Diarrhea by anu kannan

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Diarrhea by anu kannan

  1. 1. ACUTE DIARRHEAL DISEASE ANU.R.V 1ST YEAR Msc.(N)
  2. 2. DEFINITION • Diarrhea is defined by the World Health Organization as having three or more loose or liquid stools per day, or as having more stools than is normal for that person. .
  3. 3. • The passage of three or more than three loose or watery stool in 24 h, or passage of one or more bloody stool. Acute diarrhea refers to illness not lasting longer than 14 days. • British Society of Gastroenterology defines diarrhea as the abnormal passage of loose or liquid stools more than three times daily and/or a volume of stool greater than 200 g/day.
  4. 4. ETIOLOGY • Infections. • Food poisoning • Travellers Diarrhea • Antibiotics • Anxiety, food allergy, • Acute appendicitis, • Acute radiation enteritis, • Intestinal ischaemia
  5. 5. CAUSATIVE AGENTS Bacterial agents: Escherichia coli Campylobacter, Clostridium species Shigella species. Vibrio cholerae. Salmonella • Viral agents : Rotavirus Human caliciviruses Adenovirus • Parasitic agents: Entamoeba histolytica Giardia intestinalis Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora
  6. 6. CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS VIRAL : Abdominal pain andcramps, Explosive watery diarrhea, Nausea and vomiting BACTERIAL : Low grade fever, Four to five loose stools per day,severe cramping,watery or bloody diarrhea ,tenesmus, urgency,rice watery stool [vibrio colerae],severe dehydration
  7. 7. PARASITIC: • Sudden onset, • malodorous, explosive, • watery diarrhea; • flatulence • epigastric pain and cramping, • nausea, fever,leukocytes in stool
  8. 8. INVESTIGATIONS • Stool specimen • Fecal leukocyte determination • Stool culture for enteric pathogens • Stool examination for ova and parasites • Flexible sigmoidoscopy with biopsy
  9. 9. MANAGEMENT • Drug treatment • Antimotility drugs • Antispasmodics • Antibacterial drugs • Rehydration

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