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  • 1. A WEB-BASED TUTORIAL SYSTEM FOR EUROCODE
    STRUCTURAL FIRE ENGINEERING
    Dissertation by
    ANUJ RAMDAS
    Supervised by
    Prof. IAN BURGESS
  • 2. A WEB-BASED TUTORIAL SYSTEM FOR EUROCODE
    STRUCTURAL FIRE ENGINEERING
    INTRODUCTION
    • The possibility of an outbreak of fire in a building can never be neglected
    • 3. Protection of all external steel members would be a costly affair
    • 4. To assess whether fire protection is required on the external structural steel elements of the building or if they can remain unclad
    • 5. Performance depending upon the position of the member with respect to the windows
  • A WEB-BASED TUTORIAL SYSTEM FOR EUROCODE
    STRUCTURAL FIRE ENGINEERING
    INTRODUCTION
    External steelwork of Hotel de lasArtes, Barcelona
  • 6. A WEB-BASED TUTORIAL SYSTEM FOR EUROCODE
    STRUCTURAL FIRE ENGINEERING
    AIMS
    • Increase the performance of external steel structures against fire
    • 7. Develop a web-browser-based tutorial interface
  • A WEB-BASED TUTORIAL SYSTEM FOR EUROCODE
    STRUCTURAL FIRE ENGINEERING
    OBJECTIVES
    Understand behaviour of fire and various other mechanisms that govern heat transfer.
    Fire engineering theory and its design.
    To examine the fire design approach for external steel work based on BS EN 1991-1-2:2002 and BS EN 1993-1-2:2005.
    Understand Adobe Dreamweaver CS4 and Adobe Fireworks CS4 software to develop the online external steelwork tutorial.
  • 8. A WEB-BASED TUTORIAL SYSTEM FOR EUROCODE
    STRUCTURAL FIRE ENGINEERING
    HEAT TRANSFER MODEL
  • 9. A WEB-BASED TUTORIAL SYSTEM FOR EUROCODE
    STRUCTURAL FIRE ENGINEERING
    HEAT TRANSFER
    Main source of heat transfer
    Convection and Radiation
    Highest temperature on the external steel members are at points near to the window top.
    Department of Civil and Structural Engineering
  • 10. A WEB-BASED TUTORIAL SYSTEM FOR EUROCODE
    STRUCTURAL FIRE ENGINEERING
    HEAT TRANSFER
    • Heat Transfer to column not engulfed in flame
    • 11. No forced draught
    column opposite window
    column to side of window
    • Forced draught
    column opposite window
    column to side of window
    Department of Civil and Structural Engineering
  • 12. A WEB-BASED TUTORIAL SYSTEM FOR EUROCODE
    STRUCTURAL FIRE ENGINEERING
    HEAT TRANSFER
    • Heat Transfer to column engulfed in flame
    • 13. No forced draught
    • 14. Forced draught
    • 15. Engulfed column with protection
    Department of Civil and Structural Engineering
  • 16. A WEB-BASED TUTORIAL SYSTEM FOR EUROCODE
    STRUCTURAL FIRE ENGINEERING
    HEAT TRANSFER
    • Heat Transfer to spandrel beam not engulfed in flame
    Department of Civil and Structural Engineering
  • 17. A WEB-BASED TUTORIAL SYSTEM FOR EUROCODE
    STRUCTURAL FIRE ENGINEERING
    HEAT TRANSFER
    • Heat Transfer to spandrel beam fully or partially engulfed in flame
    • 18. No forced draught
    Flame height > beam depth
    Flame height < beam depth
    • Forced draught
    Department of Civil and Structural Engineering
  • 19. A WEB-BASED TUTORIAL SYSTEM FOR EUROCODE
    STRUCTURAL FIRE ENGINEERING
    ASSUMPTIONS
    • Confined to a single storey fire compartment.
    • 20. All openings such as windows in the fire compartment are designed to be rectangular in shape.
    • 21. Parameters such as compartment fire temperature, size and temperature of flames coming out of the window, convection and radiation characteristics as per EN 1991-1-2 Annex B.
    • 22. Elements must be distinguished as member engulfed or not engulfed in flame depending on the relative position with respect to the openings
    • 23. Radiative heat transfer is assumed for an element which is not engulfed with flame projecting out from the windows.
