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Manajemen lanjut 6

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manajemen lanjutan

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  • 1. Problem Solving, Creativity and Innovation
  • 2. Problem solving
    • Is a skill that is required of every person in almost every aspect of life.
    • The manager’s job , in particular, is inherently a problem solving job.
    • In this chapter, we offer specific guidelines and techniques for improving problem solving skill.
    • Two kinds of problem solving:
    • - Analytical problem solving
    • - Creative problem solving.
  • 3. Steps in analytical Problem Solving
    • Most people don’t like problems:
    • - time consuming; - create stress;
    • - never seem to go away.
    • In fact, most people try to get rid of problems as soon as they can.
    • Their natural tendency is to select the first reason able solution that comes to mind. Unfortunately, that first solution is often not the best one.
    • Effective problem solving relies on a systematic and logical approach, and it involves at least four steps.
  • 4. Defining the problem
    • Step:
    • Defining the problem:
    • - Differentiate fact from opinion;
    • - Specify underlying causes;
    • - Tap everyone involved from information;
    • - State the problem explicitly;
    • - Identify what standard is violated;
    • - Determine whose problem it is
    • - Avoid stating the problem as a disguised solution
  • 5.
    • 2. Generate alternative solution
    • - Postpone evaluating alternative;
    • - Be sure all involved individuals generating
    • alternative;
    • - Specify alternatives that are consistent with goal;
    • - Specify both short and long term alternatives;
    • - Build on others’ ideas;
    • - Specify alternatives that solves the problem
  • 6.
    • 3. Evaluate and select an alternative
    • Evaluate relative to an optimal standard;
    • Evaluate systematically;
    • Evaluate relative to goals;
    • Evaluate main effects and side effects;
    • State the selected alternative explicitly
  • 7.
    • 4. Implement and follow up on the solution
    • Implement at the proper time and in the right sequence;
    • Provide opportunities for feedback;
    • Engender acceptance of those who are affected;
    • Establish an ongoing monitoring system;
    • Evaluate based on problem solution.
  • 8. Defining the problem
    • This involves diagnosing a situation so that the focus is on the real problem, not just symptom.
    • Example: suppose you must deal with an employee who consistently fails to get work done on time.
    • What the problem?
  • 9.
    • The more information that is acquired, the more likely it is that problem will be defined accurately.
  • 10. Generating alternatives solution
    • This requires postponing the selection of any one solution until several alternatives have been proposed.
    • Judgment and evaluation must be postpone so the first acceptable solution suggested is not the one immediately selected.
  • 11.
    • The problem with evaluation and selecting an alternative too early is that we may rule out some good ideas by just not getting around thinking about them.
    • We hit on an idea that sound goods and we go with it, thereby never even thinking of alternatives that may be better in the long run.
    • Many alternatives solutions must be produced before any of them evaluated.
  • 12. Evaluating alternatives
    • The third problem-solving step is to evaluate and select an alternative.
    • This step involves careful weighing of the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed alternatives before making a final selection.
    • We have to make sure that alternatives are judged in terms of the extent to which they will solve the problem without causing other unanticipated problems;
    • the extent to which all individuals involved will accept the alternative
  • 13.
    • the extent to which all individuals involved will accept the alternative
    • The extent to which implementation of the alternative is likely;
    • And the extent to which the alternative fits with the organization constraint (consistent with policies, norms, and budget limitations)
  • 14. Implementing the solution
    • The final step is implement and follow up on the solution.
    • The best problem solvers are careful to select a strategy that maximizes the proba bility that the solution will be accepted and fully implemented.
    • Generally speaking, participation by others in the implementation by others in the implementation of a solution will increase its acceptance and decrease resistance.
  • 15.
    • Effective implementation is usually most effective when it is accomplished in small steps or increments.
    • Any implementation requires follow-up to prevent negative side effects and ensure solution of problem, and it also serves a feedback function by providing information that can be used to improve future problem solving.
