age management tool you want, ei- ubuntu lucid mainto your Ubuntu repositories lists by ther use the apt-get command in aediting the /etc/apt/sources.list and terminal: Then issue these commands in theadding the following line at the end: terminal: sudo apt-get install gufw deb http://download.virtualbox. ↵ sudo apt-get update org/virtualbox/debian ↵ Step 14 . One more step towards sudo apt-get install gnome- maverick non-free increased productivity globalmenu The common application menu hasBecause the repository uses a public been a much discussed topic for To use the Global Menu you wouldkey authentication mechanism, the this Ubuntu release but it was only now have to add its applet to the topkey has to be added as well. In a ter- implemented for the netbook edition. panel. Right click on your top panelminal run the following command: Still, this can be added very easy to and then click on Add to Panel... Se- your regular desktop edition. The pro- lect the “Global Menu Panel Applet” wget -q http://download.virtualbox. ↵ gram used for this is called Gnome and add it to the panel. org/virtualbox/debian/oracle_ ↵ Global Menu and it represents an After a log out and a log in you vbox.asc -O- | sudo apt-key ↵ applet which can be added to the will be able to customize the ap- add - top panel. This applet manages to plet’s settings. Step 15 . Clouds Don’t forget about the Online stor- age − Dropbox vs. Ubuntu One ar- ticle. Have you made your choice? Now it’s the time. Don’t forget! Ubuntu’s repositories host tens of thousands of applications which most- ly are at a click away. Experiment, try, play with and enjoy. Do not be afraid to test as many applications as possible. This article intended only to guide you through your first steps with Ubuntu as the list of instructions or applica- tions which have been showcased isFigure 10 . Global Menu showing GEdit’s menu opened far from being comprehensive.www.linuxidentity.com/us/ 17
  • Multimedia codecs and video drivers Installing Multimedia Codecs and Video Drivers Bhaskar Kandiyal U buntu requires installation of multi- To install Ubuntu Restricted Extras pack- media codecs for being able to play age, you will need to enable the Multiverse re- some proprietary audio/video for- pository which contains all the software which mats like MP3 and AVI files. Also, if you have is restricted by copyright or legal issues. a dedicated graphics card installed on your For enabling the Ubuntu multiverse re- system from ATI or NVIDIA, you will have to pository, open System −> Administration install it’s drivers to utilize the full capabili- −> Software Sources and put a check-mark ties of your graphics card like 3D rendering, next to the line containing multiverse. hardware acceleration etc. After enabling the multiverse repository, you will need to open up the Ubuntu Soft- Installing Multimedia Codecs ware Center (Applications −> Ubuntu Soft- There are a lot of video and audio formats ware Center) and then search for and install available, some of these formats are propri- Ubuntu Restricted Extras package. etary formats which cannot be included by default into Ubuntu. So, if you wish to play Medibuntu any of these proprietary formats like MP3 Please note that the restricted extras package and FLV (Flash Video) files, you will need to will not provide support for playing encrypted install some multimedia codecs that will al- DVDs and also it won’t include some codecs low you to play these files. which require for purchasing of a license to The Ubuntu Restricted Extras package use, like DivX, QuickTime etc. The license will provide MP3 playback and support for issues are dependent on the country where various other audio formats and also DVD you’re residing, so, if your country’s laws al- playback. Apart from that, this package will low you to use these codecs then you can in- also install some extra packages like Java, stall them via the Medibuntu repository. Flash player and Microsoft fonts. Medibuntu is short for Multimedia, Enter- tainment & Distractions In Ubuntu. This re- pository is not supported in any way by Ubuntu and is only provided for people living in places where they can legally use the software that is in the repository. For more information, please visit http://www.medibuntu.org/ To enable the Medibuntu repository you will need to add it to the Software Sources (System −> Administration −> Software Sources). In the Software Sources window, click on the Other Sources tab and then click Add at the bottom. In the new dialog that pops up, input the following line (only for Ubuntu Maverick Meerkat): deb http:// packages.medibuntu.org/ maverick free non-free and then click Add Source to add it to the source list. Finally, hit the close button in the Soft- ware Sources window and you will be prompt- ed to reload the software list, just click on Figure 1 . Enabling The Multiverse Repository Reload. Don’t worry about getting a GPG er-18 Linux Identity Office
  • Multimedia codecs and video driversror at the end, we will fix that. Afteryour sources have been reloaded,open up a terminal and then entersudo apt-get install medibuntu-keyring when prompted select y foryes and press [Enter]. When installa-tion is done run sudo apt-get upda-te and then sudo apt-get installnon-free-codecs This will install allthe non-free-codecs available in theMedibuntu repository. Note: Please make sure that you can legally use the softwarein your country before installing. Figure 2 . Installing NVIDIA Driver from Ubuntu Software CenterInstalling Video DriversIf you have a dedicated graphics card First of all, download the latest If you wish to change the settingsinstalled on your system then you will drivers for Linux from your manu- of your driver later, you can goto Sys-probably want to utilize its full poten- facturer’s website and save them tem −> Administration −> NVIDIAtial in Ubuntu by using OpenGL and to your home directory for easy ac- Settings Manager or for ATI Radeonhardware acceleration. For installing cess later. Once it’s done, you will Application −> Other −> ATI Cata-video drivers, please check that in need to stop X and start a tty. To lyst Control Center to change them.System −> Administraion −> Software do this, press [Ctrl] + [Alt] + [F2]Sources, the checkbox next to Propri- and enter your username and Conclusionetary Drivers For Devices is checked. password. Installation of multimedia codecs Once you have made sure that Then disable X by running sudo and video drivers on Ubuntu hasit’s checked, goto the Ubuntu Soft- service gdm stop Now you need to been made very easy. Ubuntu pro-ware Center and then search in the install some extra packages, first of vides tools like Jockey to handle thesearch box by the name of the man- all sudo apt-get install linux- automatic detection of drivers andufacturer of your graphics card, i.e. header-`uname -r` and sudo apt- providing a simple one-click way ofeither ATI or NVIDIA. get install nvidia-settings (Only installing them. In the search results, select which for NVIDIA drivers).driver you wish to install, and press Once the above has been in- Further Readingthe Install button to begin the instal- stalled, you need to run the file that J https://help.ubuntu.com/com-lation. After the installation finishes, you downloaded by entering: sudo munity/RestrictedFormatsyou will need to reboot the system. sh ./filename Where the filename J https://help.ubuntu.com/com- After the reboot, you can see is the name of the file you down- munity/BinaryDriverHowtoif the driver is loaded and working loaded from your Graph-properly by going to System −> Ad- ics card manufacturer’sministration −> Additional Drivers. website. For NVIDIA, the filename would be likeManually Installing Video Drivers NVIDIA-Linux-x86-ver-In Ubuntu the video drivers packages sion-pkg1.run and for ATIin the repositories are not updated as it would be like ati-driver-frequently as they are updated by the installer-<version>-x86.manufacturer. So, if you wish to install x86_64.run. Once thethe newest drivers, you will probably file is running just followhave to download the drivers for Linux the on-screen promptsfrom the manufacturer’s website and to install the driver.install them manually. There’s a bit When the installa-of terminal work here and also these tion is complete, youdrivers can have some issues if they will need to restart yourare not properly installed and they’re computer, run sudo ser-not tested by Ubuntu. So, before con- vice gdm start andtinuing, be sure to remove any previ- then restart the comput-ous video drivers that were installed er. That’s it, the driver(by going to System −> Administra- will now be loaded when Figure 3 . NVIDIA Driver Running on Ubuntution −> Additional Drivers). you reboot! 10.10www.linuxidentity.com/us/ 19
