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Presentation oN India

Presentation oN India

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India Presentation Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Brief History Geography Neighbours Religion Culture, Customs & Traditions Ways of Life
  • 2. Symbolism The saffron stands for courage, sacrifice and the spirit of renunciation The white is meant for purity and truth The green represents faith and fertility The navy blue wheel denotes the continuity of the nation’s progress, which is deemed to be as boundless as the blue sky and as fathomeless as the deep blue sea.
  • 3. Symbolism The lotus represents long life, honour, and good fortune. Even though the lotus grows in mud, it remains pure and produces beautiful flowers. Thus, it symbolizes purity of heart and mind. Peacocks symbolize It is respected in India for its grace, pride, and beauty. strength and grace, as well Peacocks are often used in as its incredible power. The Indian mythology and folk Indian tiger is also called stories. the Royal Bengal Tiger.
  • 4. India as a Nation • A 6,000 Years old History • The Indus Valley Civilization – 3250 to 1500 B.C. • Aryans and the Hindu Religion • 567 B.C. – Birth of Gautama Buddha • 326 B.C. – Alexander the Great • The Golden Age – Maurya and Gupta Dynasty
  • 5. The Golden Bird.... • The World‟s largest economy 1st to 11th century • 33% of World GDP – more than whole of Western Europe
  • 6. The Mughal Era • Started in 1526 - lasted for 3 Centuries • Major Contributions • Architecture • Trade • Cuisine • Infrastructure • Social Reforms
  • 7. The British Invasion • The East India Company - 1612 • The Company Rule – 1757 to 1858 • The Indian Rebillion „ The First War of Independence‟ – 1857 – 58 • The British Raj – 1858 to 1947
  • 8. The Divide & Rule Policy.. • 1940 Mohammad Ali Jinnah submitted the Lahore Resolution • quot;The Muslims and the Hindus belong to two different religious philosophies: they neither intermarry nor interdine.... Muslims are a nation and according to any definition of a nation they must have their homelands, their territory, their state.quot;
  • 9. The Indian Subcontinent •7th largest country in the world with 3.287.263 km2 •Coastline: 7517 km •Himalaya (north) •Largest river: Ganges Ganges-Brahmaputra (agricultural) •Thar desert (west) •Tropical with rainforest (south) Main cities: •New Dehli •Mumbai (Bombay) •Bangalore •Kolkata •Chennai (Madras)
  • 10. Very different climatic zones six major climatic subtypes reaching from... seasons Winter: December-February Spring: February - March Summer or pre monsoon: April - June ..Alpine tundra and glaciers in the north.. Monsoon: July - August Autumn: September-November ..desert in the west.. …Humid tropical regions with rainforest in the southwest.
  • 11. 2nd largest population in the world large population growth: 1961: ~ 450 millions 2008: 1,147,995,904 (China 1,321,851,888 ) 944 females per 1000 males Population structure: 0-14: 30,8% 15-64: 64,3% 65+: 4,9% 70 % of Indians still reside in rural areas But: migration to larger cities dramatic increase of cities
  • 12. Indo-Aryan and Dravidian people
  • 13. Kashmir conflict Dispute over the Kashmir territory by India, Pakistan, China and the people of Kashmir India: Kashmir is an quot;integral partquot; of India Pakistan: Kashmir is a disputed territory whose final status must be determined by the people of Kashmir Kashmiri independence groups: Kashmir should be independent China: controls 20% of Kashmir since 1962
  • 14. From philosophy to popular media, from literature to recreation With over one billion people, 21 different languages, and a compelling history rich with dynamism and determination, India is a country like no other. Indian culture mirrors the eclecticism fostered within its borders through magical colours, sounds, sights, and smells and is sure to evoke excitement amongst the most stoic of visitors.
