Major Contemporary Issues
Gandhian Relevance
Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 2
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Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance
Anurag Gangal...
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Copy Right © 2008 Author and I-Proclaim Publishers
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About The Author
Anurag Gangal is Professor of Political Sc...
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About the Book
This book is about Gandhian humanitarian vie...
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Preface
This work relates to a few aspects anent
relevance ...
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given us already so much without ever expecting
even an io...
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minds” if we come out of this “dynamic historicity”
– wher...
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upon me specially through his book Gandhi and
Beyond.
Ther...
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regions of the world. Such matters imprint upon our
mind d...
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international politics and peace and conflict studies.
San...
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and his wife Rekha Aggarwal – my very special
sister-in-la...
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I am dedicating this book to my parents,
namely, my Father...
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Content
Chapters Pages
About the Author 5
About the Book 7...
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Chapter One
Introduction: Major Issues
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Chapter One
Introduction: Major Issues
Relevance of the id...
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the world such as over population, proliferation of armame...
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in the area of technological upliftment and heavy industri...
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Drinking Water Front
Again, in India, basic need of water ...
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Government, through its media, is on a special spree to te...
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will come handy at times of warfare and bombardment by an ...
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visionary population, indeed, is on the anvil in the sixti...
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Indian Revenue and Income Tax
This is combined with Indian...
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about rupees 2, 00,000 per month. Out of this monthly amou...
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presented – and policies are formulated. Standards are als...
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Asia, Africa and Latin America (AALA). This, indeed, is a ...
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created by political perversion and, on the other hand, ju...
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and hither-to-fore un-spoken perspectives on issues like p...
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problems of proliferation of armaments, terrorism, human s...
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are minting money and mainly they are becoming prosperous ...
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civil society based on nonviolence because there is no roo...
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Chapter Two
Globalisation
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Chapter Two
Globalisation
Mahatma Gandhi has seldom writte...
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technology is bringing in its wake a global transformation...
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foundation of the larger socio-political and economic edif...
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5) end of or doing away with “war as an instrument of
nati...
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five “Ps”, namely, Population, Poverty, Pollution, Prolife...
44
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1. Science of techniques or technology has entered the
...
45
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Trade Organisation, United Nations, European Union and
...
46
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in almost every subject or discipline are treated as
co...
47
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application of scientific knowledge for practical purpo...
48
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Technology is, therefore, polluting not only this space...
49
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The essence of social cohesiveness is being forgotten.
...
50
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multiplying population among poorer nations of the worl...
51
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Gandhi on Globalisation
The prospects of present-day gl...
52
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particular as a term with specific meaning that is bein...
53
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not raise my little finger against it…. If
the Governme...
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[I am not against all international trade,
though impor...
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I. “…. people living in it make bodily welfare the obje...
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by means of a letter [of email] for one penny. True, at...
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programme for regeneration of every individual is neede...
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• Common good of all.
• Bigger nations ready to “give” ...
59
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correctives of (i) limited State power and (ii) socio-e...
60
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Gandhian pointers in this age of technology for keeping...
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References and Notes
1
V. A. Patil and D. Gopal, Politi...
62
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non-exploitative and cooperative and (iii) It should be...
63
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22 Quoted in Ram K. Vepa, New Technology: A Gandhian Co...
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Chapter Three
Kashmir Question
66
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Chapter Three
Kashmir Question
Any Kashmir watcher can ...
68
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Gandhi Relating to Kashmir
For Pakistan, this precariou...
69
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--“The ‘two nations’ theory is an untruth. The vast
maj...
70
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BRAVELY DEFENDING KASHMIR NOR
SHALL I MIND …. MUSLIM, H...
71
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gratifying in nature. They call for wider perception on...
72
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duty towards younger partner. This is also a diplomatic...
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basis. All this is just because Pakistani Governments a...
74
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clearly identified forces of invaders only then our mil...
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psychology in such cases which works and resolves the i...
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other options are tried, the result will be further com...
77
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( session 1932-33 ),Volume-II,p.1496;Sangat Singh,
Paki...
78
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Pakistani intentions appear to be clear from the very
b...
79
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adopting dangerous postures towards them in league with...
80
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stressed strongly, that for Gandhi violence was always ...
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Major contemporary issues gandhian relevance 1

  1. 1. Major Contemporary Issues Gandhian Relevance
  2. 2. Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 2
  3. 3. Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 3 Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance Anurag Gangal Professor, Department of Political Science, and Director, Gandhian Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies, University of Jammu, Jammu - 180006 Gandhian Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies University of Jammu, Jammu-180006, J&K, India.
  4. 4. Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 4 Copy Right © 2008 Author and I-Proclaim Publishers
  5. 5. Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 5 About The Author Anurag Gangal is Professor of Political Science and also Director of the Gandhian Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies (GCPCS) at University of Jammu, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Author has spent nearly quarter of a century as a teacher in the Indian University system. He has been a Visiting Professor at University of Calcutta, Banaras Hindu University and at University of Madras. For three years he has served as member of the Advisory Board of the Jury of Mahatma Gandhi International Peace Prize. Author has had practical experience in applying the Gandhian techniques in the resolution of varied challenges faced by the Indian civil society and the local population of Jammu and Kashmir. In this context, he has been fortunate to work with noted activists and academics like Dr Kiran Bedi, Dr Savita Singh, Dr N. Radhakrishnan, Shri Tushar Gandhi, Professor David Cortwright, Professor Yunus Samad, Professor Amitabh Mattoo, Professor Priyankar Upadhyaya, Professor Anju Sharan Upadhyaya, Professor Frank Thakurdas, Professor William S. Titus, Professor Vaid Ghai and so many others. As an academic, the author is an established and widely recognised writer on international affairs. He is known as a prolific writer and authority in the area of Mahatma Gandhi and world peace; conflict resolution and conflict transformation. He has to his credit four published books and about 25 research articles in national and international journals and also online international research websites of academic institutions. He has published hundreds of topical articles in various national and international newspapers and also in Peace and Conflict Monitor of the University of Peace, Costa Rica. He is currently the Executive Editor, Gandhi Ganga, Research and Activities Journal, GCPCS, Jammu University. He figures on the experts’ panel of several institutions. Whatever author has been able to do till now is mainly the result of his academic training he received from his father, Professor S. C. Gangal who was globally an acclaimed authority on international relations and a renowned Professor of International Politics at the Centre for International Politics, Organisation and Disarmament (CIPOD), School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. Author of this book is also privileged to have had his academic and research training learning at the feet of his teachers in University of Delhi from 1976 to 1984. Author has also been engaged in various national and international collaborations for peace and conflict resolution studies and exchanges with institutions like students and faculty of Fletcher School of Law, Boston University (United States), McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada and Gandhi Smriti and Darshan Samiti, New Delhi, India.
  6. 6. Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 6
  7. 7. Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 7 About the Book This book is about Gandhian humanitarian view of challenges to life in a national and international scenario today. Humanity cannot survive without the twin values of truth and nonviolence even for an instant. Despite this self-evident facet of our lives, we humans are akin to go for massive and diabolical violence and ever new inventions towards creating newer weapons of mass destruction on public fronts, and in national and international politics. This is a great paradox. Politics without these values of truth, nonviolence and judicious self-sacrifice is a perverted form of what we generally know as politics. Politics is entirely opposed to any kind of perversion. In effect, the main task of politics is to set right all perversions and disorders. This is what people like Gandhi were doing all their lives. Answers to present day diverse political and other dilemmas, indeed, lie in further normalisation of the role and effectiveness of values and ethics in society and international politics. History has very clearly given us at least two thousand and six years to keep remembering our “golden” and “not so golden past”. We have nothing to lose but our modern susceptible “captive minds” if we come out of this “dynamic historicity” – where we believe that history repeats itself. There is an oft quoted saying of Gandhi: “There is no way to peace. Peace is the only way.” However, Peace is not what the term “peace” means in semantics. Peace is a crusade. It is a movement – continuous and perennial – bringing about so many conflicts enroute. Peace is not realisable without conflicts. Highly interactive conflict resolution attempts represent peace process only. These processes lead to development as well. It is mainly political development that affects every other sphere. It comprises a number of concerns such as nature of democracy, political processes, economic policies and processes, people’s participation in social, political and economic activities. Political development – as such – when observed and examined, takes us to other related questions of international politics. These are relating to impact of population growth, environmental pollution, widespread poverty, unemployment, proliferation of armaments, expanding terrorist mafia and network, weapons of mass destruction and nature of conflicts in different regions of the world. Such matters imprint upon our mind diverse perils to world peace today. Mahatma Gandhi has always been deeply involved in tackling these issues of global, national and regional importance relating to peace and development. The present work, therefore, is an attempt to touch upon various current issues and its relevant perspectives.