  • Efficient Ubuntu Desktop Personalizing the Desktop Bhaskar Kandiyal E veryone has different tastes, likes or change the default background image of a dislikes when it comes to having a desktop. Just right click on the desktop and customized desktop. There are peo- choose Change Desktop Background and a ple who want to customize every aspect of window will open up showing all the default their desktop and there are others who are wallpapers that are installed on the system. simply happy with a minimal desktop that is On Ubuntu 10.10 there are some back- pleasing to the eye. ground images that are installed by default, Ubuntu offers full customization options you can either choose one of them to be to the user to personalize every aspect of their your desktop background or you can choose desktop, it also makes it easier for a novice one of your own. To add your own image to user to customize his desktop to his liking. the list of background images, just click on Ubuntu not only allows a user to do ba- the Add button and then navigate to your sic personalization tasks like changing the image and click Open. wallpaper, adding/removing shortcuts/ launchers from the desktop, but also allows Changing and Customizing for changing their desktop theme as well as Themes icons. You can also change the appearance A theme can be used to change the whole of the titlebar of windows with themes that appearance of a desktop. It can contain col- can be downloaded freely. or-schemes that are to be applied to differ- ent places in the desktop like buttons, text Changing the Desktop etc. Appearance of window borders or title Background bars can also be changed using themes. A wallpaper is an image that is shown in There is a set of default themes installed the background of the desktop. The im- with Ubuntu 10.10 which can be set easily age is usually the size of the resolution with just a few clicks. Just go to System −> that your monitor is using e.g: 800x600, Preferences −> Appearance and a window 1024x768 etc. will pop up with a list of installed themes. By default Ubuntu 10.10 has a very nice If you have multiple themes installed, you purple background/wallpaper that suits the can mix and match a themes components, like whole desktop really well. It’s very easy to having colors of a different theme and window border and icons of another theme. To customize the themes, just click on the Customize button in the Themes tab of Appearance Preferences window. There are several tabs in the Customize Theme dialog where you can choose different components that you wish to customize, like Con- trols, Colors, Window Borders, Icons and mouse pointers. Visual Effects Ubuntu offers the ability to use desk- top effects on your desktop. Desktop effects are animations that appearFigure 1 . Default Ubuntu Desktop on certain events like when a window20 Linux Identity Office
  • Efficient Ubuntu DesktopFigure 2 . Default Ubuntu 10.10 Wallpapers Figure 3 . Theme Selection Dialogis maximized or minimized or set of effects when you selectclosed. the Normal or Extra options. Desktop effects are These effects can be custom-pleasing to the eye and also ized by installing (as previouslycan enhance usability of the stated) an application calleddesktop by providing window Compiz Config Settings Man-previews and window-snap ager (CCSM) from the Ubuntufeatures. Some features like Software Center. CCSM can bethese have to be enabled by used to endlessly configure andthe user by installing an ap- customize all the effects thatplication called Compiz Con- are installed on your system.fig Settings Manager. There are more effects that can be installed on your Note: Enabling visual ef- system by installing the pack- fects requires that you age compiz-plugins and com-have drivers for your graphics piz-fusion-plugins-extra. Thiscard installed and that you have provides many more effectsa powerful enough graphics card and settings that can be con-to handle all the effects and ani- figured easily using CCSM.mations. If things become slug- To start CCSM, goto Set-gish or slow after enabling ef- tings −> Preferences −> Com-fects, then your graphics card is piz Config Settings Managernot powerful enough and you’re or press [Alt] + [F2] and type in Figure 4 . Customizing Themesbetter off disabling them. ccsm. Once it’s open you can change some general settingsTo enable desktop effects, just like the number of workspac-go to System −> Preferences −> es or virtual desktops etc. AlsoAppearance and click on the Vi- if you wish to enable a pluginsual Effects tab. Now you can just click the checkbox next toselect the type of effects you the plugins name.want. Selecting None will disable Referencesthe effects, Normal provides a To download themes, icons,balance between performance wallpapers for Ubuntu, youand attractiveness and Extra can go to http://www.gnome-will enable a lot of effects and look.org/; also, to downloadwill require a fast graphics card. more plugins, themes etc. for The Visual Effects tab pro- Compiz, visit http://www.com-vides some pre-configured piz-themes.org/ Figure 5 . Visual Effects Settingswww.linuxidentity.com/us/ 21
  • Backup How to backup your files Tiago Boldt Sousa A ccording to Wikipedia, “In information puter. Do note that backing up your informa- technology, a backup or the process tion to where everyone can read your files of backing up refers to making copies might put your privacy into risk. of data so that these additional copies may There are many ways to save your data. be used to restore the original after a data One is to back up your entire data and tag loss event. “. Data loss can be of several that backup with its date. This way you can types such as intentional, unintentional, keep creating new complete backups with failures, disasters, crime and so on. Studies new dates, allowing you to later browse them have consistently shown hardware failure and being able to revert or recover your data and human error to be two most common to any chosen date. Another way is to keep a causes of data loss, accounting for roughly duplicate of your current files. This is a sim- three quarters of all incidents. pler option, still allowing you to recover from Most of the times, people only notice that data loss. Although, this second technique will they should have backed up their data only delete files that you also delete in your main after they lose important information. This storage. You can only recover an exact copy of article helps you acknowledge such dangers the last backup, there will be no history. and help preventing data loss by learning Bellow you’ll find some of the many how to properly safeguard your information available tools and techniques. Consider using several different approaches. combining these tools and techniques, al- In order to back up your data the first lowing multiple backups into multiple dif- thing you need is storage space. As you ferent storages. As said, it’s always good to know, there are many ways to obtain storage duplicate your information to more than one space and depending on the type of storage place, you’re never too safe. you have, you can also do your backups dif- The best advice anyone can give you re- ferently. Storage can be from the web, an- lated to backing up your information is that other computer, an optical disc, a portable the more important you find the data inside disc or even a second disc in the same com- your computer, the greater is the need for backing up this data. While thinking about backups, always consider: J A backup is only as useful as its asso- ciated restore strategy. For critical sys- tems and data, the restoration process must be tested. J Storing the copy near the original is unwise, since many disasters such as fire, flood, theft, and electrical surges are likely to cause damage to the backup at the same time. In these cases, both the original and the back- up medium are likely to be lost. J Automated backup and scheduling Figure 1 . Choosing files to backup should be considered, as manual22 Linux Identity Office
  • BackupFigure 2 . Adding excluded files Figure 3 . Selecting the backup destination backups can be affected by get a folder or file with this process. tion that allows you to schedule and human error. To update its contents by copying manage your backups. It creates a J Backups can fail for a wide va- the new folders onto the backup’s package with the data you select riety of reasons. A verification storage substituting the files cop- to back up and then sends it to or monitoring strategy is an ied before, you can end up with un- the storage space you’ve specified. important part of a successful needed files that you’ve removed This process can work on the back- backup plan. in your primary storage. There’s no ground periodically, requiring no in- J Multiple backups on different easy way to manually overcome this teraction or monitoring. Sbackup is media, stored in different loca- issue. It’s hard to guarantee that also able to manage or recover your tions, must be used for all criti- no folder is forgotten. This is a bad existing backups. cal information. choice, that’s been superseded by To install the application install J Backed up archives should be the appropriated tools. the sbackup package from the Ubun- stored in open and standard tu Repositories. This can be achieved formats, especially when the Automatic Backups in the command line with sudo apt- goal is long-term archiving. Re- There are many different tools to get install sbackup or by using covery software and process- do your backups for you. None bet- your preferred package manager. es may have changed, and ter than the rest. Bellow I’ll present software may not be available you with some of the most com- Usage to restore data saved in propri- monly used, alongside with how Once installed, you can go to your etary formats. to use them. Choosing one to use System menu and inside Adminis- should be done according to how tration open Simple Backup Config-Manual Backup and where you want to back up your ure. It will ask you for the adminis-This method is common among information to. trator password since it will config-many. It consists in manually copy- ure a background service that willing all the files you want to backup Simple Backup Suite back up the data automatically.into the new storage. Although, this Simple Backup Suite or sbackup, At this point, we want to chooseis a tricky operation. It’s easy to for- is an easy to use graphical applica- what to back up and how to do it.Figure 4 . Scheduling automatic backups Figure 5 . Managing/Purging backupswww.linuxidentity.com/us/ 23
