Garment finishing methods


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Garment finishing methods

  1. 1. TEXTILE and GARMENT FINISHING METHODS Submitted By:- Abinash Mohanty Anurag Singh Avinash Kumar DFT-IV
  2. 2. What is finishing…?????? • Finishing is a final process given to a textile material to- – Give a good appearance – Desirable feel – Impart certain durable properties • Stiffness • Softness • Wash and wear finish • Water repelling finish • Fire proof finish etc.
  3. 3. Classification of finishing • Classification according to the nature of finish According to the nature of Finish Physical or Mechanical Finish 1) Calendering 2) Sanforizing etc. Chemical Finish 1) Mercerization 2) Easy care finish etc.
  4. 4. • Physical or Mechanical Finish – Mechanical / Physical finishes involve specific physical treatment to a fabric surface to cause a change in the fabric appearance. – Also known as dry finish » Compacting (Shrink proofing) » Calendering » Raising (Napping, Sueding) » Shearing » Polishing » Decating • Chemical Finish – Chemicals are used followed by curing or drying. – Also known as wet finish.
  5. 5. Classification of finishing • Classification according to performance According to Performance Aesthetic Finish– Improved / Altered Appearance 1. Calendering 2. Fulling 3. Mercerization 4. Napping and sueding 5. Shearing Functional Finish– Improved / Altered Performance 1. Antistatic 2. Crease resistant 3. Flame resistant 4. Shrinkage control 5. Soil release 6. Water and stain repellent 7. Waterproof
  6. 6. • Aesthetic Finish – These finishes modify the appearance and / or hand or drape of fabrics. • Functional Finish – These finishes improve the performance properties of fabrics.
  7. 7. COMPACTING – SHRINK PROOFING • Controlled residual shrinkage is an important quality parameter for many fabrics. For example, excessive shrinkage is undesirable for fabrics to be made into garments. • Here, the residual shrinkage should be less than 2% otherwise the garment will not fit after it is laundered.
  8. 8. Why Fabrics Shrink ??? • Crimp. • Thickness of yarn. • Stretching Tension.
  9. 9. Sanforizing • Sanforizing is used to describe shrink proofing processes. • The process, consists of a range where the fabric is first moistened with steam, to make it more pliable, run through a short tenter frame (pup tenter) to straighten and smooth out wrinkles through the compressive shrinkage head and then through a Palmer drying unit to set the fabric.
  10. 10. Fabric Sample
  11. 11. Sanforizing
  12. 12. Decating • This process is mainly carried out on wool by exploiting its elastic properties in hot and wet conditions by the direct action of the steam on the fabric. • It involves the application of heat and pressure to set or develop lustre and softer hand and to even the set and grain of certain fabrics. When applied to double knits it imparts crisp hand and reduces shrinkage .
  13. 13. CALENDERING • Calendering is a process where fabric is compressed by passing it between two or more rolls under controlled conditions of time, temperature and pressure. • Produces different types of surface appearance 1. Simple calendering 2. Glazed calendering 3. Embossed calendering 4. Schreiner calendering
  14. 14. Objects of Calendering • To improve the fabric handle and to impart a smooth silky touch to the fabric. • To compress the fabric and reduce its thickness. • To reduce the air permeability by closing the threads. • To increase the luster. • To reduce the yarn slippage. • Surface patterning by embossing.
  15. 15. 1. SIMPLE CALENDERING • It is a high speed, high pressure pressing of fabric (100 yds / min) • The high pressure flattens the yarn – Smoothen the fabric – Increases fabric lustre (fabric cover increases and more light is reflected) – Used for woven plain or twill weaves • Over-calendering however is to be avoided – Yarns weakened out due to very high pressure • It is a temporary finish – Yarns return to its natural cross section after first laundering
  16. 16. Simple Calendering Process
  17. 17. 2. GLAZED CALENDERING • It is a calendering finish to produce highly glazed / shined polished cotton. • The calender machine used is a friction calender, – One cylinder of highly polished steel cylinder rotating at speed much higher than the fabric passing through it. • Fabrics are first treated with starches or resins before calendering – The spaces between the yarns are thus filled up and glazed appearance is obtained.
  18. 18. 3. Embossed calendering • It is a calendering in which a three-dimensional design is created on a fabric • This is done on a special embossing calender in which the roller cylinder is engraved with the embossing design • The pattern is then pushed or shaped into the cloth when the fabric passes between the rollers • Some embossed fabrics are made to imitate more costly woven jacquard or dobby designs
  19. 19. • Embossed patterns of fabrics treated with resins and cured after embossing are durable. • Embossing of fabrics of thermoplastic fibres are permanent because the heated metal roll heat-sets the design.
  20. 20. 4. Schreiner calendering • Schreiner calendering produces a low, soft-key lustre on the fabric surface. • To produce this effect, one of the steel cylinders of the calender is embossed with fine diagonal lines. These embossing are barely visible in naked eye. • Widely used on cotton & cotton/polyester sateen. • Schreiner calendering may be permanent, durable or temporary finish – Is permanent if the fibre is thermoplastic. – Is durable if the fabric is resin treated but not cured. – Is temporary if the fibre is non-thermoplastic and not treated with resin.
  21. 21. Fulling • Fulling is a permanent finish. • Used in wool fabrics. • Gradual or progressive felting of wool. • Done by carefully and controlled scouring or laundering. • The resultant fulled fabric is more compact and more smoother. • Woolens are frequently heavily fulled. • Fabrics of worsted are usually very lightly fulled.
  22. 22. Napping • It is a mechanical finish. • Fibres being raised from woven/knitted fabrics by rotating, bristled, wire covered brushes. • Overall effect is a raised fibres from fabric surface. • Example: cotton flannel, rayon flannel, woolen. • Napped fabrics have softer handle. • Better insulation properties due to more air entrapment. – Mainly used as blankets, winter clothing
  23. 23. Raising (napping) machine: 1- roller 2- rollers equipped with hooks 3- fabric 4- nib cleaning brushes 5- fabric tension adjustment
  24. 24. • Problems are- – Subject to pilling. – Rapid wear at abrasive points (like sleeve ends, elbows, button holes etc.) – Not recommended for hard wear.
  25. 25. Antistatic finish • Synthetic fibres of hydrophobic nature are prone to generation of static charges. • This problem is very troublesome while processing the fabric at high speed in dry state. • Antistatic agents absorb small amount of moisture from the atmosphere, thus reducing the dryness of the fabric. • Antistatic finishes are semi-durable – Washes out at several launderings or dry cleanings.
  26. 26. Water Repellent Finish • Water repellent are chemical finish. • Resist the penetration of water into or through the fabric. • Permits the passage of moisture or air through the fabric. • Methods – The yarns are coated with water repellent material like wax – The water repellent do not permit the water drop to spread and penetrate – Could be of durable and non-durable types
  27. 27. • Non-durable repellents are easily removed in laundering or dry cleaning. • Durable repellent finish can be either repellent to water or oil or both. • Fluro carbon compounds have excellent durability to both dry cleaning and laundering.
  28. 28. Water Proof Finish • A water-proof fabric, unlike a water repellent fabric, is completely moisture proofed. • The fabric is coated or laminated with a film of natural or synthetic rubber or plastic, such as vinyl or polyurethane. • Water proof fabrics are uncomfortable. • Water proof fabric possesses a rather firm, non- drapable hand.
  29. 29. Washes • Alters the look by different washing procedures. • Mainly used for denim and similar items to have a faded and worn appearance. • Have different methods – Stone washing – Acid washing – Enzyme washing
  30. 30. THANK YOU