Open Educational Resources (OER): Global and Indian Perspectives
Open Educational Resources (OER): Global and Indian Perspectives Dr. Anup Kumar Das JNU New Delhi Presented in the International Workshop on Technology in Education: Learning in 21st Century; on 4th December 2012; at NISTADS (CSIR), New Delhi, India
OER and Its Variations Open TextBooks Freely available online textbooks to be used by students, teachers and members of the public. e.g. NCERT Online Textbooks Open CourseWare (OCW) Freely available online educational materials of high quality for college and university level students. Include course planning materials and evaluation tools as well as thematic contents. e.g. MIT Open CourseWare. Open Educational Resources (OER) Freely available online educational resources including A/V materials, on-line learning communities, FOSS, other educational contents. e.g. IMARK
Why Open Educational Resources (OER) Bridging knowledge divide Bridging skill gaps Creating human capitals Supporting lifelong learning and continuous professional development Supporting adult education Creating a self-paced learning environment Awareness raising and sensitization of different socio-economic and practical issues e.g. legal literacy, health literacy, information literacy, digital literacy, media literacy, awareness raising on HIV/AIDS, occupational health; gender sensitization, etc.
OER Policymaking – India National Knowledge Commission recommended a “national e- content and curriculum initiative” in 2008 National Knowledge Network, initiated in 2009, connects 1500+ institutions and R&D centres; facilitates Countrywide Virtual Classroom and Virtual Library. NPTEL (National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning), initiated in 2003, IITs (7) and IISc came together to develop web and video based material for basic UG Science & Engineering courses to enhance the reach and quality of technical education. 2nd Phase started during 11th FYP. National Mission on Education through ICT, initiated in 2009 by MHRD. ICT infrastructure development, FOSS development, e- learning contents development. Adopted NPTEL’s 2nd Phase.
OER Policymaking – International MIT OpenCourseWare project launched in 2002, sparked a global OER Movement. In 2002, the term Open Educational Resources was coined at a UNESCO meeting. In 2003, Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities was released In 2005, an international OER Community was launched by UNESCO IIEP to raise awareness of OER and to consider some of the related issues. In 2007, the UNESCO IIEP OER Community ranked the priorities for advancing the OER movement – and identified awareness raising, and community building and networking as the most important actions. In 2007, OECD reported on a study of the scale and scope of OER at that time Giving Knowledge for Free: The Emergence of Open Educational Resources. In 2007, the Cape Town Open Education Declaration was released In 2010, a UNESCO/COL Chair in OER (Athabasca University, Canada) and a UNESCO Chair in OER (Open Universiteit, Netherlands) were awarded to act as think tanks and bridge builders, working through partnerships and networking In 2012, UNESCO passed the Paris OER Declaration, during 2012 World OER Congress, in Paris, June 20-22, 2012
OER Communities WSIS Knowledge Communities, OER Community >> Supporting the EFA and MDGs with Open Educational Resources OER-Community (e-group) presently moderated by UNESCO/COL Chair in OER OpenCourseWare Consortium, USA Wiki Educator (http://wikieducator.org) OER Asia (www.oerasia.org) OER Africa (www.oerafrica.org)
OER Gateways Open Training Platform (OTP), initiated in 1997 by UNESCO, http://otp.unesco-ci.org Curriki, initiated in 2006, a leading K-12 global community for teachers, students and parents to create, share, and find free and open learning resources that improve teacher effectiveness and student outcomes. http://welcome.curriki.org/ MERLOT (Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching), initiated in 1997, by the California State University Center for Distributed Learning (CSU-CDL). http://www.merlot.org Directory of OpenCourseWare Consortium, initiated by OCW Consortium Global Open Access Portal, initiated in 2011 by UNESCO
Example of Successful OER IMARK (Information Management Resource Kit) http://www.imarkgroup.org/ Created by FAO in collaboration with over 30 partner and contributing organizations, including UNESCO, COL, INASP. Agricultural information management for development practitioners Modules Knowledge Sharing for Development Digital Libraries, Repositories and Documents (DLRD) Web 2.0 and Social Media for Development Networking in Support of Development Building Electronic Communities and Networks Investing in Information for Development Digitization and Digital Libraries (superseded by the module DLRD) Management of Electronic Documents (superseded by the module DLRD) Online and CD-ROM platforms
IMARK IMARK modules use the latest instructional methods in e-learning such as: Personal Learning Paths Storytelling Illustrative Case Studies Learner Tracking Simulations and "Demonstration-Practice Method" Interactive Tests and Exercises with Reinforcement feedback Each module has a technical glossary and search function, as well as reference materials and case studies.
Conclusion OER have great potential in skills development, lifelong learning and other sectors of human development. OER licensing issues need to be addressed more carefully as prescribed in the 2012 Paris OER Declaration. OER need to be integrated with formal and non- formal education systems. Qualitative Multilingual E-contents should be created. Multimedia and Multilingual OER production skills need be imparted in teachers’ training centres.