  • BackupFigure 6 . Restoring backups Figure 7 . The graphical grsync interfaceIn the General tab choose to Use Scheduling istration you’ll find Simple Backupcustom backup settings, it will allow Now to schedule the back up use Restore. Select where you want toto individually select what you want the Time tab and choose how of- recover the backup from and a listto back up. On to the Include tab, ten you want your backups to occur. of available backups will show up.choose the files and folders to back Sbackup can do full backups or in- Select what you want to restore andup. These are the items that are re- cremental changes to the previous press the Restore button to initiatecoverable from the backups. full backup. You can set the periodic the process or the Restore as but- The Exclude tab allows you to interval between full backups, being ton if you want to save the backeddefine the list of ignored files or all the others increments to the last up files to different location from thefolders that still match the one in full backup. Full backups are easier original. Note that if you restore filesthe included tab. to browse since they consist in a sin- and there are existing files with the Before being able to start the gle instance but occupy more space. same name, those will be replaced.backing up process you must alsoconfigure the storage to use. The Managing Backups Rsync Backupbest way to back up would be to Having scheduled backups can Rsync is a synchronization tool forhave access to a remote machine quickly consume space if you back- Unix systems allowing transfers be-but you can also keep local back- up frequently. In order to keep the tween two locations using algorithmsups in the drives connected to most relevant backups and still designed to minimize the amount ofyour computer. Sbackup has sup- have free space in your storage transferred data. The end result is anport for SSH and FTP protocols. destination, sbackup can delete old exact copy of the original location.A very common method is back- archives automatically for you. To One of the great things about rsyncing up using ssh. This uses a ssh enable it, enter the program’s con- is that it is smart to know if a file is al-connection to another machine to figuration windows and choose the ready on the destination folder and itupload the backup. To do so, in last tab, Purging. By ticking Enable ignores that file if there’s no changethe Destination tab choose Use purging of old and incomplete back- to it. This saves time and opposesa remote directory and insert the ups the application will do this for common backup tools that alwaysfollowing line to configure the con- you. Logarithmic purging is the best copy everything from the origin, de-nection ssh://user:pass@address/ method, since it keeps backups that spite what’s on the destination.dir, where user is the username, are more likely to be recovered. On If you are not a command linepass is the user’s password on the other hand the simple cutoff op- expert, I recommend on tryingthe other machine, address can tion deletes all backups older than grsync to have a graphical interfacebe both an url like example.com the specified amount of days. to rsync. Install it with sudo apt-getor an IP address and dir the folder install grsync in your terminal.where you want the backup to be Restoring Data As a command line application,kept. An example could be ssh:// Recovering your backups is as sim- using rsync requires some terminaljohn:123456@ ple as creating them. Again, go into knowledge and the following is rec-home/john/backups. the System menu and inside Admin- ommended for experienced users.24 Linux Identity Office
  • Backup Rsync can be though of as a fancy /home/john/folder1/ ↵ After installing, you’re asked tocopying utility. It takes as input an ori- john@ ↵ create a new account or connect angin and a destination, along with all john/backup/folder1/ existing one. A folder will be created.the configuration parameters. Some rsync -ave ssh--delete ↵ At this point, every file inside thatof the most relevant parameters are: /home/john/folder2/ ↵ folder is automatically synchronized john@ ↵ with Dropbox’s servers. The beauty J -a, --archive – It is a quick way of john/backup/folder2/ behind Dropbox is that everything is saying you want recursion and always up to date, you can browse want to preserve everything. Add as many lines as folders you your files online and there’s even an J -v, --verbose – Increases ver- want to backup. Save the file and history to them. Dropbox can even bose detail, explaining what’s make it executable by using the be used to synchronize files between happening. chmod +x command. Now run your computers. By installing the applica- J -e shell – Specifies the remote script and watch your files being tion in another computer, the syn- shell. Often used as -e ssh to backed up to the other computer. chronized folder is also synchronized transfer over an ssh encrypted Once the first command finishes, it with the new computer. Whenever connection. starts the next and so on. you change a file the changes are J --delete – Delete files that don’t If you know your way around replicated by all the computers with exist on the sending side. cron, you can configure it to run the that login. Furthermore, you can script periodically, synchronizing the share folders with friends replicatingThe following instruction synchroniz- folders to your selected destination everything changed in that share toes the home folder of a local user to on a periodic basis. their account as well, all in real time.a remote computer in a similar way Once done, every saved file in thatto what has been done previously in Cloud Folder folder is synchronized to both of you.sbackup: Synchronization Similar to Dropbox is Ubuntu When someone speaks about stor- One. It also gives you 2 free giga- rsync -avz -e ssh --delete /home/ ↵ ing data in the cloud, it means that bytes and it comes installed with john/ john@↵ it will use some web service to store Ubuntu. home/john/backup/ its data. Dropbox is not only one of those solutions but it is the most fa- Further ReadingNote that trailing slashes do influ- mous folder synchronization service J h t t p : / / g b r. p e p p e r d i n e .ence the result of the command. available. The free account offers edu/033/dataloss.htmlThis rsync line would prompt the it’s users 2GB of space. Installation J https://help.ubuntu.com/user for the account’s password to is done via a deb package download- community/SSHestablish the ssh connection. While ed from their site and it integrates J h t t p : / / w w w. s a m b a . o r g /using ssh as transfer method, you seamlessly with Nautilus. There are rsync/can generate ssh keys so that you clients for Linux, Windows Mac and J http://www.opbyte.it/grsync/don’t need to manually input the even several mobile platforms. J http://www.dropbox.compassword on each connection. Also,if you would like to synchronize lo-cally you could use only local foldersas in rsync -avz -e ssh --delete/home/john/ /home/john/backup/ While updating a destination,only changed files from the last syn-chronization would be sent. Also, ifanything was removed in the origin,it would also get removed in thedestination. This provides a simpleway to always keep a synchronizedcopy of your current contents.Rsync ScriptCreating a rsync script is a greatidea. This can automate synchroni-zation of multiple folders. To do so,create a text file that looks like this: #!/bin/bash rsync -ave ssh –delete ↵ Figure 8 . Dropbox with Nautilus in Gnomewww.linuxidentity.com/us/ 25
  • Introduction Dropbox and Ubuntu One Online file storage − Dropbox vs . Ubuntu One Radu Cotescu O n-line synchronising and file storage The majority of cloud computing infra- services are quite common nowa- structures work by distributing the load days. You probably hear your friends across a large number of servers, usually more than often asking you to join one of located in multiple data-centres around the those services in order for them to be able world, but the cloud appears as a single to share their latest work on various files point of access for the client. So even if from with you. If you do not already use “the the client’s point of view the paradigm does cloud” for securing your files this article will seem to be the classical client-server, given definitely help you out to choose between the number of servers which provide the re- two of the most popular on-line file storing quested data, the response is actually sent and synchronisation solutions – Ubuntu back with the help of distributed computing. One or Dropbox. If you do store your files in “the cloud” then we hope that this article Dropbox will give you more details about the solution Dropbox (http://www.dropbox.com) is one of you chose to use, whichever this is. the most popular cloud storage and synchro- nisation services – approximately 4 million Terms and definitions users –, although it was not the first product The “cloud” or “cloud-computing” defines of its kind when it was launched. Dropbox an internet-based way of computing where Inc. was founded in 2007 by Drew Hous- software and shared resources are provided ton and Arash Ferdowsi, both of them MIT to clients on an on-demand basis. This new graduates, while the service was launched paradigm is a switch from the more tradition- in 2008 as a Y Combinator startup. al client-server architecture where one client The idea behind Dropbox was to replace would benefit from the information and pro- the common memory stick with cloud stor- cessing power provided by only one server. age, allowing its users to have access to their files regarding their location, computer or operating system. The Dropbox client cre- ates a folder on the user’s computer which is then synchronised with the online storage space and with the other associated com- puters. Users have full control of their Drop- box storage space either by using the client application, either by using a web browser. Dropbox supports revision history so that deleted files may be recovered from any of the associated computers or from the web. Another use of the revision history could be collaborative working on some of the files, without losing the previous form. Though the history is limited at 30 days, af- ter which a deleted file cannot be recovered any more, unless the user has subscribed using a paid account. The developers who wrote Dropbox wanted to create a fast and easy to use syn- chronisation system. This is why for each file only the portions of the file that are changed are actually saved from one revision to an-Figure 1 . Dropbox set-up wizard other. The process is called delta encoding26 Linux Identity Office
