Cray-1 The First Supercomputer
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  • 1. CRAY-1 The First Supercomputer Anupam Biswas October 24, 2011Department of Computer Science and Engineering NIT Allahabad,India Anupam Biswas CRAY-1 The First Supercomputer
  • 2. Steps behined you....what ?? Anupam Biswas CRAY-1 The First Supercomputer
  • 3. A brief overview :The CRAY-1The CRAY-1 with its inventorSeymour Cray Anupam Biswas CRAY-1 The First Supercomputer
  • 4. A brief overview :The CRAY-1 In mid-to-late 1970’s CRAY-1 was the fastest computer in the world.The CRAY-1 with its inventorSeymour Cray Anupam Biswas CRAY-1 The First Supercomputer
  • 5. A brief overview :The CRAY-1 In mid-to-late 1970’s CRAY-1 was the fastest computer in the world. Clock speed of 12.5ns (80MHz)The CRAY-1 with its inventorSeymour Cray Anupam Biswas CRAY-1 The First Supercomputer
  • 6. A brief overview :The CRAY-1 In mid-to-late 1970’s CRAY-1 was the fastest computer in the world. Clock speed of 12.5ns (80MHz) Computaional rate of 138 MFLOPS during sustained period. 250 MFLOPS in short bursts.The CRAY-1 with its inventorSeymour Cray Anupam Biswas CRAY-1 The First Supercomputer
  • 7. A brief overview :The CRAY-1 In mid-to-late 1970’s CRAY-1 was the fastest computer in the world. Clock speed of 12.5ns (80MHz) Computaional rate of 138 MFLOPS during sustained period. 250 MFLOPS in short bursts. Unveiled in 1976 by its inventor Seymour Roger CrayThe CRAY-1 with its inventorSeymour Cray Anupam Biswas CRAY-1 The First Supercomputer
  • 8. A brief overview :The CRAY-1 In mid-to-late 1970’s CRAY-1 was the fastest computer in the world. Clock speed of 12.5ns (80MHz) Computaional rate of 138 MFLOPS during sustained period. 250 MFLOPS in short bursts. Unveiled in 1976 by its inventor Seymour Roger CrayThe CRAY-1 with its inventor Had spawned a new class ofSeymour Cray computer called ”The Supercomputer”. Anupam Biswas CRAY-1 The First Supercomputer
  • 9. Architecture:Physial Dimensions Physical Dimensions of CRAY-1 Anupam Biswas CRAY-1 The First Supercomputer
  • 10. Architecture:Physial Dimensions 1 Mainframe composed of 12 wedgelike columns. Physical Dimensions of CRAY-1 Anupam Biswas CRAY-1 The First Supercomputer
  • 11. Architecture:Physial Dimensions 1 Mainframe composed of 12 wedgelike columns. 2 Height of each column 77”. Physical Dimensions of CRAY-1 Anupam Biswas CRAY-1 The First Supercomputer
  • 12. Architecture:Physial Dimensions 1 Mainframe composed of 12 wedgelike columns. 2 Height of each column 77”. 3 Arranged in a 270 degree arc with base of 103.5”. Physical Dimensions of CRAY-1 Anupam Biswas CRAY-1 The First Supercomputer
  • 13. Architecture:Physial Organization Anupam Biswas CRAY-1 The First Supercomputer
  • 14. Architecture:Physial Organization CRAY-1 is equiped with- 1 12 full duplex i/o channels. Anupam Biswas CRAY-1 The First Supercomputer
  • 15. Architecture:Physial Organization CRAY-1 is equiped with- 1 12 full duplex i/o channels. 2 16 memory banks. Anupam Biswas CRAY-1 The First Supercomputer
  • 16. Architecture:Physial Organization CRAY-1 is equiped with- 1 12 full duplex i/o channels. 2 16 memory banks. 3 12 functional units. Anupam Biswas CRAY-1 The First Supercomputer
  • 17. Architecture:Physial Organization CRAY-1 is equiped with- 1 12 full duplex i/o channels. 2 16 memory banks. 3 12 functional units. 4 More than 4KBs of register storage. Anupam Biswas CRAY-1 The First Supercomputer