  • 15. Here‟s what some literates have to say about India quot;India is the cradle of the human race, the birthplace of human speech, the mother of history, the grandmother of legend, and the great grand mother of tradition. Our most valuable and most astrictive materials in the history of man are treasured up in India only!quot; --Mark Twain “We owe a lot to the Indians, who taught us to count, without which no worthwhile scientific discovery could have been made.” – Albert Einstein
  • 16. ...not so simple in India... Language 4% 3% Hindi 4% India has 21 officially recognised Bengali 5% languages which is only 2 less than Telugu the European Union! 6% Marathi 46% Tamil Under constitution, Hindi and 7% English are official languages of Urdu the state 8% Gujarati Kannada Two major linguistic families: 8% 9% Malayalam Indo-Aryan (74%) and Dravidian (24%) Oriya
  • 17. Communication •Indian communication tends to be indirect and a person‟s words may only convey a fraction of what is being said. •Directness is considered rude. •Thus, the rest of the message is delivered via tone, body language, past history, and often, by what is not said. •In Indian culture, it is essential to show proper respect. Polite answer ≠ Real answer Yes Yes No Maybe We‟ll see
  • 18. Social dimensions - The caste system The untouchables •Caste is the Indian class system. •Rejected by Hinduism. •Abolished by law in 1949, but it still remains a significant force throughout India. •A soul can be born into a different caste in the process of reincarnation. •Marriages between castes are rare. Brahmins (Priest and educated class) Kshatriya (Professional, governing and military class) A life body within the social body Vaisahya (Landowners, farmers and merchants) Sudra (Peasants and labourers)
  • 19. Family and friends •One of the most important parts of Indian culture is relationship`(who you know). •Marriages are often arranged by the parents. •Older people are called Auntie and Uncle while people of the same age or younger are called Brother or Sister. •Friendship in India is almost always relegated to people of the same gender, and it tends to run much deeper than in the West, with more physical affection shown toward each other. •Friendship between guys and girls who are not related is considered inappropriate.
  • 20. Key facts • India is one of the most religious countries in the world with large and active populations of Hindus,Muslims, Sikhs, Buddhists and Christians. • Unlike in the West where one‟s faith is considered “private,” Indians tend to display their religion prominently. • A person‟s name, occupation, style of dress, marriage partner and diet are all largely based on religion. • People who are irreligious are looked upon rather suspiciously
  • 21. Religion Population Percent All religions 1,028,610,328 100.00% Hindus 827,578,868 80.456% Muslims 138,188,240 13.434% Christians 24,080,016 2.341% Sikhs 19,215,730 1.868% Buddhists 7,955,207 0.773% Jains 4,225,053 0.411% Others 6,639,626 0.645% Religion not stated 727,588 0.07%
  • 22. Hinduism Religion for Hindus is: • A way of life • A heritage • A tradition • A way of thinking • A way to live in this life which insures the new incarnation. Cow - sacred animal, symbol of vindia/ teep = the wearer is a hindu. Mother Earth Sadhu Holy men. They give up their homes and possessions in order to live a life of meditation and prayer. Other Hindus provide them with food and ≠ money. (≡ Shiva ; III Vishnu) Guru Spiritual teachers and guides in the religions of India. They teach mantras and techniques of meditation.
  • 23. Hinduism The Trinity •Generates - Brahma •Observes - Vishnu •Destroys - Shiva 3 main concepts in Hinduism - Dharma = Duty in life - Karma = good/bad according to the proportion in which one‟s fulfilled his Dharma - Reincarnation Brahma – Vishnu - Shiva
  • 24. Hinduism Aum •Waking, dream and deep sleep •Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva •The three Vedas (Rig, Yajur and Sama) •The three worlds (Bhuh, Bhuvah, Suvah) The Lord is all these and beyond. AUM symbolizes everything - the means and the goal of life, the world and the truth behind it, the material and the Sacred, all form and the Formless. The first sound of the Almighty Oneness with the supreme
  • 25. Islam • Major impact on culture, cuisine, music and architecture. • One of the largest populations of Muslims in the world, despite their being a minority of 12%. 5 Pillars in Islam: • - Creed • - Namaz (5/day/Mecca) • - Ramadan (fas 1 mth/year) • - Almsgiving • - Hajj (Pilgrimage to Mecca)
  • 26. Christianity • Brought to India in AD 52 by Thomas, the “doubting” disciple of Jesus. • Spread in Kerala(S), Mizoram, Nagaland (NE) • Christianity is widely recognized for its humanitarian influence due to the work of people like Mother Theresa.
