Fundamental of counseling

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Counselling as a process

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Fundamental of counseling

  1. 1. FUNDAMENTAL OFCOUNSELINGPART I: COUNSELING RELATIONSHIP. 10/4/2012 MRS.ANUJA CHAVAN. 1
  2. 2. DEFINITION OFCOUNSELLING American Counseling Association defines it as „ the application of mental health, psychological or human development principles, through cognitive, affective, behavioral or systemic interventions, strategies that address wellness, personal growth, or career development as well as pathology.‟ 10/4/2012 MRS.ANUJA CHAVAN. 2
  3. 3. 2010 DEFINITION BY ACA “Counseling is a professional relationship that empowers diverse individuals, families, and groups to accomplish mental health, wellness, education, and career goals.” 10/4/2012 MRS.ANUJA CHAVAN. 3
  4. 4. GUIDANCE What is Guidance? ◦ “Guidance is a process of helping people make important choices that affect their lives, such as choosing a preferred lifestyle” 10/4/2012 MRS.ANUJA CHAVAN. 4
  5. 5. PSYCHOTHERAPY What is Psychotherapy? ◦ Traditionally focuses on serious problems associated with intrapsychic, internal, and personal issues and conflicts. It deals with the “recovery of adequacy” 10/4/2012 MRS.ANUJA CHAVAN. 5
  6. 6. SUMMARY Deals with wellness, personal growth, career & pathological concerns. Conducted with normally functioning people or people with serious problems. Theory based. Process that may be developmental / intervening. 10/4/2012 MRS.ANUJA CHAVAN. 6
  7. 7. : Counseling is centered on the difficulties of the client. Counseling is a learning situation which eventually results in a behavioral change. Effectiveness in counseling depends largely on the readiness of the client to make changes and the therapeutic relationship with the counselor. The counseling relationship is confidential. 10/4/2012 MRS.ANUJA CHAVAN. 7
  8. 8. MEANING OF COUNSELINGRELATIONSHIP A process where C facilitate a change of attitude & behavior of client. It‟s an interactive process. Focusing on:a. Behavior of client.b. Beilef‟s & values.c. Level of emotional distress.Note: connection is imp. Relationship between C & c is imp. 10/4/2012 MRS.ANUJA CHAVAN. 8
  9. 9.  Pepinsky &Pepinsky define relationship “as a hypothetical construct to designate the inferred affective character of the observable interaction between 2 individuals.” 10/4/2012 MRS.ANUJA CHAVAN. 9
  10. 10. Process Model: RELATING UNDERSTANDING CHANGING 10/4/2012 MRS.ANUJA CHAVAN. 10
  11. 11. Respect Empathy Concreteness Congruence Immediacy 10/4/2012 MRS.ANUJA CHAVAN. 11
  12. 12. EMPATHIC UNDERSTADING RESPECT &WARMTH POSITIVE REGARD CONCRETENESS GENUINESS 10/4/2012 MRS.ANUJA CHAVAN. 12
  13. 13. LEVELS OF EMPATHY Primary Empathy: Responding in such a way that it is apparent to both the client & counselor the counselor has understood the client‟s major themes. Advanced Empathy: This takes the relationship one step further. You are exploring themes, issues, meanings, and emotions that are below the surface of what is being shared by the client. 10/4/2012 MRS.ANUJA CHAVAN. 13
  14. 14. FACILITATIVE CONDITIONSRogers (1957; 1959) stated that there are six necessary and sufficient conditionsrequired for therapeutic change:Therapist-Client Psychological ContactClient incongruence, or VulnerabilityTherapist Congruence, or GenuinenessTherapist Unconditional Positive Regard (UPR)Therapist Empathic understandingClient Perception 10/4/2012 MRS.ANUJA CHAVAN. 14
  15. 15. Stage II- In-depth Exploration Stage. Stage III- Stage I- Initial Commitment toDisclosure Stage Action 10/4/2012 MRS.ANUJA CHAVAN. 15
  16. 16. : Goals within counseling help to set the tone and direction one travel’s with their client. Without goals, the sessions will wander aimlessly. 10/4/2012 MRS.ANUJA CHAVAN. 16
  17. 17.  Mutually agreed on by the client and counselor. Specific. Relevant to behavior. Achievement & success oriented. Quantifiable & measurable. Behavioral & observable. Understandable & can be re-stated clearly. 10/4/2012 MRS.ANUJA CHAVAN. 17
  18. 18. Psycho Adjustment Support educational &Resource Guidance Provision Crisis Problem solving Symptom intervention & Decision Amelioration &Mgmt Making Insight & Self - TranscendentalUnderstanding Actualization Experience 10/4/2012 MRS.ANUJA CHAVAN. 18