  • 18. Architecture:Physial Organization CRAY-1 is equiped with- 1 12 full duplex i/o channels. 2 16 memory banks. 3 12 functional units. 4 More than 4KBs of register storage. 5 New cooling technology,Freon-based but in new way. Anupam Biswas CRAY-1 The First Supercomputer
  • 19. CPU Computation Anupam Biswas CRAY-1 The First Supercomputer
  • 20. CPU Computation 1 Integer and Floating point Arithmatics Integer arithmatic was done in 24 bit or 64 bit 2’s complement. Floating point numbers were represented in signed magnitude. Anupam Biswas CRAY-1 The First Supercomputer
  • 21. CPU Computation 1 Integer and Floating point Arithmatics Integer arithmatic was done in 24 bit or 64 bit 2’s complement. Floating point numbers were represented in signed magnitude. 2 Vector operation and Chaining Vectorization was acheived in CRAY-1...How?? Anupam Biswas CRAY-1 The First Supercomputer
  • 22. CPU Computation 1 Integer and Floating point Arithmatics Integer arithmatic was done in 24 bit or 64 bit 2’s complement. Floating point numbers were represented in signed magnitude. 2 Vector operation and Chaining Vectorization was acheived in CRAY-1...How?? Chaining was another technique used by CRAY-1...So what?? Anupam Biswas CRAY-1 The First Supercomputer
  • 23. CPU Computation 1 Integer and Floating point Arithmatics Integer arithmatic was done in 24 bit or 64 bit 2’s complement. Floating point numbers were represented in signed magnitude. 2 Vector operation and Chaining Vectorization was acheived in CRAY-1...How?? Chaining was another technique used by CRAY-1...So what?? Anupam Biswas CRAY-1 The First Supercomputer
  • 24. Softwares Anupam Biswas CRAY-1 The First Supercomputer
  • 25. Softwares 1 Had very limited set of application softwares. Anupam Biswas CRAY-1 The First Supercomputer
  • 26. Softwares 1 Had very limited set of application softwares. 2 Sofware set includes Cray Operating System (COS) Anupam Biswas CRAY-1 The First Supercomputer
  • 27. Softwares 1 Had very limited set of application softwares. 2 Sofware set includes Cray Operating System (COS) Cray Fortran Compiler (CFT) Anupam Biswas CRAY-1 The First Supercomputer
  • 28. Softwares 1 Had very limited set of application softwares. 2 Sofware set includes Cray Operating System (COS) Cray Fortran Compiler (CFT) Cray Assembler Language (CAL) Anupam Biswas CRAY-1 The First Supercomputer
  • 29. Conclusion Anupam Biswas CRAY-1 The First Supercomputer
  • 30. Conclusion 1 High component density. Anupam Biswas CRAY-1 The First Supercomputer
  • 31. Conclusion 1 High component density. 2 New cooling system introduced. Anupam Biswas CRAY-1 The First Supercomputer
  • 32. Conclusion 1 High component density. 2 New cooling system introduced. 3 High maintainance overhead. Anupam Biswas CRAY-1 The First Supercomputer
  • 33. Conclusion 1 High component density. 2 New cooling system introduced. 3 High maintainance overhead. 4 Opens the door towards modern Supercomputers. Anupam Biswas CRAY-1 The First Supercomputer
  • 34. References R.M.Russell -”The CRAY-1 Computer System”,Communication of ACM, vol 21,1978 Cray Research Inc.-”CRAY-1 Hardware Refernce Manual”, Nov 4, 1977 http://www.thocp.net/ http://en.wikipedia.org/ http://research.microsoft.com/ Anupam Biswas CRAY-1 The First Supercomputer
  • 35. . ∗ ∗ ∗ Thank You ∗ ∗ ∗ Anupam Biswas CRAY-1 The First Supercomputer