    Department of Civil and Structural Engineering
  • 24. A WEB-BASED TUTORIAL SYSTEM FOR EUROCODE
    STRUCTURAL FIRE ENGINEERING
    CALCULATION PROCEDURE
    • Calculate compartment parameters
    • 25. Decide if through draught conditions apply or not
    • 26. Calculate flame trajectory and the fire and flame temperatures
    • 27. Draw sketches of the flame trajectory and steel position
    • 28. Modify the flame shape for flame deflection by wind in the ‘no forced draught’ case
    • 29. Calculate heat transfer to steel.
    Department of Civil and Structural Engineering
  • 30. A WEB-BASED TUTORIAL SYSTEM FOR EUROCODE
    STRUCTURAL FIRE ENGINEERING
    HEAT BALANCE EQUATIONS
    Average steel temperature Tm [K] is found by iterative solution of
    σ Tm4 + α Tm = Iz + If + 293α
    Where,
    σ Stefan Boltzmann constant taken as 56.7x10-12 kW/m2K4
    α Coefficient for heat transfer by convection [kW/m2K]
    IzHeat flux by radiation from the flames [kW/m2]
    If Heat flux by radiation from the opening [kW/m2]
    Member not engulfed in flame
    Department of Civil and Structural Engineering
  • 31. A WEB-BASED TUTORIAL SYSTEM FOR EUROCODE
    STRUCTURAL FIRE ENGINEERING
    HEAT BALANCE EQUATIONS
    Average steel temperature Tm [K] is found by iterative solution of
    σ Tm4 + α Tm = Iz + If + α Tz
    Where,
    Tz Temperature of flame [K]
    IzHeat flux by radiation from the flames [kW/m2]
    If Heat flux by radiation from the opening [kW/m2]
    Member engulfed in flame
    Department of Civil and Structural Engineering
  • 32. A WEB-BASED TUTORIAL SYSTEM FOR EUROCODE
    STRUCTURAL FIRE ENGINEERING
    FAILURE CRITERIA
    The critical ‘failure’ temperature
    Columns - 550⁰C
    Beams - 620⁰C
    Has no consideration for load intensity imposed over the element
    Department of Civil and Structural Engineering
  • 33. A WEB-BASED TUTORIAL SYSTEM FOR EUROCODE
    STRUCTURAL FIRE ENGINEERING
    FIRE TEST ON REAL STRUCTURES
    Steel plate placed outside the fire compartment opening (Wald et al, 2009)
    Testing of a three-storey steel frame building by Wald et al (2009), in order to explore and compare the structural behaviour in a fire compartment as stated by the Eurocode.
    Department of Civil and Structural Engineering
  • 34. A WEB-BASED TUTORIAL SYSTEM FOR EUROCODE
    STRUCTURAL FIRE ENGINEERING
    FIRE TEST ON REAL STRUCTURES
    Comparison of measured and calculated temperatures (Wald et al, 2009)
    The test concluded with the confirmation that the temperature prediction within the fire compartment and beam by the Eurocode was of good quality.
    Department of Civil and Structural Engineering
  • 35. A WEB-BASED TUTORIAL SYSTEM FOR EUROCODE
    STRUCTURAL FIRE ENGINEERING
    WEB BASED TUTORIAL
    About Adobe Dreamweaver CS4 and Adobe Fireworks CS4
    Department of Civil and Structural Engineering
  • 36. A WEB-BASED TUTORIAL SYSTEM FOR EUROCODE
    STRUCTURAL FIRE ENGINEERING
    WEB BASED TUTORIAL
    Department of Civil and Structural Engineering
  • 37. A WEB-BASED TUTORIAL SYSTEM FOR EUROCODE
    STRUCTURAL FIRE ENGINEERING
    WEB BASED TUTORIAL
    Department of Civil and Structural Engineering
  • 38. A WEB-BASED TUTORIAL SYSTEM FOR EUROCODE
    STRUCTURAL FIRE ENGINEERING
    CONCLUSION
    The web based online tutorial has an advantage of having access to teaching material on click to any user varying from students to engineers.
    The online web tutorial is equipped with PowerPoint presentations giving brief idea on the overall design of external steelwork.
    Three worked examples have also been included in order to understand the application of Eurocode based equations into real life situations.
    Department of Civil and Structural Engineering
  • 39. A WEB-BASED TUTORIAL SYSTEM FOR EUROCODE
    STRUCTURAL FIRE ENGINEERING
    THANK
    YOU
    Department of Civil and Structural Engineering