  • Introductionwww.linuxidentity.com/us/ 27
  • Dropbox and Ubuntu Oneand conserves bandwidth and time, and safe from interception and/or iPhone, iPad, Android and Blackber-providing fast response times. Al- eavesdroppers. ry. Due to its popularity there are alsothough there are no restrictions on Dropbox provides a whole range a lot of third-party clients and appli-the file size for the desktop client, of features: cations that rely on Dropbox.the files uploaded via browsers arelimited to 300 MB. J selective synchronisation with How to the ability to choose the fold- To install Dropbox, one has to down-Plans, prices and features ers that are to be kept syn- load it first from http://www.drop-The basic plan offers free 2 GB of chronised depending on the box.com The website will automati-storage, though there are many associated computer, cally indicate which client versionways to increase this space for free. J public shares using the “Pub- is suitable for the computer whichA user might benefit from 2.25 GB lic” folder, is used to browse the web site. Forof free space from the beginning if J the ability to give access to Ubuntu you should choose the pack-he subscribes to the service using one of the files/folders stored age according to the architecturea referral link. Also, a user can earn in the cloud through a “Share- that you are using: 32-bit or 64-bit.up to 8 GB of space from referrals – able link”, Once you have downloaded thenew users that subscribe to the ser- J shared folders with other Drop- .deb package, install it like usual. Youvice using the user’s referral link or box users, will be asked to restart Nautilus afterdirect invitations. Another 250 MB J LAN sync directly with other which you should click on the Next but-can be earn by following a number computers from the LAN which ton. Afterwards a wizard will help youof steps described on the Dropbox are linked to the same Drop- through. When the daemon is finishedwebsite which helps the user to set box account, downloading, the set-up wizard willup Dropbox on multiple computers. J dedicated “Photos” folder launch. Assuming that you do not haveIf we add all the bonuses that can which can be used to share a Dropbox account yet, one will be cre-be obtained we reach at 10.5 GB of galleries with people by provid- ated for you. Dropbox will integrate it-free cloud storage space. ing them an access link, self with Nautilus so that all the files The paid plans are “Pro 50” and J notification icon which dis- and folders which are synchronised“Pro 100”. The numbers give an in- plays useful information like with your cloud storage space will dis-dication of the space offered for the the number of files that are to play a special icon to help you figuremoney: 50 GB or 100 GB. The prices be synchronised, the transfer out the synchronisation status.are 9.99 USD per month or 99.99 speed, occupied space as a Before the wizard finishes, youUSD per year for “Pro 50” and 19.99 percent out of the total space, can choose where you want yourUSD per month or 199.99 USD per J the ability to set automatic “Dropbox” folder – the folder whoseyear for the “Pro 100” plan. emails for when you remain content is synchronised into the All transfers are made using out of space or when Dropbox cloud. The default option is to leaveSSL encrypted connections and the has scheduled maintenance it in your home directory but any oth-files are encrypted using the AES- er location would work just as well.256 standard. This means that any There are many Dropbox clients, cov- If you want to synchronise foldersdata transferred from Dropbox over ering different operating systems and which are outside of the “Dropbox”the internet is securely encrypted architectures: Linux, Mac, Windows, folder you can use symbolic links on Ubuntu (and on any other Unix/ Linux machine) but this will not work on Windows clients. For example, if you would like to synchronise your /opt folder without making an iden- tical copy inside the “Dropbox” fold- er, you could create a symbolic link inside the “Dropbox” folder which should point to /opt. This will make all the content from /opt to be stored into the cloud, even if it’s on another partition or in a folder which isn’t a child of the “Dropbox” folder. Ubuntu One Ubuntu One (http://one.ubuntu. com) is a relative new online storage and synchronisation service providedFigure 2 . Dropbox folder showing different folders by Canonical for Ubuntu users since28 Linux Identity Office
  • Dropbox and Ubuntu Onethe 9.04 release. Although the ser- z files’ and folders’ changes platforms: Ubuntu, Windowsvice was launched more than a year are updated automatically, and Mac.ago, the project is still in beta stage: z the ability to offer public J Music Storefrom what we have noticed on Ubun- access to some of the files z complete integration withtu One’s Twitter account (http:// through short URLs, Rhythmbox,twitter.com/ubuntuone) from time z encrypted transmission of z community support forto time the maintenance that has to the data using SSL encryp- Banshee,be performed on the service usually tion. z purchases are first trans-means downtime. Still, except for the J Contacts synchronisation ferred to the cloud andannounced and planned downtimes, z a complete address book then to your desktop,the service performs very good, not stored in the cloud – which z the songs purchasedto mention that the basic account – is much safer than any oth- through the music store2 GB of space in the cloud – is free. er storage medium, don’t count towards the The service will allow you to backup z automatic synchronisation storage limit,and sync files, your contacts from Evo- between the cloud address z 4 regional stores: US, UK, EUlution (the personal information man- book and Evolution, (only Austria, Belgium, Czechager and email client), Tomboy notes z every change is automati- Republic, Denmark, Finland,and Firefox’s bookmarks which you cally synchronised, Estonia, France, Germany,can then access either online, either z view, create and modify Greece, Hungary, Iceland,from any other subscribed computer. contacts using your PC or Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liech-Synchronisation performs automati- the web. tenstein, Lithuania, Luxem-cally, keeping all your data identical J Notes and bookmarks bourg, Malta, Netherlands,on all of your computers. Since there z all your Tomboy notes and Norway, Poland, Portugal,is no limit on the number of comput- Firefox bookmarks (through Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,ers you can add to your account, you the use of a plug-in) are Sweden and Switzerland)can use Ubuntu One at home, at your stored and synchronised in and world-wide.office and even at school for storing all the cloud,your files in one place. You can even z view, create and modify Mobile plans and pricesperform modifications on your files notes using your PC or the For users of the Ubuntu One Musicwhile being offline because as soon web, Store that own an iPhone or an An-as you get online Ubuntu One will per- z notes synchronisation works droid phone there is a special plan,form the synchronisation so that your on all Tomboy-supported Ubuntu One Mobile, which allows onefiles will always be up-to-date.Plans, prices and featuresAlthough 2 GB might be enough forpeople who only want to store docu-ments, some of the users might needmore space, especially if they wouldlike to store photos, movies and oth-er type of multimedia content. PC plans and pricesExtra space can be bought in packag-es of 20 GB, without a limit towardsthe number of packages one can buy.The price for a 20 GB upgrade pack-age is, at the time of this writing, only2.99 USD per month or 29.99 USDper year, but the purchases can bemade in EUR and GBP too. The complete set of features forthe PC plans are as follows: J File synchronisation z complete synchronisation for Ubuntu computers (a Windows client is currently in beta stage), Figure 3 . Create an Ubuntu One accountwww.linuxidentity.com/us/ 29
  • Dropbox and Ubuntu Oneto stream the music bought through J Photos (beta coming soon) right click on it, go to “Ubuntu One”,the music store. This means that you z storing camera phone pho- then click on Synchronize this folder.can take your music with you anywhere tos in the cloud, From now all the files and folders in-because the tracks that you have z photos are automatically side the “Documents” folder will bebought will be stored in the cloud. The synchronised with the com- synchronised with the cloud.Mobile Package costs 3.99 USD per puters registered in themonth or 39.99 USD per month, and Ubuntu One account, Conclusionwhatever paying period you choose z supports Android, Black- Both Dropbox and Ubuntu One arethe first 30 days are free. berry and Nokia devices. great cloud storage and synchro- The complete set of features for nisation services, offering prettythe mobile plans are as follows: How to much the same features. Ubuntu Signing up for an Ubuntu One ac- One is more integrated with Ubun- J Music streaming count takes 2 minutes and the Ba- tu, being designed to specifically z unlimited streaming of the sic Plan is free so you can give it a fulfil the needs of the Ubuntu user. mp3 files from the cloud to try. Click on the MeMenu (top right The fact that it can automatically the mobile phone, as long corner of your screen) and then go synchronise files, contacts, notes, as you have an iPhone/iPod to “Ubuntu One...”