  8. 8. Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 8
  9. 9. Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 9 Preface This work relates to a few aspects anent relevance of the philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi or Mohandas Karmchand Gandhi in the twenty-first century. As regards his values of truth and nonviolence – “as old as hills”, they are entirely replete with moment to moment practical utility in our day to day life. Humanity cannot survive without these twin values even for an instant. Despite this self-evident facet of our lives, we humans are akin to go for massive and diabolical violence and ever new inventions towards creating newer weapons of mass destruction on public fronts, and in national and international politics. This is a great paradox. Human beings tend to behave differently in interpersonal, national and international perspectives. In view of this continuing predicament, world teachers and stalwarts like Robi Da, Gandhi, Neta Ji, Nehru and such others in different fields must be forgotten now for, by just remembering them, we are demeaning their value and importance. Why should they be recalled hypocritically as a mere ritual when they all have
  10. 10. Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 10 given us already so much without ever expecting even an iota of anything in return? Indeed, “elephants can never forget a good turn done to them”. Indeed, human memory is not elephantine! Examples that these Indian leaders have set and values of selflessness that they have put on rails are missing in the present-day national and international politics. Once in a while a few sudden and momentary sparks of altruism do emerge here and there. But they do not last. Politics without these values of truth, nonviolence and judicious self-sacrifice is a perverted form of what we generally know as politics. Politics is entirely opposed to any kind of perversion. In effect, the main task of politics is to set right all perversions and disorders. This is what people like Gandhi were doing all their lives. Answers to present day diverse political and other dilemmas, indeed, lie in further normalisation of the role and effectiveness of values and ethics in society and international politics. History has very clearly given us at least two thousand and six years to keep remembering our “golden” and “not so golden past”. We have nothing to lose but our modern susceptible “captive
  11. 11. Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 11 minds” if we come out of this “dynamic historicity” – where we believe that history repeats itself. Whatever I am saying here is coming out of my own utterly captive mind. I do not possess any element of originality. I am not a wise person. I owe all my ideas and analyses and observations to Gandhi’s Hind Swaraj or Indian Home Rule, Paramhansa Yoganand’s Autobiography of a Yogi, George Orwell’s 1984 and other such writings. There are so many other individuals who have influenced me in diverse ways. Amitabh Mattoo, Savita Singh, Priyankar Upadhyaya, Anjoo Upadhyaya and a few others can be regarded as contemporary inclines or influences upon me. Above all others, my father S. C. Gangal; and my versatile genius mentor Ram Dutt Magotra / friend Ashutosh Magotra alias “Duwanee Wale Hakeem Ji” is among those without whom my existence is worthless. I have learnt a lot from Tushar Gandhi and Kiran Bedi also. My various visits to villages around Delhi and Jammu have all led me to think on the lines of the need for moving beyond Gandhi’s time now. David Cortright has also had an influence
  12. 12. Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 12 upon me specially through his book Gandhi and Beyond. There is an oft quoted saying of Gandhi: “There is no way to peace. Peace is the only way.” However, Peace is not what the term “peace” means in semantics. Peace is a crusade. It is a movement – continuous and perennial – bringing about so many conflicts enroute. Peace is not realisable without conflicts. Highly interactive conflict resolution attempts represent peace process only. These processes lead to development as well. It is mainly political development that affects every other sphere. It comprises a number of concerns such as nature of democracy, political processes, economic policies and processes, people’s participation in social, political and economic activities. Political development – as such – when observed and examined, takes us to other related questions of international politics. These are relating to impact of population growth, environmental pollution, widespread poverty, unemployment, proliferation of armaments, expanding terrorist mafia and network, weapons of mass destruction and nature of conflicts in different
  13. 13. Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 13 regions of the world. Such matters imprint upon our mind diverse perils to world peace today. Mahatma Gandhi has always been deeply involved in tackling these issues of global, national and regional importance relating to peace and development. The present work, therefore, is an attempt to touch upon various current issues and its relevant Gandhian concerns and explanations based largely on how to go for establishing and enhancing nonviolent truths and their efficacy in our life. Several people and institutions have helped me in writing this work or book in different ways. Apart from my colleagues at the Department of Political Science and at the Gandhian Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies at University of Jammu, I am specially indebted to Amitabh Mattoo, Savita Singh, Priyankar Upadhyaya, Anjoo Sharan Upadhyaya. I also owe a lot to my students and researchers working with me in the pursuance of their academic strides into the world. David Cortright, Yunus Samad and University of Tuft Group visiting our Gandhian Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies in August 2007 have also added in their own way to my understanding of realities of
  14. 14. Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 14 international politics and peace and conflict studies. Sandhya Gupta from Fletcher School of Law and Neeraj from University of Boston have also brought me out from Platonic shadows of the cave into the light of day. My wife Renu Gangal and my son Purvansh Gangal have put so much of efforts into my academic and every other type of evolution that I cannot but express my utmost sense of gratitude to them. Without them and their support, I just cannot move even an inch forward. There are so many others who have helped me differently in my extended family of blood relations. From a small little child to the eldest member of this network, everyone, has helped me even at the cost of their own physical and material loss while forgetting their all other difficulties for my sake. As such Surbhi Gupta, my sister and her husband Atul Gupta, my brother-in-law; Rama Agarwal, my mother-in-law; O.P. Agarwal, my father-in-law; Pradeep Agarwal, Rajeev Agarwal and Sunil Agarwal – my brother-in-laws, Alka Agarwal, Abha Agarwal and Kanchan Agarwal – my sister-in-laws, Sanjeev Aggarwal, my very special brother-in-law
  15. 15. Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 15 and his wife Rekha Aggarwal – my very special sister-in-law; our children Anant, Ankita, Arush, Akshi, Anushka, Arnav, Aman, Shivangi and Shreya -- I owe them, each one of them, so much that I cannot really repay what they have done for me despite my best of efforts in this direction. My publisher, office and library persons of the Department of Political Science and of the University of Jammu have also extended full cooperation to me. I express my heart felt thanks for all that they have showered upon me from time to time. Some of my colleagues have been of more help than others, specially, Karuna Thakur, Ellora Puri, B. B. Anand, Kishor Sharma, Vishal Sharma, Yog Raj Sharma and Ranjeet Kalra among several others. I owe them all a lot for all the support coming from them throughout. Despite all help from various quarters coming to me in writing this book, I, alone, am responsible for my work and any mistakes or anomalies that may appear in the book in spite of all care that has gone into the final publishing of the manuscript.
  16. 16. Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 16 I am dedicating this book to my parents, namely, my Father, Professor S. C. Gangal and my Mother, Mrs Saroj Gangal and to my mentors Duwanee Wale Hakeem Ji Shri Ram Dutt Magotra and Pundit Ashutosh Magotra. Without their Blessings, I would not have been able to devote my life to creative pursuits at all. They are the doer(s) not “I”. Their will be done, not mine. Anurag Gangal
  17. 17. Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 17 Content Chapters Pages About the Author 5 About the Book 7 Preface 9 Content 17 1. Introduction: Major Issues 19 2. Globalisation 37 3. Kashmir Question 65 4. Terrorism 101 5. Conflict Resolution 121 6. Human Security 157 7. World Peace 197 8. Conclusion: Beyond Perversions 217 Bibliography 235
  18. 18. Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 18
  19. 19. Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 19 Chapter One Introduction: Major Issues
  20. 20. Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 20
  21. 21. Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 21 Chapter One Introduction: Major Issues Relevance of the ideas of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi is self-evident in view of massive disputes, conflicts, warfare and massacres taking place in different parts of the world. These as well as other challenges to world peace have only one option today. This is the option of realising the truth and going the nonviolent way. Even if Gandhi is put aside on the shelf, there are but the Gandhian openings only. The question of relevance actually must not arise. Absolute nonviolence in intent is necessary while nonviolence in general in action will have to be observed. The nonviolence of the brave alongwith violence of the brave will have to be there. Violence of the brave is required when a person or group of people do not have sufficient courage to go for nonviolent methods bravely. Such violence may be used to deal with utter violent and criminal exceptions in a given society. Nonviolence and peaceful methods are not merely tools for bringing more permanent peace for a society with more positive orientation but they are our only alternatives to go for a normal, healthier, creative and productive civil society. On the other hand, the present day technological development and its quest for “excellence” and efficiency are leading to a crises- syndrome. It is aggravating a number of crises and problems all over
  22. 22. Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 22 the world such as over population, proliferation of armaments, pollution, poverty, peculiar unemployment, educational void, starvation, malnutrition and ever increasing acquisitive instincts. Aforesaid contexts are further subjected to the “toppings” of corruption in corridors of power, plagiarism and cheating in education, pervasive trends in the practice of hypocrisy and sycophancy appear to be main reasons behind most of our problems today. All this combined with increasing efficiency and technological excellence further aggravates the situation. Technology is widening its horizons without fulfilling basic needs of drinking water, electricity, food for all and employment for all. Amartya Sen, an Indian Nobel Laureate in Economics, presents a very interesting and highly readable work entitled Development as Freedom, OUP, Oxford, 1999. He rightly says that freedom includes nearly every type of social, political, economic and individual standpoints. Development is possible only when all these freedoms including diverse facilities and opportunities are made duly accessible to common people. The scenario in India is still going in the different direction. India has entered into its sixtieth year of independence on 15 August 2007. Yet the condition of a few handful of people is improving only while majority of them are still suffering and reeling under great scarcities and socio-economic and political burdens. India is known to have set examples for other developing and poorer nations, especially,
  23. 23. Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 23 in the area of technological upliftment and heavy industrialisation of the economy in such a short time. In the latest context of globalisation, civil society, good governance, human security, and culture of peace as well, India is doing much better vis-à-vis a number of other poorer countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America (AALA nations). Yet realities within the Indian social, economic and political ethos cannot be ignored. One cannot but become quite sarcastic when writing about such concerns. By all means, India is moving to fulfil development, energy, communication and basic needs of the country uniquely. India has technology and human resources both. No doubt there are nearly seven 07 million Indian citizens who do not get drinking water at all even after 60 years of independence. Is this not a crisis situation!!! These Indians without water are apparently Yogis who can live without water and food. Is that really so? What they do not get for themselves, they are haplessly leaving it for others to consume – provided food and water are made available for millions of other citizens. Apparently, this is the situation. This peculiar circumstance is their in other areas as well. Leaders and businessmen are becoming ever richer not only in India but also in the entire South Asia. India’s is merely a representative case to understand the larger picture in Africa, Asia and Latin America.