  • 27. Sikhism • The Sikh religion was born in India. • Founded by Guru Nanak Singh (monotheistic faith that abolished caste distinctions). • All Sikhs are expected to eat together at the temple, or gurudwara, and to take the same name : Singh for men and Kaur for women. • Each Sikh man displays his religious identity with five symbols, known as the Five K‟s in Punjabi: uncut hair covered by a turban, a comb, a steel bracelet, short breeches, and a sword.
  • 28. Other religions • Buddhism - has few followers in India, except among the large Tibetan community. •Jainism - began in India as a sub-sect of Hinduism. Its followers practice a strict policy of non-violence, or ahimsa, and shun the use of any animal product for food or clothing. •The Zoroastrian religion came from Persia. Its small but prominent group of followers in India are called Parsis.
  • 29. Culturally Rich Inventions •The digit zero and the numbering system ( Aryabhatta) •Chess • Algebra, Trigonometry, and Calculus • The decimal system • The game of Snakes and Ladders • The value of
  • 30. To be or not to be... The earliest Indian works were orally transmitted The first Asian Nobel laureate was India‟s Rabindranath Tagore who was awarded the Nobel Prize for his compilation of poems, „Gitanjali‟ in 1993 The oldest relics discovered date back to1500-1200 BCE And were revealed to be Sanskrit hymns Indian poetry is often rooted in the deep religious movements and musical traditions of the country and during the Indian Freedom Movement served as a medium to vocalise nationalism and protest
  • 31. Preeminent figures Mahatma Gandhi Father of the nation - embodiment of Non Violence Srinivasa Ramanujam Great Indian Mathematician (postulated and proved over 3452 theorems C. V. Raman 1930 Nobel Laureate in Physics – Scattering of light and Raman effect
  • 32. Preeminent figures Har Gobind Khorana 1968 – Nobel Laureate in Medicine Worked on the interpretation of the genetic code Sbbramanyan Chandrasekhar 1983 -`Nobel Laureate in Physics Worked on structure and evolution of stars Mother Theresa 1979 Nobel Laureate for Peace
  • 33. Social hierarchy and the role of women The divorce rate in India is a mere 1.1% in comparison to 50% for the United States Arranged marriages are still quite prevalent in modern day Indian culture and are based upon such characteristics as: height, caste status, personal values, age (amongst others) Women's issues seldom appear in popular media and account for 7-14% of national coverage
  • 34. Leisure Chai drinking along with meet conversation (Cricket, politics, Bollywood) and people-watching. Bollywood: - long musical drama-comedy- action-romance in which: + = 3h later + + =
  • 35. Salwar Kameez ! Indian women have a variety of different apparel and styles to choose from, but three of the most common garments are: 1. Sari 2. Salwar Kameez 3. Choli Men too have many options and here are but three samples: 1. Dhoti 2. Lungi 3. Kurta
  • 36. How to eat Indian food •Indian food is often eaten with the hands •considered impolite to allow the food to pass the first joint of the fingers •fingers should never touch the mouth directly •only the right hand may be used in eating •spoon is provided for soup, but the bread may even be used to eat that •Meat may be eaten with a knife and fork, but it will more often be served pre- cut, so it may be easily managed by the fingers
  • 37. How to eat Indian food
  • 38. Sports, Sports, Sports •Official national sport is Hockey •Indigenous sports include: kabaddi and gilli-danda •Chess was invented in India •Many indoor and outdoor games such as snakes and ladders, playing cards, polo etc. •Most popular sport: cricket
  • 39. Pure Passion.......
  • 40. From Dreams to Reality.... • Business • Engineer • MBA • Doctor • Accountants
  • 41. • Elementary Education – Fundamental Right • More than 1700 Colleges, 350 Universities and 20 Institutes of National Importance • But Literacy Rate – 65.38% • Female Literacy – 54.16% • Urban Literacy – 80.3%
  • 42. • VALUE for MONEY • Bargaining • Displays • Touch and Feel Good • Promotional Deals
  • 43. Traditional vs. Modern Ferrari vs.. Western modern life vs.. Modern appartments vs.. Oxcart Tradtional families Slums.