. A window asking Firefox bookmarks and the music Touch (iOS 4 is supported) for some personal information used bought through the Ubuntu One or an Android phone, to create your account will open. Music Store is really impressive. z browsing and searching by Click on Forward as soon as all The main disadvantage of using artist, album or song title, the fields are filled correctly. If ev- Ubuntu One comes from the fact z the usual playback con- erything is okay a new window will that there aren’t clients for all the trols: skip, shuffle, repeat open, asking you for a confirma- major operating systems. The Win- one or repeat all, tion code which should have been dows client is still in beta and there z controllable cache for lis- sent to the email address you have are no news about a Mac client. tening to your music while used for subscribing. After you con- Furthermore, the somewhat often offline, firm your email address everything downtimes might not offer the best z resume playback when in- is set up for use. The “Ubuntu One user experience. terrupted by a call. Preferences” window will open and Dropbox on the other hand is J Contacts synchronisation will display some useful information pretty well supported on all major z synchronisation of all the and configuration options. operating systems (both desktop op- phone contacts with the If you now open your home direc- erating systems and mobile devices Ubuntu One address book, tory you will see a new folder, named OS), although it doesn’t offer the z support for Android, iP- “Ubuntu One”. This is the primary tight integration that Ubuntu One hone, Blackberry, Nokia folder which will be synchronised can provide. Still, Dropbox seems to and other phones (users of with your own personal cloud stor- be more reliable, more mature, eas- Android or iOS should age space. But any other folder can ier to use and faster than Ubuntu search for the “Ubuntu One be selectively added to the Ubuntu One, not to mention that it actually Contacts” application in One service. For example to add your uses Amazon S3 storage services the app marketplace). “Documents” folder you would simply which proved to be more robust than what Canonical can offer now. Since both solutions offer about the same functionalities and the same storage space for the free ac- count, the decision to choose one over the other is simply a matter of personal taste and needs. If you do use more than one operating sys- tem and would like a more reliable service go for Dropbox. But if you would like a better integration with Ubuntu and can accept some down- times, then Ubuntu One is definitely the choice for you. If Ubuntu One would improve to the level of uptime and speed that Dropbox provides, then we don’t think that an Ubuntu user would have a solid reason notFigure 4 . Selective sync in Ubuntu One – The Documents folder to use Ubuntu One.30 Linux Identity Office
  • Ubuntu and WindowsReading WindowsfilesTiago Boldt SousaL inux users cannot deny the vast mar- Whenever you connect any NTFS or FAT ket share that Microsoft has with its formated device, a new entry will automati- Windows operating system. This huge cally appear in your Desktop or Nautilus, al-market share results in a high propensity lowing you to use the drive as if it was a localto find proprietary file systems and net- disc. The exact same happens if you have awork protocols that might be hard to read partition in a local disc formated in either ofor communicate with. Fortunately there’s a those file systems.strong open-source community working toreverse engineer these protocols and file Accessing Windows filessystems allowing anyone to access them. in remote machinesThis article explains how to read your Win- Whenever you want to trade files with a Win-dows file systems with Ubuntu both remote dows computer, using the network is most ofand locally. the times the best option. Network speeds are really fast nowadays and it removes theReading proprietary need of external media and therefore addi-file systems tional dependencies for transferring files.Throughout the history of Ubuntu, being There are many ways to access windowsable to access Microsoft’s file systems has files from an Ubuntu machine. Many involvenot always been easy. Support for the old installing additional software, adding com-FAT (File Allocation Table) based file systems plexity to the process. That is not necessaryhas been present since the debut ofUbuntu. Although, with the appear-ance of the NTFS (New TechnologyFile System), accessing Windowspartitions suffered a severe regres-sion. Up until 2007 Linux had nosupport for writing in this file system.The file system was not only presenton Windows installation partitionsbut also widely spreading betweenexternal storage devices like hard-drives and more recently in manyUSB flash drives. Due to the fantastic work doneby the ntfs-3g team, a new driver ap-peared, giving Linux full support forthis file system by just installing thenecessary package. Nowadays, ntfs-3g comes with the default Ubuntuinstallation, meaning that you’llhave full access to any NTFS parti-tion you connect to your computer. Figure 1 . File and Printer Sharing enabled in interfacewww.linuxidentity.com/us/ 31
  • Ubuntu and Windows to limit the access to the share. You can also enable or disable Write per- mission on a per-user basis. End by applying the settings. Follow the the same process when- ever you want to alter or simply remove permissions from a shared folder. Accessing Windows shares from Ubuntu SAMBA is a free software tool that speaks the SMB protocol and com- municates with Windows machines enabling the transfer of files and ac- cess to printing services. Nowadays, Ubuntu comes with SMB support by default, meaning that the samba package is already installed. Accessing Windows shares us- ing Nautilus, the Gnome file ex-Figure 2 . Choosing share permissions plorer and SAMBA as been greatlysince Windows already ships with the see the share depends on the simplified in the last distributions.Server Message Block protocol (SMB, adapter configurations. Then follow Nautilus now has the possibility toalso known as Common Internet File these steps carefully. search the local network for Win-System, CIFS), most commonly known Enter the Control Panel and inside dows shares. No extra configurationas Windows Shares. This protocol al- Network and Internet open the Net- needed. In order to start the net-lows sharing of folders and printers. work and sharing center. On the right work search in Nautilus open the GoNote that this protocol is optimized select Change Adapter Settings and menu and select Network.for local network sharing. right click on the interface you will want After finding the share you can to use, followed by properties. Make treat it just as a local folder. If cre-Enabling Windows sure that File and Printer Sharing for dentials are required they will beShares Microsoft Networks is activated. prompted. If you’ll be using that shareThe provided instructions and ex- frequently, consider creating a book-amples are for the latest Microsoft Sharing a Folder mark out of it. It will save you the net-Windows 7. Windows Vista users As a last step, navigate to the folder work search time on the next usage.might have to adapt them to their you want to be shared from the com-operative system but it should be puter. Right click on it and choose SAMBA as a serverpractically the same. Before en- properties. Open the Sharing tab If you ever find the need, you canabling Windows Shares make sure and press the Share button. A new also use SAMBA as a server, allow-you’re connected to the network window will pop up and allows you ing Windows machines to connect toyou’ll use. Being able to remotely to choose who you want to share the shared folders in Ubuntu. In order to folder with. By default enable it, right click on the folder you only the owner of the pretend to share and select click in folder has access to Sharing Options. The first time you try it. Use the drop-down to share a folder you won’t have the menu to choose an- sharing service installed and you’ll other users to share be prompted for the administrator the folder with. If you password in order to install the nec- choose Everyone the essary packages. Insert your pass- folder will be public, word and let the process complete. requiring no password. Be sure to select SMB so that your Otherwise, choose a Windows machine is able to access login from the computer your Ubuntu folder. After the service and that user’s creden- is installed get back to the folder’s tials will be required to sharing options, enable the share access the share. You and give the folder a sharing name. can create new users in Now you can search the network inFigure 3 . Nautilus searching for Windows the control panel and your Windows machine and you’llshares give them passwords find that the share will come up.32 Linux Identity Office
  • Photo managementShotwell, the newphoto managerin Ubuntu 10 .10Guy Van SandenU buntu 10.10, Maverick, was released The project just released it’s first version exactly on time on 10/10/10. Aside (0.1.0) in June of 2009, so it’s a little over a from the many improvements and year old. After the initial release, there havesmall changes from Lucid, it’s the first been releases a frequently as 2 per month.Ubuntu version that replaces F-Spot with Ubuntu Maverick comes with versionShotwell as the default photo management 0.7.2, which has sufficient features to satis-application. fy most users and is stable enough for daily use (I haven’t had a single Shotwell crashHistory since I started using it).F-Spot had replaced gThumb earlier in2006, just after the release of the first Long Navigating in ShotwellTerm Support (LTS) version. Shotwell can be started from the Applica- F-Spot gained basic photo-editing capa- tions menu under Graphics. It will alsobilities and during the Lucid development launch when connecting a digital camera orcycle, a decision was made to remove The media card with images on it.GIMP (the Free Software answer to Photo- The main interface consists of a navi-shop) from the default install because it was gation sidebar on the left, and a large viewtoo complex for most novices users (and ad- pane on the right.vanced users could just install it from the Pictures are organized into events, whichrepositories). by default are labeled by dates extracted The move to F-Spot and the subse-quent removal of The GIMP cause a lot ofcontroversy in the Ubuntu communities.Not because gThumb was the preferredchoice by a vocal number of users, butmainly because F-Spot is based on theMono framework (a GPL’d, cross-platform.NET implementation from Novell). Mono and C# are not safe to use inFree Software projects according to theFree Software Foundation (FSF) becauseof patents held by Microsoft on the origi-nal .NET framework.BackgroundShotwell is written in the Vala programminglanguage, a relatively new high-level pro-gramming language for the Gnome environ-ment. It’s one of several projects of Yorba, anon-profit software group from the US thatcurrently has 5 developers on staff. Figure 1 . Shotwell startup screenwww.linuxidentity.com/us/ 33