  24. 24. Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 24 Drinking Water Front Again, in India, basic need of water presents an appalling condition. A bit of sarcasm and satire naturally enters into its explanation. This is an exercise by 07 million people into natural voluntary (?) preservation of drinking water for those who need it more. However, does fulfilling the need of one means sacrificing the requirement of the other needy persons? This results into highly saddening phenomenon. Urban dwellers then get at least a few drops of soiled water in their glowing taps in tiled bathtubs and shining kitchens. This is resulting from the sacrifice of “07 million Yogis” who do not get any drinking water at all. This water is further preserved into household utensils drip by drip by needy urban dwellers. One utensil is filled up very fast in about twenty four hours. Thus, taking a full bath may not be possible. But at least the purifying touch of water can be felt by dipping fingers in the fulsome water filled cans! Is this not a great achievement for a poor though speedily developing India. Indeed, the credit goes to our water management departments, power ministers, political energy boosters and power brokers. Is this not an instance of sacrifice of the people, by the people for the people? Clearly, power enriches and absolute power enriches absolutely! Save (?) Electricity and Energy Indian Government has gained a lot in energy saving through least possible use of electricity in particular. That is why Indian
  25. 25. Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 25 Government, through its media, is on a special spree to teach its population how to save electricity in “voltage banks” for posterity to use it in an emergency. What apparently Government wants here is that people must learn to put off all their lights and electronic gadgets whenever electricity comes alive for a little while again and again after scheduled and un-scheduled cuts. This is the best way to practice “limits to degenerating growth” and set examples for developed nations not to waste their electricity 24 hours a day every week. Developed nations, therefore, are going into a pit of modernity with inherent threats of ever more chances of electrocution due to continuous supply of deadly electric currents. Such free use and supply of electricity is dangerous for the precious life of every Indian citizen. Indian Government knows it fully well. In India, threat of electrocution is much lesser because it is provided to urban areas only about 05 to 06 hours a day, effectively speaking. Therefore, the threat of electrocution is reduced with a boon for longer and safer life for common Indian citizens and individuals. This shows how really caring the Indian Government is! One wonders if India intends to enter into the nuclear power generation also only in this too caring a way. Even during the 05 to 06 hours a day of palpitating electric supply, it keeps coming and going every 15 to 30 minutes in order to ensure safety and security of the people using it. Such caring electric supply is also giving people training in national defence. This training
  26. 26. Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 26 will come handy at times of warfare and bombardment by an enemy country. People thus become well trained for “black outs” during strategic air-strikes. This electric rigmarole as a child’s play is carried on so enthusiastically by our technicians and electricity linemen that it ensures fully the quick discharge of inverter batteries at home and offices in view of repeated defence training through recurring “black outs”. Therefore, the electricity generation pattern and its intermittent supply is also helping employment generation by providing ample opportunities to expansion of inverter and battery production units. The connection between them is growing day by day. Education in Intuition and Logic Aforesaid water and electricity perspective is closely linked to educational priorities of India. In view of governmental stress more on saving electricity than on using it, our belief in the development of intuitive power of children is also emerging very clearly. Indian Government is providing repeated and ample opportunities for self- styled meditation specially when unscheduled electricity cuts take place not only during the day but also at night. This is obvious because above mentioned water and electricity saving does not allow children even to study under the street light. Hence, there is no other option but to go for meditation only. This helps them grow vastly their intuitive power. As such, they pass their various examinations through perspiration, inspiration, meditation and intuition! A highly
  27. 27. Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 27 visionary population, indeed, is on the anvil in the sixtieth year of India’s independence. India has a very bright future especially through water and electricity projects of Government of India. What to talk of the nuclear aspect then? It is also likely to go for similar type of a very bright future!!! The best part of this Governmental policy of learning through perspiration and inspiration emerges when they teach to save what is not there at all. In other words, Indian citizens learn to save electricity although it is not with them fully for about 17 to 18 hours a day. Graphical Savings in Banks This training in developing a habit to save energy, electricity and water is having multi-fold dimensions. This can also lead to very strong financial base for the Indian nation. Such a continuous training from their childhood, teaches our unemployed youth how to save income without earning anything much! That is why our national savings in the banks are now having an upward graph with unparalleled positive magnitudes. Indians thus learn to save through logic. They have learnt to create from nothing and that is what logic is about! Saving energy, water, electricity and income is necessary even though we may not be having them with us fully and permanently. Yet, one wonders whether electricity can be put in a bank to be used when needed! This policy of electricity saving may protect it from ongoing electric thefts as well.
  28. 28. Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 28 Indian Revenue and Income Tax This is combined with Indian Revenue and Income Tax kaleidoscope also. There are only a few big business houses that are known not to be paying their taxes fully through maintaining multiple level of accounts and projections. This is possible only in the private sector and also in the public undertakings. Otherwise, in the area of governmental and semi-governmental employees in thousands of institutions, all levied taxes have to be paid to government. No duplicate accounts can be maintained here. However, in this area of salaried people in the government and semi-government concerns and institutions, salaries are about five to six times less vis-à-vis the private concerns and the corporate sector. In comparison to equivalent jobs in developed countries like United States, United Kingdom and Canada etcetera, salaries in India in private and corporate sector are about four to five times less. While in the public and governmental sector, salaries are about ten times less. Despite this situation, taxes appear to be five to ten times higher in terms of simple and objective mathematical calculations. Despite such a pattern of taxes and salaries, Indian Government has to face tremendous challenges in the generation of funds for national development. Interestingly, a university teacher who gets around 30,000 thousand rupees salary per month in India will get nearly $ 5,000 per month in a university in United States or Canada. This will mean
  29. 29. Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 29 about rupees 2, 00,000 per month. Out of this monthly amount, about 60, 000 rupees will be given to taxes to the US or Canadian governments. Their, even today, one can get a reasonable house on monthly rent of about $ 1,000 and a brand new car for a small family for about $ 2,000. Daily expense per person in United States comes to be between $ 20 to $ 50 on an average. In India, a person who gets a salary of 30,000 thousand rupees per month, will be giving nearly 5,000 rupees for house rent every month. A small car will cost him rupees 2, 00,000. His daily expense per person will be between rupees 200 to 500. On this amount of salary, an Indian citizen pays taxes to the tune of about 5,000 rupees monthly after all the maximum savings and so-called rebates. Hence, even the magnitude of taxes in India is also superlative in a peculiar way. This simple and day to day mathematics is making Indians go berserk. Their appear to be emerging prospects of a civil war in India in view of such situations. What does it signify? It shows discrepancy, imbalance, matter of fact ways of the Indian Government and its advisors and experts. They don’t see the common citizen while formulating their policies. They are more involved in their theoretical excellence vis-à-vis other international conceptualisations and practices. They are more concerned with presenting a beautiful picture on paper and print. Hyperbolic surveys are entered into and their explanations are
  30. 30. Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 30 presented – and policies are formulated. Standards are also set for action mostly on paper. One very popular example of such performance of Indian Governmental institutions can be seen in the actual functioning of Bhartiya Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL). Mobile Communication and Networking This logic of improvisation and creation from without has provided great support and strength to the communication networking of the Indian Government. One small sample of success in this field can be seen in the mobile phones networking of Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL). This example is merely a tip of the iceberg. The reality is, however, profound and even vast and massive. What is this real instance of success? This is a continuous paradigm. Recurring specially in smaller towns and border areas. Using BSNL Cellone then becomes a matter of pride for common people. These Cellone connections leads to marvellous responses form BSNL when mobile numbers are dialled. This becomes a spectacular exercise in ringing literary music! “Try later”, “…not answering”, “Network busy”, “Error in connection”, “Cannot allowed”, “Out of range”, “User unavailable” etcetera. Recurrence of such things by themselves becomes rhapsody musical errors! Despite all this mis-management and policy dis-orientation, India is still the best among all other developing and poorer nations of
  31. 31. Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 31 Asia, Africa and Latin America (AALA). This, indeed, is a commonly known fact. South Asian and AALA Countries’ Challenges Poverty, pollution, proliferation of armaments, increasing population, drinking water scarcity, unemployment, globalisation’s onslaught, mutual and other nuclear threats, modern technology and illiteracy etcetera are the major problems in South Asian and AALA nations alongwith modern terrorism. These troubles further lead to other mutual conflicts, tensions and skirmishes. At times, such problems and conflicts result into massive mutual warfare as well – causing vast destruction of precious human lives and material valuable property. Most of these conflicts and challenges become ever more complex and permanent in nature with every effort of resolving them. For example, terrorism in India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan and Nepal is turning into one of the most disastrous phenomena to deal with in South Asia, South West Asia and West Asia. This problem has now engulfed United States, United Kingdom, Italy and Australia also in a very serious way. The situation is such that political systems in almost all South Asian, South West Asian and West Asian countries have failed completely. Mafia is freely functioning while, specially in India, judiciary is becoming hyper-active – crossing its own limits and framework. On the one hand mafia is filling the power vacuum
  32. 32. Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 32 created by political perversion and, on the other hand, judiciary is functioning like an executive branch of government. Is it advisable that each branch of government does not function on its own and its work may be done by another branch? In these countries, only the politicians, mafia dons and business community are prosperous. All others are suffering from one or the other kind and level of poverty. The poverty thresh-hold or the poverty line in India is generally an income below 45 Rupees a day, i.e., about 1350 Rupees a month. Al those earning this much or less than this amount are much below the poverty line. About 25% of Indian population is therefore below the poverty line. While, in reality, even those who earn even ten times of this amount every month, they are also very poor with highly dissatisfactory standards of living. In this sense, nearly 60% population of India is very poor. In other words, about sixty crore or 600 billion Indian population is very poor. One wonders whether Indian political decision makers ever see this reality. Such is the case in other South Asian countries also. They are actually worse than India. All the data mentioned above are also, indeed, commonly known to all concerned based on various governmental and nongovernmental sources. Method and Purpose The purpose of writing this book is three fold. First, it is to bring together author’s scattered strands of ideas and thought together into one volume. Secondly, it is to put forward quite a few un-written
