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Computer

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  • 1. COMPUTER MEMORY Presented by: ANUJ SHRESTHA
  • 2. MEMORY HIERARCHY Memory Primary Secondary Cache RAM ROM Hard Disk, Magnetic Tape, Static PROM CD, DVD, Zip Disk etc Dynamic EPROM EEPROM
  • 3. PRIMARY MEMORY Provides storage for data and instructions on which control unit and arithmetic logic unit can operate. Data or instructions entered through input device is stored in it. Holds the program and data currently being used for computer and also stores intermediate results. Operates at the highest speed and can be access directly by central processing unit(CPU).
  • 4. TYPES OF PRIMARY MEMORY Random access memory(RAM)  Read/write memory  Place in a computer where operating system, application programs, and data in current use are kept for quick access  Data stays only as long as the computer is running  2 types  Static RAM(SRAM)  Dynamic RAM(DRAM)
  • 5. TYPES OF PRIMARY MEMORY (CONT.) Static RAM(SRAM)  Stands for Static Random Access Memory  Retains the data as long as power is provided to the memory chips  Doesn’t need to be ‘refreshed’ periodically.  Very fast and expensive as compared to DRAM.  Used in specialized applications in computer.
  • 6. TYPES OF PRIMARY MEMORY (CONT.) Dynamic RAM(DRAM)  Stands for Dynamic Random Access Memory  Must be continually ‘refreshed’ in order for it to maintain the data  Cheaper and smaller than SRAM  Used as system memory in most of the computers
  • 7. TYPES OF PRIMARY MEMORY (CONT.) Read Only Memory(ROM)  Permanent memory  Contents are not lost when the power supplies are switched off.  User can’t write in it  Stores permanent programs and other types of information needed by computer to execute users programs
  • 8. TYPES OF PRIMARY MEMORY (CONT.) Types of ROM  Programmable Read Only Memory(PROM)  Program stored in PROM can be modified once by the user.  Once chip has been programmed, recorded information cannot be changed  Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EPROM)  Can be erased and reprogrammed  Needs to be removed from the proccessor and exposed to ultraviolet light for sometime before it can accept any new contents.
  • 9. TYPES OF PRIMARY MEMORY (CONT.) Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory(EEPROM)  User-modifiable read-only memory (ROM) that can be erased and reprogrammed (written to) repeatedly through the application of higher than normal electrical voltage generated  Limited to single byte operations which made them slower  Retains it’s contents even when the power is turned off.
  • 10. QUERIES??

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