  • Photo management Publishing Publishing pictures to a select group of websites can be done from inside Shotwell. Unfortunately, these are all proprietary webservices, but nev- ertheless many users are on Face- book and use Flickr or Picasa. I only tried the Facebook plugin and it works as expected, but it would be nicer if you could select groups of pictures by tag or event and upload them all at once. Conclusion I have to admit that I never really like F-Spot for several reasons (in- cluding instability and the fact that it was written in C#). So I stuck to gThumb for lack of something I liked better since Ubuntu 6.10.Figure 2 . Shotwell importing pictures from a camera At some point before Lucid, I discovered Shotwell through a blog wide range of camera’s post featured on one of my RSS using several different feeds. I installed it from a PPA (non- protocols. standard user repository) and was A very nice feature is amazed at how well this early ver-Figure 3 . Shotwell publishing a picture to fa- that Shotwell can keep sion worked and how it supportedcebook track of which pictures the camera’s that neither F-Spot nor are already imported gThumb worked with earlier.from the metadata included with the to avoid doubles in your collection So I quickly decided to hand overfiles. Events can be nested below when you do not remove them from my gThumb-managed photo collec-each other, and the default date- the camera after import. tion to Shotwell and it has been run-based events make use of this. After importing, Shotwell builds ning very well since. Shotwell can access the meta- a database with metadata for the Shotwell has a very intuitive userdata left in the picture-files by your pictures in it, but the files them- interface that will appeal to both ex-camera. This includes details like selves remain accessible outside perienced and novice users. It hasthe camera model, date and time- of Shotwell. They are organized by embedded photo-editing featuresstamp but also extra information default in the Pictures folder in your that are sufficient to do cover thelike light exposure, flash fired and home directory with subfolders per basics that most users need (likeon recent camera models, GPS in- year, per month and per day. red-eye removal). For users thatformation about the location where need to do more editing, The Gimpthe picture was taken. Tags & Events is just an install away. The only thing I missed is an op- The organization of pictures in Shot- It supports custom events, tagstion to show the GPS location on a well is based on 2 components: tags and ratings to quickly locate specificmap (because plain coordinates do and events. photos and integrates with websitesnot mean much to me). An event is an hierarchical like Facebook, Flickr or Picasa. grouping of pictures that belong to Of course there are missing fea-Importing pictures one real-life event such as a birthday tures and imperfections, but consid-Shotwell can directly import your old party. The hierarchy makes it easy to ering that this is a pre-1.0 version,collection from F-Spot, so the migra- split events that span multiple time- Ubuntu and Fedora where very righttion is quick and painless. units into sub-events (like a comput- to make it the default. Of course, you can import pic- er fair that spanned several days).tures from directories on all kinds Tags are used to add keywords to Further Readingof storage backends available to pictures that do or do not belong to J Shotwell project page: http://Gnome (via gvfs). the same event, like tagging a person yorba.org/shotwell/ But the main source of pictures across all pictures in the database. J The Vala programming lan-will off course be your digital cam- Both tags and events are avail- guage: http://en.wikipedia.era (or cell phone with built-in cam- able in the sidebar to quickly access o rg / w i k i / Va l a _ ( p ro g r a m -era). Luckily, Shotwell supports a a group of pictures. ming_language)34 Linux Identity Office
  • Ubuntu SecuritySecurity BasicsBhaskar KandiyalS ecurity is a major concern for any user and open source one is called Clam Anti- who wishes to use his/her computer Virus or ClamAV (Can be installed from the for day to day tasks like surfing the Software Center).web, shopping online etc. Most users ne- ClamAV is a command-line based virusglect security issues and then pay the price. scanner, but there is a GUI available called When it comes to Linux, the first thing that ClamTk. Both of these can be installed fromcomes to mind is security. Yes, Ubuntu/Linux the Ubuntu Software Center. Apart from thedoes provide fairly good security out of the box open source anti-virus software there arebut there are some things that a user has to Linux versions of the popular Microsoft Win-manually configure to get maximum security. dows antivirus software’s like Avast or AVG. Unfortunately, there is no single action If you have installed ClamTk, you canyou can take to secure your operating sys- start it from Applications −> Accessories −>tem, you will have to secure your system Virus Scanner.according to your needs providing different The interface of ClamTk is pretty self-ex-layers of security as per your requirements. planatory and simple. The Actions area con- tains the buttons for scanning your Home di-Encrypted Home Directory rectory, a specific file or a specific directory.You home directory is the place all your per- In the Status area, you can see the versionsonal files are stored. Encrypting the home di- of the GUI, Antivirus Engine, Virus Definitionsrectory can provide very good security to users etc. as well as the when the last virus scan wasand prevent others from accessing your files. done and the name of the last infected file. Ubuntu 10.10 provides an option to en- There is an Advanced menu where youcrypt your home directory, this options is can set the preferences, change the sched-provided at install time on the page where uler settings as well as run the setup wiz-your details like Name, Username and Pass- ard which will allow you to set the updateword are asked. method of the virus definitions. Please note that you will not be able touse the automatic login feature if you wantto have an encrypted home folder. Ubuntuwill ask you for a password every time youwish to login to the system.Anti-VirusMost people who have used Microsoft Windowswill know that a computer virus can be verydangerous and it can be used to compromisethe security of a system. For countering theseviruses an anti-virus program is required whichdetects the threats and eliminates them. Fortunately, there are not many virusesthat exist for Linux. Those that exist can’t re-ally do much harm to a system. But if you wantmaximum possible security, then there is noharm in using an anti-virus software for Linux. There are many anti-virus software’s Figure 1 . Enabling Home Folder Encryp-available for Linux/Ubuntu, the most used tion at Install Timewww.linuxidentity.com/us/ 35
  • Ubuntu Security etc. Therefore it’s essential to use a secure web browser which is re- liable and has security features built-in. Ubuntu comes with Mozilla Fire- fox installed by default. Firefox has a lot of security features built-in and it’s security can be improved by in- stalling various add-ons. Mozilla Firefox has a neat fea- ture that allows you to browse pri- vately i.e. without leaving any trace of which websites that you visited. When browsing privately, the web- site cache is cleared automatically when the browser exits.Figure 2 . ClamTk a ClamAV GUI in Ubuntu Software Center To start a private browsing ses- In the Help menu, you can check it called Gufw. It can be installed sion in Mozilla Firefox, go to Tools −>for updates of the virus definitions from the Ubuntu Software Center Start Private Browsing.as well as the GUI (ClamTk). by searching for Gufw. You can run To further enhance the security Gufw from System −> Administra- of the browser, you can install ad-Firewall tion −> Firewall Configuration. dons which are freely available fromA firewall is a software that pre- There are a lot of pre-configured http://addons.mozilla.org/vents attacks from outside the rules in Gufw which can be added Here is a list of addons that aresystem i.e. from a network or the to allow certain programs like Ktor- recommended to be installed for ainternet. Linux comes with a fire- rent, Amule etc. to accept incoming safer web experience:wall pre-installed called IPTables. connections.It provides security by simply ignor- Alternatively, you can also add J WOT (Web Of Trust) – warnsing the unwanted connec tion at- custom rules, to allow/deny con- about untrusted websites andtempts made to your computer and nections to specific ports like FTP gives rating information abouttherefore preventing the attacker or HTTP. the sites that you visit.from even knowing that a system To add a custom rule, just click J NoScript – stops websites fromeven exists. on the Add button, and select running JavaScript. Only the Most users complaint about ip- Simple or Advanced in the dialog websites that you whitelist willtables is that it’s difficult to under- that pops up. The Advanced tab be allowed to run JavaScript.stand and use for a novice user. This lets you add specific IP address J Better Privacy – it safeguardsproblem is solved in Ubuntu by pro- that you wish to allow/deny con- your privacy by deleting flashviding a front-end to iptables called nections. cookies that are set by web-UFW (Uncomplicated Firewall). You can also setup UFW to log sites that display flash con- UFW makes it easy to define any connection attempts matching tent. It also prevents long termrules for allowing and denying con- a rule, just click on the Show Ex- tracking cookies to be set.nection attempts for both outgoing tended Actions checkbox. This will J Ghostery – displays informationas well as incoming connections. add a few dropdown boxes where in the status bar about websitesUFW is a command-line based pro- you can select to log a connection which are tracking you.gram, but there is a simple GUI for attempt or log all packets. J Flashblock and AdBlock Plus – these two addons are not re- Secure Web ally security related but they Browsing provide features such as Most of the security risk blocking flash content and an- nowadays comes from noying advertisements from security holes present websites. in web browsers. These security holes can be File Permissions used by a malicious Linux provides various permissions website to gain access for files which can be used to control to your personal infor- which file can be accessed by which mation like your user- user in the system. This can be ex- name and passwords tremely helpful if you wish to hideFigure 3 . ClamTk Virus Scanner of different websites sensitive data from certain users.36 Linux Identity Office