  33. 33. Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 33 and hither-to-fore un-spoken perspectives on issues like poverty, basic needs thesis, proliferation of armaments, ecology and environment and population explosion vis-à-vis questions of development and human security and globalisation etcetera. Thirdly, the purpose is to bring forth a meaningful debate on the ideas presented in this work. The major present-day issues in national and international contexts are discussed within the larger framework of the Gandhian philosophy and its relevance today. This is being done here in an analytical mould while giving more importance to ideas and themes in comparison to statistical and mathematical data. More space is given here to certain issues like globalisation, Kashmir question, Human Security and other such aspects while issues like poverty, pollution, proliferation of armaments and population are generally discussed mainly in relation to other detailed perspectives. Various issues that are not discussed into separate chapters do show their lesser importance at all. These issues will be taken up in a different volume latter. In the present volume, main emphasis is on India, South Asia, Conflict Resolution and World Peace including Human Security. Conclusion India and other AALA countries, specially South Asian nations, face so many other challenges also alongwith above mentioned anomalies of poverty and development. Some of these challenges are common to all countries of the world, specially the
  34. 34. Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 34 problems of proliferation of armaments, terrorism, human security, globalisation, pollution, ecological decay and expanding mosaic of diversified conflicts among and within nations. This set of problems and challenges is further leading to emerging gaps, peculiar syndromes and varied discrepancies between ever rising expectations, technological requirements, existing social, economic and political traditions and levels of development in AALA countries. The only way to see the ‘light of day’ appears to be the road to nonviolence, love and peace. Such a nonviolent option is commonly known as the Gandhian way. Whether the world wants this or not – there is no other way. As Gandhi often said’ “Peace is the only way”. Gandhi’s way is straight and his path is seen easily. But it is difficult because complexities of modern life make it so. If political leaders and other official and non-official functionaries of political systems in AALA countries keep on adding one after the other complexity upon complications, then these political systems will never be able to come to fruition for posterity. Set standards, set goals, set and simplified methods will have to be established in reality and not just on paper and files. Most of the governments and leaders in these countries, specially in South Asia, are ‘paper governments and paper leaders’ quite like ‘paper tigers’. They will have to rise above their ‘paper nature’. Otherwise, the present state of affairs will continue to haunt poor people and poor nations of these countries forever – a situation where only politicians
  35. 35. Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 35 are minting money and mainly they are becoming prosperous at the cost of their own fellow poor citizens. Further continuance of these paradoxical circumstances is going to pose a very serious threat to those who are prosperous today. They are soon likely to face a full circle civil war like the well known ‘French Guillotine’! This is not too far away. It is going to happen in next ten years in South Asia. West Asia and South West Asia is already suffering from it. Hence, let the political system in South Asia and AALA countries start functioning, otherwise, as a political scientist I can predict, only just about a decade is left to set things right. No one is going to gain from a ‘guillotine’ and a civil war. There is need for effective regeneration of political system in AALA countries – such a system which is away from present-day well established perversions of politics. This is possible only through realising of the Gandhian values of nonviolence, truth and modernity. Gandhi, essentially, is not against modernity, machines, mechanisation and technology. No doubt Gandhi has criticised them vehemently a number of times. Even then he is very much in favour of these tools of modernisation. Concurrent global trends are also somewhat Gandhian in nature as regards the benevolent aims of globalisation and liberalisation towards excellence, good governance, and evolving of a civil society the world over. In other words, the ultimate aim is to do away with the labyrinthine system of governments into evolution of a
  36. 36. Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 36 civil society based on nonviolence because there is no room for violence in anything even distantly related to a civilised world. Violence of any sort is primarily linked to inhumanity, illiteracy, crime, uncivil and animal like. Violence is never human. State and government are institutions largely based on brute force and infliction of fear on its inhabitants and citizens. As such, movement towards civil society is a Gandhian aim while looking forward to a globalised world. The world has to move only in the Gandhian direction if it has to survive and prosper.
  37. 37. Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 37 Chapter Two Globalisation
  38. 38. Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 38
  39. 39. Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 39 Chapter Two Globalisation Mahatma Gandhi has seldom written about strictly modern process of globalisation. He could not because present-day globalisation was far away in his own time. He has still reflected on related areas of international federation, world peace, exploitation of the weak by the stronger nation, freedom, equality, dignity of the individual, primacy of the individual in a socio-political system, mechanisation, media and trade etcetera. As such, Gandhi has a vision for unity of mankind, universal brotherhood and “…living association of human beings…” the world over. Similarly, contemporary globalisation encompasses phenomenological paradigmatic evolution of technological trends from the late-nineteenth to twenty-first century in the fields of information, communication, multi-media, trade, commerce, finance, international institutions / relations, national development, political systems, and ecological patterns etcetera. A common special feature of these predispositions anent globalisation is the apparent unity of mankind found, among others, in the “coming together” of even distant nations through technology regulated regimes of internet, satellites, supersonic jets, multinational corporations and constantly receding international trade barriers. The modern surging ahead in multi-media
  40. 40. Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 40 technology is bringing in its wake a global transformation. Entire world has now become a “Global Village"1 International organisations and kindred activity towards common global ends of sharing, knowing and coming together through mutual excellence are manifest processes of “globalisation”. The “Global Village” phenomenon is obviously an integral part of globalisation. Marshall McLuhan coined this term “Global Village” in 1960s to express his belief that electronic communication would unite the world by brining together diverse cultures and distant people of the world. Therefore, global village does not really represent the “shrinking of the world” but widening of the electronic instantaneous communication network for brining people into togetherness. Nearly, all information and communication rests upon the click of a “mouse”! Globally established really open society without any walls is in the “offing”. This Global Village is very different from the decentralised village-based economy and polity preferred by India’s Father of the Nation – Mohandas Karmachand Gandhi. For him: • It is the individual(s) who compose a village, town, city, municipality, metropolis, cosmopolis, megalopolis, necropolis, state, nation-state and international society of nations.2 • It is their (individuals’) vows of satya (truth), ahimsa (nonviolence), astaeya (non-stealing), aparigraha (non- possession) and brahmcharya (chastity) that characterise the
  41. 41. Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 41 foundation of the larger socio-political and economic edifice. These are also known as panch yama of Patanjali’s Yogsutra. • Gandhi begins with the individual in the village and ends up with the individual in the comity of nations.3 • Discipline, vows and values are accorded highest place in Gandhi’s “experiments with truth”. If these values and the individual are “intact” in any system of technology and politics, Gandhi is ready to embrace it fondly although he is generally known to have written in his Hind Swaraj, “ I cannot recall a single good point in connection with machinery”.4 The current movement towards Globalisation also appears to be having a number of APPARENT Gandhian values such as: 1) global unity and integration, 2) fast growing antipathy to mass-violence (at least in principle on a wider plain) specially in the aftermath of the terrorist attack on New York’s trade centre on 11 September 2001, 3) an evidently receding trend in ideological clashes among nations (specially between liberalism and socialism), 4) globally expanding mosaic of acceptance of the Gandhian principle of nonviolence among nations and their leaders (see specially India’s response and patience to terrorist violence and attacks) and
  42. 42. Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 42 5) end of or doing away with “war as an instrument of national policy” at least among countries of the European Union. In this age of Globalisation and increasing regional cooperation, Canada appears to be functioning like a great catalyst in the observance of Gandhi’s principle of the fusion of precept and practice for attaining higher aims of human welfare. Gandhi’s “practical-idealism” is reflected in a number of projects financed by the Canadian Government in India and other developing and poorer countries.5 Canadians are also extending their hands of friendship to Indian Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs). Canadians have helped NGOs like Manav Kalyan Sansthan, and Conflict- transformation and Peace Awareness Gandhian Society of India (COPEAP) to deal with the menace of landmines in border areas during 1999 to 2000.6 In this sense, at least, globalisation is certainly adding to the solution of numerous challenges facing the humanity at large. This hypothesis, however, needs to be systemically analysed. Certain pointers arise. What else is Globalisation? What are the ‘other’ major characteristics of “globalisation”? Is globalisation really necessary? Has it really become a part of our lives? Are there any disparaging indicators of globalisation? Does globalisation serve the cause of billions of poor people in Afro-Asian and Latin American (AALA) countries? What is the relationship of globalisation with the
  43. 43. Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 43 five “Ps”, namely, Population, Poverty, Pollution, Proliferation of armaments and Peace of the world? The Other Side of Globalisation Gobalisation has its other aspects too. This refers to the primacy of technology in the process of globalisation and its pejorative impact. First, it is technology and ideology. Secondly, it is obsolescence in technology. Thirdly, it is inherent exploitation of poorer people through technology. Fourthly, it is the environmental threats through technology. Fifthly, modern technology is blind to human values. Sixthly, this technology is leading to social and political disruptions through utter materialism and ever-growing quest for modern armaments. Seventhly, modern technology is creating several problems like population explosion, poverty and unemployment etcetera for poorer nations. Last but not least, it is believed that globalisation is a continuous process towards a “new and just world order”.7 Will it be a new world order or just a movement for inception of a captive mind society and “think police state” of George Orwell?.8 Indeed, these posers need to be examined here, especially, on the basis of Gandhi’s Indian Home Rule or Hind Swaraj first published in 1908. Gandhi has provided a very severe critique of industrialism, modernisation, railways, allopathy and modern parliamentary democracy etcetera.