  19. 19.  Advice Giving Lecturing Excessive Questioning Storytelling Asking “Why?” Asking “How did that make you feel?” 10/4/2012 MRS.ANUJA CHAVAN. 19
  20. 20.  When working with a client, you want to send a message that you are listening. This can be done by being attentive both verbally (responding to the client) and nonverbally. SOLER is an acronym which serves to remind us how to listen. 10/4/2012 MRS.ANUJA CHAVAN. 20
  21. 21.  S: Face the client squarely; that is, adopt a posture that indicates involvement. O: Adopt an open posture. Sit with both feet on the ground to begin with and with your hands folded, one over the other. L: As you face your client, lean toward him or her. Be aware of their space needs. E: Maintain eye contact. Looking away or down suggests that you are bored or ashamed of what the client is saying. Looking at the person suggests that you are interested and concerned. R: As you incorporate these skills into your attending listening skills, relax. 10/4/2012 MRS.ANUJA CHAVAN. 21
  22. 22. DIAGNOSTIC SKILLS To understand if the c has any psychological problems. Identification of specific problems is 1st step for treatment planning. It can be informal /formal procedures. Detailed history leads to generating hypothesis which leads to final inferred. 10/4/2012 MRS.ANUJA CHAVAN. 22
  23. 23.  The 1st step is to conduct thorough intake interview . Understanding Antecedents and other associated factors is important. If no diagnosis is derived then use psychological assessment. Questioning Probing and leading 10/4/2012 MRS.ANUJA CHAVAN. 23
  24. 24. MOTIVATIONAL SKILLS MI developed by William Miller & Stephen Rollnick. Semi-directive client-centered approach, Non-judgemental, non-confrontational &non-adversial. To create more insight & awareness 10/4/2012 MRS.ANUJA CHAVAN. 24
  25. 25. 4 General Principles Express Empathy Develop Discrepancy Roll with Resistance Support Self-Efficacy 10/4/2012 MRS.ANUJA CHAVAN. 25
  26. 26. GOALS: To establish Rapport To elicit change talk To establish commitment language from the client. 10/4/2012 MRS.ANUJA CHAVAN. 26
  27. 27. SKILLS- OARSOPEN-ENDED QTS.AFFIRMREFLECTIVE LISTENING• -SIMPLE• -AMPLIFIED• -FEELINGS.SUMMARIZE 10/4/2012 MRS.ANUJA CHAVAN. 27
  28. 28. COMMUNICATION VERBAL VOCAL BODILY TOUCH TAKING ACTIONCOMMUNICATION COMMUNICATION COMMUNICATION COMMUNICATION 10/4/2012 MRS.ANUJA CHAVAN. 28
  29. 29. DIMENSIONS BODILYVERBAL VOCAL - FACIAL EXPRESSION -GAZE -LANGUAGE - VOLUME -EYE-CONTACT -CONTENT -ARTICULATION -GESTURES -AMT.OF SPEECH -PITCH -POSTURE -OWNERSHIP OF SPEECH -EMPHASIS -PHYSICAL CLOSENESS -RATE -CLOTHES -GROOMING 10/4/2012 MRS.ANUJA CHAVAN. 29
  30. 30. COMMUNICATION SKILLS It involves observable behavior It comprises of both verbal &non- verbal communication pattern. 10/4/2012 MRS.ANUJA CHAVAN. 30
  31. 31. SKILLS Attending & Encouraging Restating & Paraphrasing Reflecting Content & Reflecting feeling. Clarifying & Perception Checking Summarizing. 10/4/2012 MRS.ANUJA CHAVAN. 31
  32. 32. DEEPER LEVELS OFCOMMUNICATION SELF-DISCLOSURE RESPONDING TO NON –VERBAL CONFRONTATION CUES 10/4/2012 MRS.ANUJA CHAVAN. 32
  33. 33. IMPEDIMENT TOCOMMUNICATION C‟s predisposition. Premature Advice Giving Story Telling. Lecturing Excessive Questioning 10/4/2012 MRS.ANUJA CHAVAN. 33
  34. 34. Some Basic Principles Each client must be accepted as an individual and dealt with as such (the counselor does not necessarily approve of all behavior, but still accepts the client as a person). Counseling is basically a permissive relationship; that is, the individual has permission to say what they please without being reprimanded or judged. Counseling emphasizes thinking with; not for the individual. All decision-making rests with the client. 10/4/2012 MRS.ANUJA CHAVAN. 34
  35. 35.  Counseling is centered on the difficulties of the client. Counseling is a learning situation which eventually results in a behavioral change. Effectiveness in counseling depends largely on the readiness of the client to make changes and the therapeutic relationship with the counselor. The counseling relationship is confidential. 10/4/2012 MRS.ANUJA CHAVAN. 35

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