  • Ubuntu SecurityFigure 4 . Gufw Runningon Ubuntu 10.10 File permissions can be of thetypes: J Read – a user if allowed to Figure 5 . Mozilla Firefox Running In Private Browsing Mode only read a file. J Write – a user can only write to well as alphabets. The pass- Ubuntu please read the awesome a file. word should not be easily Ubuntu Security guide at http:// J Execute – a user can only exe- guessable. ubuntuforums.org/showthread. cute a file. J Never give execute permissions php?t=510812 to files that are un-These permissions can be com- trusted (especiallybined to allow a user to perform script files).multiple operations like reading as J If you use Wine towell as executing a file. run Windows pro- To set permissions for a file grams on Linux,using GUI, simply open up the file never run it as root.manager, right click the files that J Never add an un-you wish to set permissions for trusted softwareand then click Properties. In the repository to yourfile properties window click on the system.Permissions tab. There you can se- J Always give filelect various file permissions that permissions to im-can be set on the file to restrict or portant files suchallow access to certain users in the that no one else issystem. able to read/modify them.Tips For A SecureSystem Reference J Always use a long password For more information which contains numerals as about securing your Figure 6 . Nautilus File Permissions Dialog OXY Press LLC 35A The Commons OXY PRESS Editor in Chief: Sonny Gaviola Print: ArtDruk 3524 Silverside Road Editor: Caroline Torner Printed in EU Wilmington, DE 19810-4929, USA Author: Radu Cotescu Distributed in USA by Phone number: +1 302 722 42 34 Bhaskar Kandiyal Source Interlink International, Inc. Fax number: +1 801 806 87 10 Tiago Boldt Sousa 27500 Riverview Center Blvd., Suite 400 www.linuxidentity.com Guy Van Sanden Bonita Springs, Florida 34134 editors@linuxidentity.com Anurag Upadhaya All logos and trademarks presented in the magazine Art Director: Tom Goreen are property of their respective owners. Marketing Director: Tina Mayer (c) 2010 OXY Press LLC, All rights reservedwww.linuxidentity.com/us/ 37
  • Network Commands for Terminal Terminal Command Guide – Network Issues Bhaskar Kandiyal I f you have ever set up a network between Syntax: ping [options] <destination> two or more computers you will probably know that it can be very difficult and frus- Here the destination can be an IP address trating to troubleshoot any errors that may or a hostname. To see a list of options use come up like no connectivity or packet loss. the command man ping So, for troubleshooting these kinds of is- By default the ping command keeps on sues, Linux provides some very useful com- sending the packets. To customize the num- mands that can be used to configure and ber of packets that are to be sent the option troubleshoot your network in no time. -c or –count. Eg: ping -c4 localhost (this will send 4 packets to localhost). Ping Examples: The ping command is one of the most used and most useful commands for trouble- J ping localhost – sends ICMP_ECHO shooting a network connection. requests or “pings” to localhost. The ping command works by sending J ping – a number IP ad- a stream of packets to the destination and dress can also be specified. checks to see whether the destination re- J ping --count=10 localhost – stops sponds to the pings. This can be very useful after sending 10 packets to localhost. to check whether a connection to a remote host can be established or not. Traceroute Another use of the ping command can As the name suggests, the traceroute com- be to see the time taken for each response mand displays the route that a packet takes to a ping, this can be useful in identifying any when communicating from one computer to lag/delay that is taking place in the network. another from a network. This can be immensely helpful if there is a faulty machine which is not routing pack- ets correctly to other systems. Or if you wish to analyze the time it takes for a packet to reach its destination. It can also be used to detect any firewalls that are filtering packets to the destination. Syntax: traceroute [options] ↵ <ip-address|host-name> Examples: traceroute ubuntu.com – traces route to ubuntu.com traceroute --mtu google.com – traces route to google.com and also displays the MTU (Maximmum TransmissionFigure 1 . “ping” Command Running in a Terminal Unit).38 Linux Identity Office
  • Network Commands for TerminalIfconfigIfconfig can be used to display infor-mation and also configure a networkinterface. The main use of this toolis to configure the network interface,but it can also be used for gettinguseful information about a networkinterface like the Hardware Address,IP Address, MTU and also whetherthe interface is running or not. Apart from configuring a networkinterface, ifconfig can also be used tochange certain information about aninterface like setting it’s hardware ad-dress, MTU, broadcast address, setthe IRQ etc. Figure 2 . “Ifconfig” Command Running on Ubuntu 10.10 Syntax: ifconfig [options] [in- terface] Examples: The type of information that is printed depends upon the first argu-All the arguments to ifconfig are J route add default gw ment which can be: --route (Routingoptional. If it’s run without any – adds a default information), --group (Displays multi-arguments, then it will display in- gateway cast group information), --interfacesformation about all the enabled J route del default – deletes (Displays network interface table),network interfaces. You can pass the default gateway --masquerade (Displays list of mas-the -a option to show disabled in- J route add -net queraded connections), --statisticsterfaces as well. netmask eth0 (Shows connection statistics). Examples: – adds a route to the local net- work 192.56.76.x via eth0 Syntax: netstat [options] J ifconfig eth0 netmask – changing Netstat Examples: only the netmask of interface The netstat command is used to J netstat – shows currently eth0. display information about the cur- connected socket information. J ifconfig eth0 rently active connections on an in- J netstat -a – displays con- – changes the IP address of terface. It can be used for various nected as well as listening the interface. purposes like displaying information socket information. J ifconfig eth0 mtu 1500 net- about programs which are currently J netstat -n – shows only nu- mask – adding listening for connections (useful for meric addresses. a netmask and MTU at the identifying unwanted services) and J netstat -pl – displays all pro- same time to eth0. statistics about an interface like cesses that are currently lis- packets received/sent etc. tening for connections.Routeroute is a command which can beused to see/alter the routing tableof an interface. The table generallycontains the address of a gateway/router through which all the packetsare routed through to go to it’s des-tination. The interface whose routing op-tions are being modified should firstbe configured with the ifconfig com-mand. Syntax: route [options]If run without any options, the com-mand outputs the whole routingtable to the terminal. Figure 3 . “Netstat” Command Showing Processes Listening for Connectionswww.linuxidentity.com/us/ 39