  44. 44. 44 Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 44 1. Science of techniques or technology has entered the realms of meta-rationality and meta-materialism focussing on speed, comfort, efficiency, accuracy, information, fusion and fission leaving behind the philosophy of science based on twin parameters of knowledge and reason. Technology is racing ahead of “time” and “space” in the twenty-first century after cutting across the limits of “philosophy” and biases of “ideology” from sixteenth to twentieth centuries. There are countless examples with latent and manifest interconnections. One invention and concomitant development(s) lead(s) to a further action, reaction and causal outcome(s). • From the age of gunpowder, bullets and bombs to imperialism. • From the age of aeroplanes, atom bombs, machine guns, radio, telephone and electricity to colonialism, neo-colonialism and effective “socialism of the vanguard of proletariat”. • From the age of light machine guns, AK-47s, AK-57s, nuclear arsenals, inter-continental ballistic missiles, cyber-warfare, global terrorist network, satellites, computers, information explosion and information dissemination multi-national regimes to disintegration of erstwhile Soviet Union, universalisation of technologies functioning alike in every type of political system and globalisation through World
  45. 45. 45 Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 45 Trade Organisation, United Nations, European Union and multi-national corporations (MNCs) etcetera. 2. Fast growing rate of obsolescence in modern technology is generating a storehouse of dumps upon dumps of waste material. It is not only the storage aspect but also the question of the need for keeping pace with “technological convulsions”. It is very obvious when ink cartridge of a desktop printer bought today would not be available in another two years time. Even if it would be available, users of the latest DTP flash will look down upon the earlier DTP model and its cartridges. • This trend is there in foreign trade and international politics also. Whenever there emerges – on an average, every second year – a new version of an aircraft and warplane in a developed country, the old one is either sold cheaply or “gifted” to a developing or poorer nation for its “state-of-the-art” national security and defence from a neighbouring regime. • This craze for the “latest” is visible in academics and in the modern “love life” as well. Knowledge is becoming not so much of virtue and wisdom but more of an “amount, quantity and quality of information”. This collectivity of information is now being regarded as knowledge! Older and classical masterpieces of literature
  46. 46. 46 Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 46 in almost every subject or discipline are treated as completely outdated. • The materialistic process of globalisation looks askance at the science of spiritualism. Even the modern “love” is increasingly becoming a “quick fix” affair. “Time” and “space” are needed and time and space are scarce!9 What a dichotomy? Man is turning subservient to technology. An unseen Frankenstein is hovering over us and we do not want to recognise its shadows sapping our reflexes! • George Orwell’s 1984 and its “think police” appears to be in the offing.10 He shows in this novel that a time would come when the entire world will be integrated into three continents with the withering away of modern States. This will be a situation of continental sovereignty and not the sovereignty of nations or States. The network of information dissemination will be so penetrating that it will be able to detect what citizens of a continent would be thinking. As such, whenever there will be a digression in the prescribed standards of thinking the rulers will send their Think Police to arrest the violator of thinking-codes! Is globalisation moving in that direction? 3. “Technology” originates from two Greek words “tekhne” and “logos” i.e. “craft” or “art” and “science” of craft and art for practical purposes. Concise Oxford Dictionary brands it as “the
  47. 47. 47 Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 47 application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes”.11 Clearly “science” is away from “good” or “bad”. Does it mean that “little thinking” goes into scientific use of a technology? How dangerous such technology can be! That is why technology is generally silent about the needs of an individual due to implicit vested interests of “technological sustenance” and incessant expansion. Modern technology, otherwise, cannot work profitably. As such, individual needs and comforts are converted into a requirement of masses. Only then technology works wonders through mass-production, mass media, mass-democracy, mass-education, mass-culture, massive-warfare and destruction etcetera. This massive and top-heavy technology is very sweetly spreading automotive glamour, comfort and efficiency across an international network of poor nations via multinational corporations and “needy” governments. 4. Despite widespread governmental and international organisational environmental protection machinery, rationality of human ingenuity is perspiring to reach even the “space” environs to bring viruses like Respiratory Virus (SARS) and Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) etcetera. All these viruses are lately known to have travelled from Space through satellites and space shuttles.
  48. 48. 48 Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 48 Technology is, therefore, polluting not only this spaceship earth but also Space with “rebound impact”. One wonders what type of rationality is this? It is known in the vernacular that modern transport system and air conditioning equipments are breaking the ozone layer time and again as a result of adding chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) to atmosphere. It is causing several skin diseases and ultra violet radiation. Still the world is continuing with what is really not required in the present technological form. The need of the time is to realise the “end or limits of rationality” where human beings can live safely. The Gandhian thought has a ready-made prescription for these ills of modernity. What we require is simply to evolve a bridge between materialism of the West and “moralism” of the Orient.12 5. Modern technology is generally blind to human values since “science” is “value-free”. One instance relating to prevention of AIDS may suffice in this matter. Most of the governments use mass media to drive home a message that it is “necessary to use condoms to prevent AIDS” today. None of them stress the need to enhance power of self-restraint! Why? Clearly if they do so then who will buy condoms? People are, thus, being encouraged towards ever-greater “indulgence” in favour of technological and related vested interests!
  49. 49. 49 Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 49 The essence of social cohesiveness is being forgotten. Indulgence in social immorality is becoming a fashionable act and a social norm for everyone to follow and cherish. Is this a sign of “modernity and technological advancement”? 6. Social disruption and promiscuousness is transforming into a global phenomenon in the name of technological “professionalism”! Human relationships are being projected into biological and emotional needs through Internet and mass media. Does this signify a feather in the development of civilisation? This author has experimented with Internet and mass media for about five years to pose this pointer now. Familial fragmentation, especially, in the developed world is so apparent that it is leading to mercurious dimensions. This trend is infectious. In the name of technology, this inclination is widening with the pace of human thought and imagination. Dissatisfied men and women are seeking solace in momentary information dissemination and exchange of ideas. Is it really “modernisation”? 7. Modern technology is also creating several problems like population explosion, poverty and unemployment etcetera for poorer nations.13 Increasing birth rates, decreasing death rates, illiteracy and mass-deprivation of education and displacement of labour and people -- as a result of technological efficiency syndrome -- leading to widespread unemployment etcetera are factors responsible for
  50. 50. 50 Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 50 multiplying population among poorer nations of the world. The world population is about 6.6 billion today. Nearly 70% population of the world is living in the so-called third world developing and “under- developed” nations. These nations have also about 70% natural resources of the world as well! Wide spread poverty and gross starvation among poorer nations requires their poor population to go for God-given fertility to empower their economic prospects and enlighten their sources of easily available natural entertainment or relaxation. Any other type of “development” is beyond their perception until “development” affects their lives in any “meaningful” terms. More than one billion population in the world is starving today.14 Not more than one billion dollars are required for this purpose. If the entire world goes fully vegetarian then this problem can be solved almost “instantly”, as it were.15 Such a “sojourn” needs commitment, devotion, sense of conviction and massive media- attention. Who will bell the cat? This is, indeed, a difficult question. 8. Technology requiring globalisation for its mere sustenance, as such, has become a gargantuan bird of prey leading to moral degradation and uncalled for exploitation of natural resources including manpower. This is disturbing a natural order of things, human beings and inherent system engulfing even the rule of law. One of the most glaring stances of such fundamental failure can be seen in wide spread professionalisation of terrorism in the world.16
  51. 51. 51 Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 51 Gandhi on Globalisation The prospects of present-day globalisation in the Gandhian traditions of thought and practice are not very difficult to see today. A few quotations from Gandhi’s writings may help open Platonic “shadows of the cave” as it were. Writings and sayings of Mahatma Gandhi and majority of commentators and critics of Gandhian philosophy have shown not only inherent but also explicit significance of the idea of oneness of humanity, individual’s dignity and self-reliance for Swaraj in Gandhi’s practical-idealist perspective of politics. Gandhi has never regarded himself as a system builder. His experiments, however, have led him to evolve – for several commentators and analysts like S. C. Gangal, Mahendra Kumar, Raghavan Iyer, Savita Singh, Ramjee Singh, Johan Galtung and others – a Predominantly Nonviolent State as his second best Ideal and a Nonviolent Society as his ultimate Ideal for establishing a vibrantly creative global and just political ethos where cooperation, equality and nonviolence has replaced exploitation, inequality and bloody warfare and mutual hatred. Similar ideas are currently being propagated and discussed by internationally acclaimed authors and statesmen alike even if they are apparently not so much directly influenced by Gandhi.17 What is Gandhi’s concept of holistic process of globalisation? It is a practical-idealist concept. Gandhi called himself a practical- idealist. Gandhi has never written or said much about globalisation in
  52. 52. 52 Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 52 particular as a term with specific meaning that is being attached to it currently. Yet he had foreseen almost all major trends and strands of globalisation today in a positive and creative mould. For him: It is impossible for one to be an internationalist without being a nationalist… Our nationalism can be no peril to other nations inasmuch as we will exploit none just as we will allow none to exploit us.18 The satyagrahi must maintain personal contact with people of his locality. This living association of human beings is essential to a genuine democracy.19 I have no doubt that unless big nations shed their desire for exploitation and the spirit of violence of which war is the natural expression and the atom bomb the inevitable consequence, there is no hope for peace in the world.20 Mechanisation is good when hands are too few for the work intended to be accomplished. It is evil where there are more hands than acquired…21 I entertain no fads in this regard [i.e., his avowed opposition to mechanisation and capital-intensive technology]. All that I desire is that every able-bodied citizen should be provided with gainful employment. If electricity and even automatic energy could be used without…creating unemployment, I will
  53. 53. 53 Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 53 not raise my little finger against it…. If the Government could provide full employment to our people without the help of Khadi hand-spinning and hand- weaving industries, I shall be prepared to wind up my constructive programme in this regard.22 Under Swaraj (self-rule) of my dream, there is no necessity of arms at all.23 To reject foreign manufactures merely because they are foreign, and to go on wasting national time and money on the promotion in one’s own country of manufactures for which it is not suited would be criminal folly, and a negation of the Swadeshi spirit.24 Decentralisation of political and economic power, reduction in the functions and importance of State, growth of voluntary associations, removal of dehumanising poverty and resistance to injustice … will bring life within the understanding of man and make society and the State democratic….. The nonviolent State will cooperate with an international organisation based on nonviolence. Peace will come not merely by changing the institutional forms but by regenerating those attitudes and ideals of which war, imperialism, capitalism and other forms of exploitation are the inevitable expressions.25
  54. 54. 54 Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 54 [I am not against all international trade, though imports should be limited to things that are necessary for our growth but which India -- and for that matter any poorer country -- cannot herself produce and export of things of real benefit to foreigners.]26 Gandhian Prospects of Globalisation On the basis of the above-mentioned parts of this research work, an attempt is being made here to evolve a Gandhian strategy for prospective road to globalisation especially in the light of quite a few existing relatively harmful trends and patterns. Gandhi is one with former United States (US) President Bill Clinton’s statement: “ the central reality of our time is that the advent of globalisation and the revolution in information technology have magnified both the creative and destructive potential of every individual, tribe and nation on our planet.” 27 Gandhi has a holistic approach to human problems, in which reform or reconstruction should concentrate, more or less at the same time, at all levels of human existence and activity, i. e, individual, local, national and international levels. Globalisation is an ever-accelerating trend of modern “civilisation”. Gandhi, going much beyond Bill Clinton, finds in this civilisation:
  55. 55. 55 Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 55 I. “…. people living in it make bodily welfare the object of life. II. “…. If people of a certain country, who have hitherto not been in the habit of wearing much clothing, boots etc., adopt European clothing, they are supposed to have become civilised out of savagery. III. “…. [Ever increasing mechanisation] is called a sign of civilisation. IV. “Formerly, only a few men wrote valuable books. Now, anybody writes and prints anything he likes and poisons people’s minds. V. “…. As men progress,… [they] will not need the use of their hands and feet…. Everything will be done by machinery. VI. “…. Formerly, when people wanted to fight…they measured between them their bodily strength; now it is possible to take away thousands of lives by one man…. This is civilisation. VII. “….. [Earlier] men were made slaves under physical compulsion. Now they are enslaved by the temptation of money and of the luxuries that money can buy. VIII. “ There are now diseases of which people never dreamt before, and an army of doctors is engaged in finding out theirs, and so hospitals have increased. This is a test of civilisation. IX. “…. Today [not earlier when special messengers were needed to send a letter], anyone can abuse his fellow
  56. 56. 56 Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 56 by means of a letter [of email] for one penny. True, at the same cost, one can send one’s thanks also. X. “…now, [people] require something to eat every two hours so that they have hardly leisure for anything else [more meaningful]. XI. “….. This civilisation is such that one has only to be patient and it will be self-destroyed.” 28 Gandhi has said and written anent vast areas of life and human concerns. In this context, he has made a very bold exposition in his Hind Swaraj or Indian Home Rule. On 24 April 1933, he says – on page 04 in the beginning of this booklet, “I would like to say the diligent reader of my writings and to others who are interested in them that I am not at all concerned with appearing to be consistent. In my search after Truth I have discarded many ideas and learnt many new things. Old as I am in age, I have no feeling that I have ceased to grow inwardly or that my growth will stop at the dissolution of the flesh. What I am concerned with is my readiness to obey the call of truth, my God, from moment to moment, and, therefore, when anybody finds any inconsistency between any two writings of mine, if he still has faith in my sanity, he would do well to choose the later of the two on the same subject.”29 Real globalisation for Gandhi is possible only through Panch yama of Patanjali, i.e., nonviolence, non-stealing, Truth, non- possession and chastity. Global though sectoral reformation
  57. 57. 57 Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 57 programme for regeneration of every individual is needed for balancing the negative effects of the process of globalisation. It was Gandhi’s conviction that individuals – of whom the nations and global communities are constituted – must have priority in any scheme of reform or reconstruction. Yet another idea in Gandhi’s scheme is that any durable programme of reconstruction must be marked by a measure of coordination and integration at various levels of social action through voluntary effort. Press and media have a very significant role in this sphere. Media, for Gandhi, must be having unmistakable autonomy and self-reliance with little dependence on advertisement revenue. The cultivation of nonviolence by the individual and the establishment of non-exploitative economy at different levels will lead eventually to the emergence of what he calls nonviolent nationalism. Ultimately, these nonviolent nations will function under a world federation or international organisation on the basis of: • Political and economic independence without any type of colonialism or imperialism and exploitation. • Voluntary effort with dedication and commitment. • Goals and means not imposed from above but developed from within. • Equality for all. As such every nation must feel as tall as the tallest. • Decentralisation at political and economic spheres. • General disarmament. • Unilateral disarmament. • International society as a voluntary organisation.
  58. 58. 58 Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 58 • Common good of all. • Bigger nations ready to “give” to the smaller nations. • Amicable and peaceful settlement of all disputes. • Small international police as long as the world is able to develop a general belief in nonviolence. • Free, open, alert and impartial Media. • Preponderance to mutual sense of service.30 Such a blue print should be the guiding spirit of present-day globalisation. In this pattern of globalisation, the individual has specially a two-fold significance for Gandhi. First, proper education and training to the individual for understanding and imbibing the values of a normal society. A normal fraternity, for Gandhi, is one where development does not pose diverse types of threats to the individual and humanity. For evolving such a normal course of life for true globalisation, a Global Education Order must be established through value-related and need based education. Nearly all aspects of human life are to be covered in this programme ranging from material, moral, emotional and cultural to spiritual needs of the individual. The individuality, creativity, identity and voluntary efforts have to be the fundamental terms of reference in the launching of such a global education order. Secondly, Gandhi emphasises the role of the individual in decision-making and in sharing the national and international responsibilities. There is no place for undemocratic or authoritarian regimes in Gandhi’s agenda for globalisation. To steer clear of undemocratic or authoritarian tendencies, Gandhi suggests two more
  59. 59. 59 Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 59 correctives of (i) limited State power and (ii) socio-economic decentralisation. As regards the former, Gandhi is one with Thoureau’s principle that “that government is best which governs the least.”31 To quote Gandhi: I look upon an increase in the power of the state with the greatest fear because…it does the greatest harm to mankind by destroying individuality which lies at the root of all progress.32 In order to curb emergence of authoritarianism, the size and role of police and military, for Gandhi, has to be limited to dealing with thieves, robbers, raiders from without and a few emergencies only. It would be better if police and military perform largely the role of a body of reformers.33 Gandhi looks forward to the emergence of a world where “no state has its military.”34 Socio-economic decentralisation is yet another corrective measure to curb undemocratic tendencies. Gandhi’s global vision moves upward from the individual and a federation of village republics to an international federation of nations in a society marked by voluntary cooperation and decentralisation. Aldous Huxley, while supporting Gandhi, says, “…democratic principles cannot be effectively put into practice unless authority in a community has been decentralised to the utmost extent possible.”35 The modern inter-linking of people and economies under contemporary globalisation must give careful attention to the
  60. 60. 60 Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 60 Gandhian pointers in this age of technology for keeping away from the pejorative aspects of concurrent science and development patterns. Otherwise, globalisation will prove to be a “nine days wonder” only.
  61. 61. 61 Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 61 References and Notes 1 V. A. Patil and D. Gopal, Politics of Globalisation, (Authors Press, Delhi: 2002), pp. 01 – 11. “The term ‘globalisation’ was first coined in the 1980s, but the concept stretches back decades, and even centuries, if you count the trading empires by Spain, Portugal, Britain and Holland. The resolve of Western states to build and strengthen international ties in the aftermath of World War II laid the groundwork for today’s globalisation. It has brought diminishing national borders and the fusing of individual national markets. The fall of protectionist barriers has stimulated free movement of capital and paved the way for companies to set up several bases around the world. …. Supporters of globalisation say it has promoted information exchange, led to greater understanding of other cultures and allowed democracy to triumph over autocracy. Critics say that even in developed world, not everyone has been a winner. The freedoms granted by globalisation are leading to increased insecurity in workplace….. Many see globalisation as a primarily economic phenomenon, involving the increasing interaction, or integration, of national economic systems through the growth in international trade, investment and capital flows…, one can also point to rapid increase in cross-border social, cultural and technological exchange as part of the phenomenon of globalisation. The sociologist, Anthony Giddens, defines globalisation as a decoupling of space and time, emphasising … instantaneous communication, knowledge and culture … shared around the world simultaneously.” See pp 01 – 02. World Trade Organisation (WTO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), International Bank for Reconstruction and Development IBRD) or World Bank, United Nations (UN) and Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) etcetera are a few major international organisations regulating the process of globalisation. 2 Mahatma Gandhi places an individual at a prime spot in the social, political and economic setup in society. There is a widespread misconception that Gandhi stresses “de-emphasis of individual self in pursuit of higher goals.” David P. Brash and Charles P. Webel, Peace and Conflict Studies (Sage, California: 2002), p. 05. Individual’s self-knowledge is the highest goal and the best instrument to bring inner, national and global peace and development for Gandhi. G. N. Dhawan, The Political Philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi (Navajivan, Ahmedabad: 1957), Chapters 03 – 07 and pp. 312 – 351. 3 Ibid. 4 Young India, 17 June 1926; Harijan, 22 June 1935 and 15 September 1946; M. K. Gandhi, Hind Swaraj or Indian Home Rule, Navajivan, Ahmedabad: 1938), p. 08, Preface by Mahadev Desai. See also Raghavan Iyer (ed.), The Moral and Political writings of Mahatma Gandhi: Truth and Non-violence, Volume – II, (Oxford, London: 1986), p. 181. Gandhi is against “destructive” and “exploitative” mechanisation only. 5 See Business Times, April 1998. 6 Kashmir Times, Daily Excelsior, (both daily newspapers from Jammu, J&K, India), Hindustan Times, files concerning such programmes in Jammu, Samba, R. S. Pura and Akhnoor border areas alongwith a few seminars in Udhampur in J&K and also in Nagpur in Maharashtra in India during 1995 to 2000. 7 Robert Jackson and Georg Sorensen, Introduction to International Relations (OUP, Oxford: 1999), pp. 206 – 212. See Nicholas Crafts, “Globalisation and Growth in the Twentieth Century” , IMF Working Paper, WP/0044, Washington DC, April 2000; However, for Gandhi, globalisation “ is SWARAJ when we learn to rule ourselves ….. But such swaraj has to be experienced by each one for himself.” G. N. Dhawan, op. cit. n. 2, p. 281. The three pillars of this one and integrated global world are: (i) It should be nonviolent, (ii) It should be
  62. 62. 62 Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 62 non-exploitative and cooperative and (iii) It should be based on the reform, regeneration or education of the individual, and work its way up to the international and global level. See M. K. Gandhi, Nonviolence in Peace and War, (Navajivan, Ahmedabad: 1948), Volume – I, pp. 28, 308 – 310. See also The Hindu (New Delhi), 05, 06 and 07 January 2003. 8 The famous novel 1984 by George Orwell, noted writer of political fiction whose relevant work was published in 1948. 9 One wonders whether a “moral doctor” is needed today? This is suggested by Kimberly Hutchings, International Political Theory: Rethinking Ethics in a Global Era (Sage, London: 1999), pp. 182 –184, see p. 183 particularly. 10 George Orwell, 1984 (Penguin: 1948), see especially the Appendix of the novel where characteristics of the “think police” are explained in great detail. 11 Judy Pearsall (Ed), The Concise Oxford Dictionary (Oxford University Press, New York: 1999). 12 There is need for set global standards and well-established norms under the dynamics of globalisation. Global Education Pattern (GEP), Global Ethics and Justice (GEJ), Global Values (GV) etcetera are required to be evolved at regional and global levels despite evident diversity of society, language and culture in the world. Only then globalisation can really lead to the Gandhian oneness of humanity and the world. This will be a distinct move towards justice and dignity of the individual away from dominance and exploitation. Even the current agenda of research in international politics is moving towards studies on establishing “justice” in global society. This is how a movement to bridge the gap between ethics and material development appears to have already begun. See Robert Jackson and Georg Sorensen, Introduction to International Relations (OUP, Oxford: 1999), pp. 171 – 174. 13 Anurag Gangal, New International Economic Order: A Gandhian Perspective (Chanakya, Delhi: 1985), Chapter – II, pp. 34 – 64. Also V. T. Patil and D. Gopal, op. cit., n. 1. pp. 07 – 21. 14 Jan Tinbergen, Reshaping the International Order (London: 1977), p. 30, 46. This figure has currently doubled to nearly 02 billion people starving in the world today. See Brash and Webel, op. cit. n. 2, p. 498. 15 Jan Tinbergen, Ibid. 16 Anurag Gangal, "Forms of Terrorism", B.P. Singh Sehgal (ed.), Global Terrorism: Political and Legal Dimensions (Deep and Deep, New Delhi: 1995). See also Peter Wallensteen, Understanding Conflict Resolution (Sage, London: 2002), pp. 228 – 230. 17 Bill Clinton, Amartya Sen, Kofi Annan, George Bush, Atal Behari Vajpayee, Tony Blair, Dalai Lama and so many others. In this age of gross and massive conventional / non- conventional violence, Gandhi’s nonviolence is becoming highly relevant although it is not being put to meaningful practice. Gandhi has had little to say about globalisation. He had certainly written anent international federation of nations of the world. 18 S. C. Gangal, The Gandhian Way to World Peace (Vora, Bombay: 1960), p. 90. 19 G. N. Dhawan, op. cit., n. 2, p. 284. Emphasis added. 20 M. K. Gandhi, op. cit. , n. 7, Volume – II, pp. 163 – 164. Emphasis added. 21 Harijan, 16 November 1939.