  • 16. Limitations of the analytical Problem-Solving model
    • Managers do not always practice these steps.
    • The demands of their jobs often pressure managers into circumventing some steps, and problem solving suffers as a result.
    • These problem-solving steps are most effective mainly :
    • - when the problems faced are straight
    • forward,
    • - when alternatives are readily definable,
    • - when relevant information is available ;
    • - when a clear standard exist.
  • 17.
    • - Problem such as discovering why morale is so low, determining how to implement downsizing without antagonizing employees, developing a new process that will double productivity and improve customer satisfaction, or identifying ways to overcome resistance to change.
    • Table 2 summarizes some reasons why analytical problem solving is not always effective in day to day managerial situations.
  • 18. 1. Define the problem:
    • - there is seldom consensus as to the
    • definition of the problem;
    • - there is often uncertainty as to whose
    • definition will be accepted.
    • - problems are usually defined in terms of
    • the solution already possessed.
    • - symptoms get confused with the real
    • problem;
    • - confusing information inhibits problem
    • identification.
  • 19. 2. Generate alternatives solutions
    • - solution alternatives are usually evaluated
    • one at time as they are proposed;
    • - few of the possible alternatives are usually
    • known;
    • - the first acceptable solution is usually
    • accepted;
    • - alternatives are based on what was
    • successful in the past.
  • 20. 3. Evaluate and select an alternative
    • - limited information about each alternative is usually available
    • - search for information occurs close to home – in easily
    • accessible places
    • - the type of information available is constrained by factors
    • such as primary vs recency, extemity vs centrality, expected
    • vs surprising, and correlation vs causation
    • - gathering information on each alternative costly;
    • - preferences of which is the best alternative are not always
    • known.
    • - satisfactory solution , not optimal ones, are usually
    • accepted;
    • - solution are often selected by oversight or default;
    • - solution are often are implemented before the problem is
    • defined.
  • 21. 4. Implement and follow up on the solution
    • - acceptance by others of the solution is not
    • always forthcoming;
    • - resistance to change is universal phenomenon;
    • - it is not always clear what part of the solution
    • should be monitored or measured in follow up;
    • - political and organizational processes must be
    • managed in any implementation effort;
    • - it may take a long time to implement a solution
  • 22. Creative Problem Solving
  • 23.
    • Creative problem solving is focused on generating something new.
    • The trouble is that most people have trouble solving problems creatively.
    • They have developed certain conceptual blocks in their problem solving activities of which they are not even aware.
    • The blocks are largely personal.
  • 24.
    • Conceptual blocks are mental obstacles that constraint the way problem are defined and limit the number of alternatives solutions thought to be relevant.
    • Conceptual blocks result largely from the thinking process that problem solvers use when facing problem.
    • So many information is available to you and being processed by your brain but you have tone out some things and focused on others.
  • 25.
    • Over time, you must develop the habit of mentally filtering out some of information to which you are exposed, otherwise; information overload would drive you crazy .
    • These filtering habits eventually become conceptual blocks.
    • Formal education often prescribes “Right” answer, analytic rules, or thinking boundaries, so educated individuals less able to solve problem creatively.
  • 26.
    • We focus on problems that require creative rather than analytical solutions.
    • Example : at the end of the war the market of Radar essentially dried up, and most firms stopped producing Magnetrons. Percy Spencer’s, a scientist, trying to think of alternative uses for devices. Percy’s solution is produced the microwave oven and a revolution in cooking methods throughout the world.
  • 27. Conceptual Blocks That inhibit Creative Problem Solving
    • 1.Constancy:
    • - Vertical thinking : defining a problem in only one way without considering alternative views.
    • - One thinking language : not using more than one language to define and asses the problem
    • 2. Commitment:
    • - Stereotyping based on past experience : present problems are seen only as variations of past problems.
  • 28.
