Anurug Chakma Department of PeacePresented By and Conflict Studies University of Dhaka
Understanding Peace as Defined by JohanGaltungTypology of Peace: Negative Peace and PositivePeaceUnderstanding Violence as Defined by JohanGaltungTypology of Violence: Direct, Structural and CulturalViolence (DSC Triangle)Dimensions of Violence
UNDERSTANDING PEACEPeace as absence of violence is called the traditional notion of peace. Later thedefinition of peace has been extended to include human rights, equalitybetween men and women, social justice and ecological balance which is nowconsidered as positive peace. Therefore, we understand peace as thefollowings;Absence of war and violence.Respect for and promotion of human rights.Establishment of good governance and rule of law.Presence of democracy and power sharing.Protection and preservation of environment.
NEGATIVE PEACE PEACE = Absence of War and Violence
POSITIVE PEACEAbsence Absence of of PositiveStructural Personal PeaceViolence Violence
UNDERSTANDING VIOLENCEAccording to Johan Galtung, violence can be defined from twoperspectives. One of them is narrow concept of violence and theother is broader concept of violence. Let us know what they meanand what we understand. Narrow Concept of Violence Broader Concept of Violence
NARROW CONCEPT OFVIOLENCEViolence means somatic incapacitation or deprivation of healthalone such as- killing and murder etc.
BROADER CONCEPT OFVIOLENCE Potential Achievement Violence=Gap between Potential and Actual Actual AchievementViolence is defined as the cause of difference between the potential andactual, between what could have been and what is. Violence is that whichincreases the distance between the potential and the actual, and thatimpedes the decrease of this distance.
TYPOLOGY OF VIOLENCE (DSC TRIANGLE) Direct Violence Structural Cultural Violence Violence
DIRECT VIOLENCE Direct violence refers to physical injuries and theThe simple formula of infliction of pain that isdirect violence is the caused by a specificfollowing. person. It may also take the Subject -Action - form of verbal and Object psychological abuse. Killing and beating in interpersonal situation are the glaring examples of direct violence.
INDIRECT VIOLENCE Structural violence refers to discrimination, deprivation, socialWhat is structural injustice, inequalityviolence? between men and women, and denial of human rights. This type of violence is rooted in social structure.
INDIRECT VIOLENCE Cultural violence is seen as the source of other types of violence throughWhat is cultural its production of hatred,violence? fear and suspicion. Religion, ideology and art may be pointed out as possible sources of cultural violence.
DIMENSIONS OF VIOLENCEThe first distinction to be made is between physical andpsychological violence. • Under physical violence human Physical beings are hurt somatically to the point of killing. Violence • Psychological violence includes lies, Psychological brainwashing, indoctrination of various kinds, threats, etc. that serve Violence to decrease mental potentialities.
DIMENSIONS OF VIOLENCE(Cont.) • A person can be influenced not Negative only by punishing him when he Approach does what the influencer considers wrong. • A person can be influenced not Positive only by rewarding him when he Approach does what the influencer considers right.
DIMENSIONS OF VIOLENCE(Cont.) Object side violence The third dimension of violence is concerned with object side. The central argument is that when a person, group or nation is displaying the means of physical violence, whether by throwing stones around or testing nuclear weapons, there may not be violence present in the sense that anyone is hurt, but there is nevertheless the threat of physical violence and the indirect effect of mental violence that may even be characterized as some type of Image of Nuclear Test psychological violence.
DIMENSIONS OF VIOLENCE(cont.) Subject side violence The fourth distinction is to be made based on the subject side. Individuals may be killed or hurt during both direct and indirect violence.
DIMENSIONS OF VIOLENCE(cont.)Intended and Unintended The fifth distinction is to Violence be made between violence that is intended and unintended. The concept of guilt is decided based on intention.
DIMENSIONS OF VIOLENCE(cont.) Manifest Violence Latent ViolenceThe sixth distinction is to be made between violencethat is visible and invisible. Visible and invisible violenceare called as manifest and latent violence respectively.