  63. 63. 63 Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 63 22 Quoted in Ram K. Vepa, New Technology: A Gandhian Concept (New Delhi: 1975), p. 170. 23 S. C. Gangal, “Gandhian Approach to Disarmament” paper presented at a seminar on “ Perspectives on Disarmament” held under the auspices of Gandhi Peace Forum(GPF), Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, 11 April 1978. 24 From Yervada Mandir ( Navajivan, Ahmedabad: 1933), p. 96 – 97. 25 G. N. Dhawan, The Political Philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi (Ahmedabad: 1957), p. 341. 26 G. N. Dhawan, op. cit., n. 25, p. 96. 27 Brash and Webel, op. cit., n. p. 113. Emphasis added. 28 Raghavan Iyer, op. cit., n. 4., pp. 212 – 214. Parentheses and Emphasis added. 29 Hind Swaraj or Indian Home Rule (Navajivan, Ahmedabad: 1938), p. 04. 30 Anurag Gangal, op. cit., n. 13, pp. 29 – 30. 31 Young India, 02 July 1931. 32 N. K. Bose, Selections from Gandhi (Ahmedabad: 1948), p. 42. 33 M. K. Gandhi, Nonviolence in Peace and War (Ahmedabad: 1948), Volume – I, Chapter – II and pp. 145, 324. See also S. C. Gangal, The Gandhian Way to World Peace (Vora, Bombay: 1960), pp. 100 – 101. 34 S. C. Gangal, Ibid. , p. 100. 35 Encyclopaedia of Pacifism, (London: 1937), p. 100.
  64. 64. 64 Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 64
  65. 65. 65 Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 65 Chapter Three Kashmir Question
  66. 66. 66 Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 66
  67. 67. 67 Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 67 Chapter Three Kashmir Question Any Kashmir watcher can say that majority of Pakistanis want to be a part of a “sovereign democratic” Pakistan and not the one ruled by military dictators. India must assure Pak citizens her full moral support in realising this vision. Otherwise the Kashmir tangle will never be solved. Indeed, as such, there are several related contours anent the Kashmir question especially from a Gandhian perspective. Only about one hundred and sixty years of the history of Jammu and Kashmir since the Treaty of Amritsar is replete with instability and blood-bath. This is not a very long time-span in international politics. It - especially -“instability” generally occurs from the very inception of a newly established political setup. But why this blood-bath, time and again? Pakistan’s “non-Islamic” desire for the merger of entire Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) with her Motherland is not the reason for it. Even religion and the so- called “two nation theory” are also not the real cause of it. In effect, Pakistan means continuous expansion until the goal is reached specially in the eyes of its rulers. How? It will be seen in the following pages in this chapter.
  68. 68. 68 Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 68 Gandhi Relating to Kashmir For Pakistan, this precarious situation is necessary for her sheer existence and endless search of identity. This is also a GANDHIAN perception not just because a few novices like are saying so. Instead, Mahatma Gandhi has had very clear views on diverse dimensions in this matter. The most relevant among such opinions and Gandhi’s analyses are being reproduced here in brief in his own words: --Mahatma Gandhi had given his “consent” to Indian Government’s defence measures in Kashmir in 1947 because the Government was not committed to nonviolence or “pacifism”.1 --For Gandhi, in the absence of a general belief in nonviolence, it would be well to defend a nation with all its violent might bravely instead of surrendering cowardly. 2 --“I am firmly convinced that the Pakistan demand as put forth by the Muslim League is un-Islamic. I have not hesitated to call it sinful. Islam stands for the unity and brotherhood of mankind, not for disrupting the oneness of the human family.” 3 --“There may be arguable grounds for maintaining that Muslims in India are a separate nation. But I have never heard it said that there are as many nations as there are religions on Earth.” 4
  69. 69. 69 Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 69 --“The ‘two nations’ theory is an untruth. The vast majority of Muslims of India are converts to Islam or descendants of converts.” 5 --“As a man of nonviolence cannot forcibly resist the the proposed partition if the Muslims of India really insist upon it .But I can never be a willing party to the vivisection.” 6 --“If eight corers of Muslims desire it, no power on earth can prevent it, notwithstanding opposition violent or non-violent.” 7 --“To undo Pakistan by force will be to undo Swaraj.”8 --“If India and Pakistan are to be perpetual enemies and go to war against each other, it will ruin both the Dominions and their hard-won freedom will be soon lost .I do not wish to see that day.”9 --“To drive every Muslim from India and every Hindu and Sikh from Pakistan will mean war and eternal ruin for the Country.”10 --“What is the situation? It was right for the Union Government to rush troops, even a handful, to Srinagar. That must save the situation to the extent of giving Confidence to the Kashmiris….The result is in the hands of God . Men can but do or die. I SHALL NOT SHED A TEAR IF THE LITTLE UNION FORCE IS WIPED OUT, LIKE THE SPARTANS
  70. 70. 70 Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 70 BRAVELY DEFENDING KASHMIR NOR SHALL I MIND …. MUSLIM, HINDU AND SIKH COMRADES, MEN AND WOMEN, DYING AT THEIR POST IN DEFENCE OF KASHMIR. THAT WILL BE A GLORIOUS EXAMPLE TO THE REST OF INDIA.” “Such heroic defence will infect the whole of India and we will forget that the Hindus, the Muslims and the Sikhs were ever enemies.”11 --“I am amazed to see that the Government of Pakistan disputes the veracity of the Union’s representation to the UNO and the charge that Pakistan has a hand in the invasion of Kashmir by the raiders. Mere denials cut no ice. It was incumbent upon the Indian Union to go to the rescue of Kashmir when the latter sought its help in expelling the raiders, and it was the duty of Pakistan to co-operate with the Union. But while Pakistan professed its willingness to co-operate, it took no concrete steps in that direction….” “A war will bring both the Dominions under the sway of a third power and nothing can be worse. I plead for amity. And goodwill…. The understanding should however be genuine. To harbour internal hatred may be even worse than war.” 12 An attempt to bring above-mentioned select-references in a nutshell will focus our attention on the major directions of an obvious and clear Gandhian perspective in this matter. The major pointers anent this entire context are apparently very challenging and
  71. 71. 71 Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 71 gratifying in nature. They call for wider perception on the part of our Governments and people. What are these challenging though highly gratifying Gandhian pointers? Are they having the potential of enlightening our darker age-in several ways today? First, Gandhi never wanted partition of India. It was personal and political rivalry between Jawaharlal Nehru and Mohammed Ali Jinnah that ultimately led to India’s vivisection while religion, so- called two nations’ theory and protection of minorities’ interests etc. became easy instruments used for serving one’s own personal political aggrandizement through the public postures of fighting for securing the cause of the people at large. Secondly, Mahatma Gandhi would opt for violence of the brave instead of nonviolence of a coward. Even in the current Indian phase of proxy-war-and-invasion against Indian territory and people by Pakistani agents/forces, Gandhi would go for-despite his inner wish to the contrary-effective, brave and obviously violent retaliation by our Army, Air Force, Navy, Police and other para- Military forces. Thirdly, Kashmir (i.e. all the Jammu and Kashmir including the Pak Occupied Kashmir) rightfully belongs to India. India, however, must be ready to part with her rightful claim if magnanimity on her part so requires as the largest and most powerful country in South Asia. If Pakistan has a few reasonable needs and wants which India can help satisfy, it must be done with a sense of
  72. 72. 72 Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 72 duty towards younger partner. This is also a diplomatic and political requirement. Fourthly, there is no truly original Muslim person in the entire South Asia. All are converts to Islam. May be it is for this reason that Pakistan is wrongly directing its national and external forces of Jihad towards India. Fifthly, rivalry between India and Pakistan is continuously attracting other powers to enter the realms of cooperation and conflict in South Asia. Therefore, this Kashmiri- bone-of-contention is clearly having its very grave international ramifications also. Sixthly, the nuclear power and armaments race has further complicated the India-Pakistan tangle and the larger South Asian peace. Just see how could Pakistan claim Jammu and Kashmir when Pakistan-by itself-had always been one small though important part of the larger whole i.e. India. How can one part of a whole ask for sovereign rights over another part of a larger nation like India? Is it possible through persistent violence and terrorism in Kashmir? The beauteous land of Kashmir, despite political instability, has mostly been without bloodshed with the exception of the years after 1989.What a great tragedy of blood bath is occurring now in Jammu and Kashmir almost on routine or daily
  73. 73. 73 Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 73 basis. All this is just because Pakistani Governments and agents do not want India to move on peacefully towards continuous development and prosperity. Pakistan is simply proving to be a nuisance for India. Nuisance is like a bullying attitude which does not end until the bullied decides to call it a day. This is high time when India must decide to end this bullying by Pakistan. Otherwise, we should be ready for our tryst with never ending terror and militancy on Indian soil because the very existence of any Pakistani Government and its governors appear to be depending more on Indian discomfiture and loss of precious Indian lives than on anything else. Gandhian Options How to go for it? There are several ways and options. All of them have apparently not been considered or tried till now, especially, the Gandhian ones. We can see and analyze them one by one : (1.) Mahatma Gandhi will prefer a nonviolent action in this regard provided it does not come out of cowardliness and one’s helplessness. One such suggestion can be of finding more a political solution to the entire problem than largely a military option. The first option in this matter is to openly involve our political scientists for finding political solutions in this regard. This applies even to current-- about more than a decade old -- militancy in Kashmir. Military, in reality, should not be involved in dealing with a situation like that of Kashmir. When we have very