    • - Ignoring Commonalities : failing to
    • perceive commonalities among elements
    • that initially appear to be different.
    • 3. Compression
    • - Distinguishing figure from ground:
    • not filtering out irrelevant information or
    • finding needed information
    • - Artificial constraints : defining the boundaries
    • of a problem too narrowly
  • 29.
    • 4. Complacency :
    • - Noninquisitiveness : Not asking
    • questions.
    • - Nonthinking : a bias toward activity in
    • place of mental work.
  • 30. 1 . Constancy
    • Constancy : means that an individual becomes wedded to one way of looking at a problem or to using one approach to define, describe, or solve it.
    • Constancy sometimes drives out creativity .
    • Vertical thinking: refers to defining a problem in a single way and then pursuing that definition without deviation until a solution is reached. No alternative definition are considered.
  • 31.
    • De Bono contrasted Lateral thinking ;
    • Lateral thinking vs vertical thinking
    • - continuity - discontinuity
    • - chooses - change
    • - stability - instability
    • - search for is right - search for what is
    • different
    • - is analytical - provocative
    • - where an idea - where idea is going
    • come from
    • - moves in the most - moves in the least likely
    • likely direction direction
    • - develops an idea - discovers the idea
  • 32.
    • Example:
    • In a search for oil.
    • Vertical thinkers : determine a spot for the hole and drill the hole deeper and deeper until they strike oil.
    • Lateral thinkers : drill a number of holes in different places in search oil.
    • So, lateral thinkers make a new definition.
    • Shifting definition is not easy, because is not natural.
  • 33.
    • A single thinking language
    • Most people thinking in words – that is, they think about a problem and its solution in terms of verbal language. Analytical problem solving reinforces this approach.
    • Other thought of languages are available, such as nonverbal or symbolic (math), smelling or tactile (sensation), feelings and emotions (happiness, fear, anger), and visual imagery (mental picture).
    • The more languages available to problem solvers, the better and more creative will be their solution.
    • This is the reason that true creativity often starts where (verbal) language ends.
  • 34.
    • By moving only one matchstick, make the figure into a true equality.
  • 35. 2. Commitment
    • Commitment can also serve as a conceptual block to creative problem solving.
    • Once individuals become committed to a particular point of view, definition, or solution, it is likely that they will follow through on that commitment.
  • 36.
    • Stereotyping based on past experiences : certain preconceptions formed on the basis of past experience determine how an individual defines situations.
    • When individual receive an initial cue regarding the definition of a problem, all subsequent problems are frequently framed in terms of the initial cue.
    • Perceptual stereotyping prevents individuals from viewing a problem in novel (new) ways.
  • 37.
    • Ignoring Commonalities is failure to identify similarities among seemingly disparate pieces of data.
    • This is among the most commonly identified blocks to creativity . It means that a person becomes committed to a particular point of view, to the fact that elements are different, and , consequently, becomes unable to make connections, identify themes, or perceive commonalities.
  • 38.
    • The ability to find one definition or solution for two seemingly dissimilar problems is a characteristic of creative individuals.
    • To test your own ability to see commonalities, answer the following three questions; What are some common terms that apply to both water and finance? Using the code letters for the smaller ships as a guide , What is the name of the larger ship? (Figure 4) What does the single piece of wood look like that will pass through each hole in the block in (figure 5.)
  • 39. 3. Compression
    • Compression : looking to narrowly at a problem, screening out too much relevant data, and making assumptions that inhibit problem solution are common examples
  • 40.
    • Artificial constraints
    • Sometimes people place boundaries around problems, or constraint their approach to them, in such away that the problems become impossible to solve.
    • For illustration of this conceptual blocks. Look at figure 6. without lifting your pencil from the paper; draw for straight lines that pass through all nine dots.
  • 41. The Nine-Dot Problem
  • 42.
    • By thinking of the figure as more constrained than it actually is, the problems become impossible to solve.