  • Network Commands for TerminalIfup and Ifdown identify and configure all interfaces dia Independent Interface (MII)Ifup and Ifdown are commands on the system. unit. It tells the speed at which theused for bringing up (enabling) or Another way of specifying in- NIC link is operating i.e 10Mbps,down (disabling) an interface, re- terfaces is through manually add- 100Mbps etc.spectively. They are mostly used if ing them to the file dhclient.conf mii-tool command will alsoyou wish to restart your network in- which is located in /etc/dhcp3 on show the status of the auto-nego-terface after making changes to its Ubuntu. When this method is used, tiation which automatically deter-configuration. only those interfaces are configured mines the speed of the link. It also Only those interfaces can be which are in the file dhclient.conf or shows the link status i.e. whetherchanged which are present in the are specified on the command-line. the link is ok or has a problem.file /etc/network/interfaces. Use man dhclient.conf for syntax There is also a command called and further reference. ethtool which is similar to mii-tool Syntax: ifup [options] ↵ but it is not installed by default on <interface> Syntax: dhclient [options] Ubuntu. ethtool gives a more de- ifdown [options] <interface> scriptive output that mii-tool. Example:Examples: Syntax : mii-tool [options] dhclient eth0 – assigns a dy- J ifup eth0 – brings eth0 up namic IP address to eth0 from When no options are specified, mii- (Enabling). the DHCP server. tool will only output a brief mes- J ifdown eth0 – brings eth0 sage displaying the link speed and down (Disabling). Tcpdump status. To see a more detailed out- J ifdown eth0 && ifup eth0 – At times there’s a need to monitor put, the -v option can be used. combination of both com- what traffic is passing through a Examples: mands can be used to restart particular interface. This functional- an interface. ity is provided by the tcpdump com- mii-tool – shows the link speed mand. It dumps the traffic passing and status,Dhclient through a network interface to the mii-tool -v – shows a moredhclient is used to automatically user. It must be run as root. detailed output about linkassign IP addresses to interfaces speed, status, capabilitiesthrough the DHCP (Dynamic Host Syntax: tcpdump [options] and auto-negotiation.Configuration Protocol). dhclientmust be run as root. Example: Network Configuration If the automatic assignment of FilesIP address fails then dhclient will tcpdump -i eth0 – dumps traf- In Ubuntu, there are various files forstatically assign an IP address to fic from interface eth0 to the configuring a network, these can bethe interface. screen. used to alter how a network inter- On the command-line the inter- face is set up on your computer.face name that is to be configured Mii-Toolvia DHCP should be specified, if mii-tool is a utility that checks the J /etc/network/interfaces – de-it’s omitted then dhclient will try to status of a network interface’s Me- fines the configuration of all interfaces that are to be used on a computer. J /etc/resolv.conf – stores a list of nameserver (DNS servers) which are used to resolve host- names. J /etc/hosts – hosts that are to be resolved locally (not by DNS). J /etc/nsswitch.conf – lists or- der of host name search. Typi- cally look at local files, then NIS server, then DNS server. Further Reading https://help.ubuntu.com/10.04/ internet/C/troubleshooting.htmlFigure 4 . /etc/hosts File on Ubuntu 10.1040 Linux Identity Office
  • FAQ and HelpFAQ’s And WhereTo Get HelpBhaskar KandiyalHow many derivatives of Ubuntu are you have a netbook/laptop without a CD-there? ROM drive.There are several derivatives of Ubuntu, but notall of them are officially recognized by Ubuntu. What types of CD images does UbuntuThe official derivatives of Ubuntu include: provide for downloading? Ubuntu basically has 4 types of CD images J Ubuntu Studio – designed for multi- which provide different types of installation media editing and creation, options, so a user can choose one depend- J Mythbuntu – designed for creating a ing on their requirements. home theater PC with MythTV, J Kubuntu – Ubuntu with the K Desktop J Live CD – the Ubuntu Live CD lets users environment, try out the operating system without in- J Edubuntu – Ubuntu for education, stalling it to one’s hard drive. This en- J Xubuntu – Ubuntu with the Xfce desk- ables a user to see how the installed top environment. system will look and function. You can also install Ubuntu from the Live CD.What is the difference between all of J Alternate-Install Disk – this providesthese derivatives of Ubuntu? advanced options like choosing whichThe main difference is only of the desktop packages to install by default. It doesenvironment’s. Ubuntu uses Gnome as not provide Live CD capabilities.its default desktop environment whereas J Net-Install Disk – the net install disk isKubuntu uses KDE and Xubuntu uses Xfce a very small CD image which allows aas its default desktop environment. There is user to choose which packages to in-also a difference of default packages, that stall and then download them on-the-is, which packages are installed by default. fly with an active internet connection.For example Ubuntu Studio includes pack- This ensures that all the updated pack-ages for multimedia creation and editing ages are installed.with it’s default install so users do not need J Ubuntu DVD – the Ubuntu DVD doesto install them manually. not contain anything special, it justI want to install Ubuntu but I don’t wantto burn a CD/I don’t have a CD drive. Isthere any other way?Yes, there is a couple of methods of install-ing Ubuntu without having to burn a CD. Butyou will have to download the Ubuntu ISO im-age regardless of which method you choose.The first method would be to use Wubi andinstall Ubuntu within Windows, it’s the safestway if you don’t want to mess around withcreating partitions and risk losing data. Another method would be to use a USBdrive/thumb drive to boot. For this meth-od, you will need Unetbootin, what it doesis it will install your .iso image to a USBstick so you can boot with it and installUbuntu. This method is the best method if Figure 1 . Ubuntu Software Centerwww.linuxidentity.com/us/ 41
  • FAQ and Help contains additional language tories and if available, it will down- com/ and search for the application packs that might be needed by load and install it to your system. you used before in another OS and some people. PPA or Personal Package Ar- it will tell you all the alternatives that chive, is just like a repository, except are available in Linux.I want to keep both Windows that it’s managed mainly on an indi-and Ubuntu on the same ma- vidual basis and not by Ubuntu. All I want to contribute to Ubuntuchine, how can I do that? the PPA’s are hosted on Launchpad and help make it better, howYou will need to create separate par- (http://www.launchpad.net/). can I contribute?titions for Ubuntu and then install Ubuntu is a community driven OSUbuntu. Ubuntu’s installer will auto- What are the official Ubuntu and it needs help of its users tomatically detect if there is Windows repositories? progress further. If you wish to con-installed on the system and it will pro- Official Ubuntu repositories are cat- tribute to Ubuntu’s developmentvide an option for booting into Win- egorized on the basis of the soft- then it’s great news! You do notdows once you start the computer. ware that they contain. You can need to be a developer/program- enable or disable them from the mer to be able to contribute, youOK, I’ve installed Ubuntu, now Software Sources application in can do it in several ways like report-where can I find and install new System −> Administration −> Soft- ing any bugs that you find, helpingapplications? ware Sources. These are the official with packaging new applications. IfUbuntu provides a very nice and user- Ubuntu repositories: you are a designer, you can createfriendly tool called the Ubuntu Soft- artwork for Ubuntu and most theware Center that lets users search for J Main – it contains all the main most important way to contribute isand install applications. It also shows packages that are supported to spread the word! Tell your friendsfeatured and most popular applica- by Ubuntu, about Ubuntu, tell them how to usetions. To access the Ubuntu Software J Restricted – contains software it and ask them to tell their friends.Center go to Applications −> Ubuntu that is not available under aSoftware Center. completely free license, Where To Get Help J Universe – contains commu- There will be times when you will getWhen does a new version of nity supported software, stuck and you will need some helpUbuntu come out? And how can J Multiverse – contains packag- to get going. There is no better placeI upgrade to the new version? es that are not free like multi- for getting help with Ubuntu than toUbuntu has a 6-month release media codecs and some appli- check out the documentation thatschedule i.e. it releases a new ver- cations like Flash. comes with Ubuntu. Go to System −>sion every 6 months. If you wish to Help and Support to see Ubuntu’supgrade your current version to the Are there disk utilities available documentation.latest, you can run the Update Man- for Ubuntu just like in Windows If you can’t find what you’re look-ager (System −> Administration −> or other OS’s? ing for then you will need to checkUpdate Manager) and you will have Disk utilities like defragmenting out the online documentation atan option to upgrade to the new ver- tools that are popular in the Win- http://help.ubuntu.com/sion if it’s available. dows world are not available for Apart from the official docu- Linux/Ubuntu mainly because they mentation, there are other placesHow do I find out which version are rarely needed. Fragmentation where you can get help. The Ubuntuof Ubuntu I am using? on Linux is a very debated issue and Forums located at http://ubuntu-It’s easy, just open up a terminal tools for defragmenting are in most forums.org/, where you can ask(Applications −> Accessories −> cases not needed by normal users. questions and get the answers.Terminal) and in it enter the com- Apart from defragmenting tools, Also, for realtime help there is nomand lsb_release -a This will tell Ubuntu contains filesystem utili- better place than IRC (Internet Re-you what version of Ubuntu you are ties that will check for errors in a lay Chat), you will need to downloadusing and the codename like Maver- filesystem. It’s called fsck and you an IRC client (eg: Xchat) or useick Meerkat. can use it to scan a partition for er- the online client provided by Free- rors. But manual partition checking Node at http://webchat.freenode.So, what is all this repository is not needed since Ubuntu scans net/ and join the #ubuntu channeland PPA things that everyone is a filesystem for errors at boot-time where you can ask for help and gettalking about? automatically. answers in real-time.A repository is a place where Ubun- If you get stuck somewheretu’s software packages are stored. Where can I find applications please don’t hesitate to ask for help,So, basically, if you wish to install a similar applications that I used the whole Ubuntu community is ded-software package like GIMP for ex- on a different OS like Windows? icated to helping others and mak-ample then Ubuntu will search for You can check out http://www.li- ing people’s experience of Ubuntuthe software package in the reposi- nuxalt.com/ and http://www.osalt. pleasant.42 Linux Identity Office