  74. 74. 74 Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 74 clearly identified forces of invaders only then our military can be given orders straightway to throw away the aggressors outside the Indian borders. Otherwise, involvement of military will prove to be quite fruitless. What we need here is proper development of infiltration detection and counter-terrorism measures including commando operations at the behest of Indian Government. Such “Counter Terrorism Commando Operations” can be planned regionally and sector-wise in view of strategic location, language and over-all attitudes of citizens of a particular area. However, at every stage of development of such counter terrorist forces and at every possible level of operations, the political scientists of the concerned area must be continuously consulted because they are the best judge in all matters relating to political strategy, war, peace, order and disorder in society etc. Other social scientists cannot do this job for that sharp edge of political acumen rests with a political philosopher and academic only. Politicians are merchants of political perversions in the main today. Our military and politicians, therefore, need deeper and real political expertise for having positive and meaningful scenario before them. Real politics is away from perversions and manipulations. 13 (2.) Another option for resolving the Kashmir question is of opening all borders freely for respective citizens of all the South Asian nations. There is an inherent people’s political-
  75. 75. 75 Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 75 psychology in such cases which works and resolves the immediate problems threatening the socio-political order. Obviously, some strategic and political vigil will be needed for a very long time in the beginning. This aspect can be taken up at the level of a South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) Foreign Ministers meet and at a Summit meeting. (3.) There is nothing wrong in conducting a plebiscite in the whole of Jammu and Kashmir. According to the concerned United Nations resolution, such a plebiscite can be conducted only when all Pakistani foreign troops move out from there. Otherwise, plebiscite cannot be conducted. Since Pakistan has not removed its forces from our Kashmir till today, it is incumbent upon us to fight these foreign forces tooth and nail until they are pushed out of our territory. If we are not doing it for the last fifty- three years then we are clearly not performing even our national duty. (4.) However, Pakistan must never be merged militarily with India completely in order to save the nation, region and the world from ultimate ruin. Yet, Pakistan must be stopped from spreading fear and terror in the name of Jihad. Otherwise, increasing foreign interference in South Asia will soon transform this land of traditional peace into a region worse than West Asia. The above mentioned options are completely Gandhian in nature inasmuch as they are to be opted for in the absence of a general belief in the power of nonviolence. If any
  76. 76. 76 Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 76 other options are tried, the result will be further complicating the web of Kashmir again and again. Even the option of maintaining the status quo is also not going to solve the crisis. This approach is actually escalating the situation year after year. This is the similar approach, which Britain had adopted towards Hitler’s Germany. This policy was later maligned as uncalled for “appeasement”. This policy of “appeasement” is known as one of the major causes of the Second World War. Original Scheme of Pakistan Historically, every Pakistani is, in essence, “an Indian first and everything else afterwards.” These are Jinnah’s words about the original scheme for the creation of Pakistan. Apparently, the very act of the creation of Pakistan shows, in a way, acceptance of some or the other kind of appeasement policy towards a handful of Muslim elite by the Britishers and leaders of Indian National Congress. The Kashmir Question is merely an extension of that policy today. The original scheme of Pakistan, put forward by Choudhary Rahmat Ali--post-graduate student-was an ambitious plan to conquer a large part of the world from Myanmar to Turkey- including entire West Asia-in the name of Islam, Musalman and Jihad. For Jinnah, it was a “crazy scheme”.14 Jinnah's patriotism for India can be easily seen in: United Kingdom, British Parliament’s Minutes of Evidence given before the Joint Committee on Indian Constitutional Reforms
  77. 77. 77 Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 77 ( session 1932-33 ),Volume-II,p.1496;Sangat Singh, Pakistan’s Foreign Policy ( Delhi:1970 ), pp. 3-4, 55, 56, 57-70; Sharifuddin Pirzada, Evolution of Pakistan ( Lahore: 1963 ),p.30. These references tell us that: This Emmanuel College student at Cambridge University had extended a very ambitious plan for the creation of PAKISTAN obviously at the behest of the Britishers at large. As such, each LETTER in the name of “P” “A” “K” “I” “S” “T” “A” “N” represents a particular territory or geographical area. Jinnah is on record to have called this plan “a crazy scheme” only in these references. According to this proposal : “P” = Punjab, “A” = Afgania ( North West Frontier Province ), “K” = Kashmir, “I” = Iran, “S” = Sindh ( including Kutch and Kathiawar ), “T” = Turkistan, “A” = Afganistan, “N” = Baluchistan (representing last letter in Baluchistan). THIS IS WHAT IN REALITY CALLED “PAKISTAN PAINDABAD OR ZINDABAD”.
  78. 78. 78 Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 78 Pakistani intentions appear to be clear from the very beginning. Accordingly, Pakistan is moving only in that direction very cautiously. Calculated moves are there. See, first, the Pakistani movement in Kashmir, Punjab and the whole of India in the form of repeated armed intrusions, the so-called proxy-wars and several other violations of international law from time to time. For Pakistan, Kashmir is a window to the world for achieving her original plans of conquering the planet, as it were! Erstwhile Apple of an Eye United Kingdom and United States are realizing their folly now. Pakistan is bent upon destroying even its creators (United States, United Kingdom etc.) like a Frankenstein currently in the name of politics of Jihad. There is nothing bad in it if one’s intentions are clear. But the foundations of Jihad cannot be laid down on motivated political self-interests. IN THIS MATTER ABSOLUTE SELFLESSNESS HAS TO BE GIVEN TOP MOST PRIORITY. This is not to be seen as a cherished value now-a-days. Pakistani rulers are using religion not as a purifying mechanism for ultra-perversion of personal political ambitions but they are applying religion merely as a utility or tool to subserve their very own interests. A pertinent question, here, arises. Why the United states, United Kingdom and other Western powers have somewhat suddenly taken an about turn from favouring their erstwhile “apple of the eye”-Pakistan? It is mainly because Pakistan is now openly
  79. 79. 79 Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 79 adopting dangerous postures towards them in league with quite a few “religious minded” billionaires from West Asian part of the world. On the other hand, major Western nations appear to be strategically interested in Kashmir - especially its higher reaches - for a few military/satellite related bases to keep, as it were, “an instantaneous eye” on China, Russia and other Commonwealth of Independent States, West Asia, Pakistan, Afganistan and on India’s emerging nuclear and economic power status in the world. Even in this age of “information explosion”, “ inter-continental ballistic missiles” and “ laser weapons”; conventional elements and sources of national interest and national power still have their own place and importance: land, location, strategic environment, overall geography, natural security and the “global reach factor” are amply available in Kashmir , especially, for an “high-tech giant” like the United States. In this presentation, it has been stated that Gandhi was not totally opposed to India’s military help to Kashmir in 1947, and would not have minded continuing it if necessary. Strictly speaking, this is not in accordance with Gandhi’s widely known approach to the resolution of conflicts -- national or international. But the reason why he did not oppose it was because India as a nation of the modern world was not a nonviolent State. Therefore, it could not but provide its assistance in the defence of Kashmir only in this way rather than sit back in a cowardly manner. It must be stressed, and
  80. 80. 80 Anurag Gangal, Major Contemporary Issues: Gandhian Relevance 80 stressed strongly, that for Gandhi violence was always preferable to cowardice. Last but not least, Gandhi would have wanted ( like he advised the North West Frontier Province-NWFP-Government in 1935 in the context of tribal raiders’ attack ) to find out Pakistan’s legitimate grievances, if any, and remove them as best as it can be possible to do so. It must be stated that this last mentioned approach has also not yet been fully tried out. It’s high time that a beginning is successfully made in this direction also at the earliest and with an open mind. Despite all confidence building measures, this all out approach is indeed missing. Indeed, Gandhi’s nonviolence is not a set theory for all times to come. It is highly dynamic in nature. It is always evolving in essence. According to Gandhi, it can be practised by individuals, by groups of persons and by nations alike. Thus he writes, “It is blasphemy to say that nonviolence can only be practised by individuals and never by nations which are composed of individuals.”15 One has to see Pakistani rulers and people from different angles. The rulers in Pakistan have mostly been adopted the policy of crescent oriented geographical and religious expansionism in the name of the ‘unity and oneness of Islam’. That is what we have seen in these pages here. Their crescent ranges from Myanmar to Turkey. This is the most dangerous aspect of Pakistan’s foreign policy. Every

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