    • Try to break out of your own limiting assumptions on the problem.
    • Artificially constraining problems means that the problem definition and the possible alternatives are limited more than the problem necessitates.
  • 43.
    • Separating Figure from Ground it is the ability to constraint problems sufficiently so that they can be solved.
    • Problems almost never come clearly specified, so problem solvers must determine what the real problem is. They must filter out inaccurate , misleading, or irrelevant information in order to define the problem correctly and generate appropriate alternatives solution.
  • 44.
    • This compression block – separating figure from ground and artificially constraining problems – played an important role to find solution.
  • 45. 4. Complacency
    • Complacency block are a lack of questioning and a bias against thinking.
    • Noninquisitiveness. Sometimes the ability to solve problems results from an unwillingness to ask questions, obtain information, or search for data.
    • Asking questions puts them at risk of exposing their ignorance.
  • 46.
    • Creative problem solving is inherently risky, therefore, because it potentially involves interpersonal conflict. It risky also because it is fraught with mistakes. “ If you want to have a good idea, have a lot of them, because most of them will be bad ones”
    • Most of us are not rewarded for bad ideas.
  • 47.
    • Creative problem solver, however, are frequently engaged in inquisitive and experimental behavior.
    • Bias Against Thinking is a second manifestation of the complacency block. This block, like most of the others, is partly a cultural bias as well as a personal one.
  • 48.
    • Left-hemisphere thinking, for most people, is concerned with logical, analytical, linear, or sequential tasks. Thinking using the left hemisphere is apt to be organized, planned, and precise. Language and mathematics are left-hemisphere activities.
    • Right-hemisphere thinking is concerned with intuition, synthesis, playfulness, and qualitative judgment. It tend to be more spontaneous, imaginative, and emotional than left-hemisphere thinking.
  • 49.
    • Problem solving on the basis of reason, logic, and utility is generally rewarded, while problem solving based on sentiment, intuition, or pleasure is frequently considered tenuous and inferior.
    • A number of researchers have found that the most creative problem solver are ambidextrous in their thinking. That is, they use both left – and right – hemisphere thinking and easily switch from one to other.
  • 50.
    • Creative ideas arise most frequently in the right hemisphere but most processed and interpreted by the left, so creative problem solvers use both hemisphere equally well.
    • Try the exercise on table 4.
  • 51. Exercise to test Ambidextrous Thinking (Table 4)
    • List 1 list 2
    • Sunset decline
    • Perfume very
    • Brick ambiguous
    • Monkey resources
    • Castle term
    • Guitar conceptual
    • Pencil about
    • Computer appendix
    • Umbrella determine
    • Radar forget
    • Blister quantity
    • Chessboard survey
  • 52.
    • Take 2 minutes to memorize the first list, than right down, on a piece of paper, as many as you can remember. Do the same thing to second list.
    • Most people remember the first list more than second list. This is because the first list contains words that relate to visual perceptions. They connect with right – brain activity as well as left-brain activity.
  • 53. Conceptual Blockbusting
    • Conceptual block can not be overcome all at once because most blocks are a product of years of habit forming thought process.
    • Overcoming them requires practice in thinking in different ways over a long period of time.
  • 54. Stages in Creative thought
    • A first step in overcoming conceptual blocks is recognizing that creative problem solving is a skill that can be developed.
    • To be an original thinkers:
    • First ; you have to have a tremendous amount of information;
    • Second ; you have to be willing to pull the ideas; because you interested;
    • Third ; you must have the ability to get rid of the trash which you think of.
  • 55.
    • Creative problem solving involves 4 stages:
    • The preparation stage;
    • The incubation stage;
    • The illumination;
    • The verification.
  • 56.
    • The preparation stage : gathering data, defining problem, generating alternatives,
    • and consciously examining all available
    • information.
    • The incubation stage:
    • Involves mostly unconscious mental activity in which the mind combines unrelated thoughts in pursuit of a solution.
  • 57.
    • The illumination stage ; occurs when an insight is recognized and creative solution is articulated.
    • The verification stage; which involves evaluating the creative solution relative to some standard of acceptability.
  • 58. Methods for improving problem definition
    • Problem definition is probably the most critical step in creative problem solving. Once a problem is defined, solving is often relatively simple.
    • Three such techniques for improving and expanding the definition process :
  • 59.
    • Make the Strange Familiar and make the Familiar Strange;
    • Elaborate on the Definition;
    • Reserve the Definition
  • 60. Make the Strange Familiar and the familiar Strange
    • Synectics, the goal of synectics is to help you put something you don’t know in terms of something you do know, and then reserve the process back again. The point is, by analyzing what you know and applying it to what you don’t know, you can develop new insights and perspectives
    • The process of synectics relies on the use of analogies and metaphors, and it works this way
  • 61.
    • First, you form a definition of a problem (make the strange familiar). Then, you try to transform that definition so it is out of focus, distorted, or changed in some way (make the familiar strange). Use synectics – analogies and metaphor – to create this distortion. Postpone the original definition of the problem while you examine the analogy or the metaphor. Then impose that same analysis on the original problem to see what new insight you can uncover.
  • 62.  
  • 63.
    • If you see the picture; what is the problem?
    • Masalahnya antrian terlalu panjang?
    • What does this remind me?
    • What does this make me feel like?
    • What is this similar to?
    • What isn’t this similar to?
    • Coba analogikan dengan sebuah restoran, sisi lain apa yang saudara lihat?
  • 64.
    • By analyzing the metaphor or analogy , you may identify attributes of the problem that were not evident before. New insights can occur.
    • Many creative solutions have been generated by such a technique. William Harvey was the first to apply the “pump” analogy to the Heart. Which led to the discovery of the body’s circulatory system.
  • 65.
    • Some hints to keep in mind when constructing analogies are:
    • - Include action or motion in the analogy (driving a car, cooking a meal, attending a funeral)
    • Include things that can be visualized or pictured in the analogy ( circuses, football games, crowded shopping malls)
    • Pick familiar events or situations (families, kissing, bedtime)
    • Try to relate things that are not obviously similar.
  • 66.
    • Four types of analogies are recommended as part of sinectycs:
    • Personal analogies , in which individuals try to identify themselves as the problem: if I were the problem;
    • - how would I feel?
    • - what would I like?
    • - what could satisfy me?
  • 67.
    • Direct analogies , in which individuals apply facts, technology, and common experience to the problem (Brunei solved the problem of underwater construction by watching a shipworm tunneling into a tube)
  • 68.
    • Symbolic analogies , in which symbols or images are imposed on the problem (modeling the problem mathematically or diagramming the process flow).
    • Fantasy analogies , in which individuals ask the questions “In my wildest dreams, how would I wish the problem to be resolved? (I wish all employees would work with no supervision)
  • 69. Elaborate on the definition
    • There are variety of ways to enlarge, alter, or replace a problem definition once it has been specified.
    • Once way is to force yourself to generate at least two alternative hypotheses for every problem definition, that is, specify at least two plausible definitions of problem in addi tion to the one originally accepted. Think in plural rather than singular terms.
  • 70.
    • What are the problems?
    • What are the meaning of this?
    • what will be the results?
    • Another way to elaborate definitions is to use a questions checklist.
    • Is there anything else?
    • Is the reserve is true?
    • Is this a symptom of a more general problem?
    • Who sees differently?
  • 71.
    • Or you can use SCAMPER:
    • S ubstitution;
    • C ombination;
    • A daptation;
    • M odification;
    • P utting to other uses;
    • E limination;
    • R earrangement
  • 72.
    • Reverse definition is a third tool for improving and expanding problem definition.
    • That is, the problem upside down , inside out, or back to front .
    • Reverse the way in which you think of the problem.
    • Baca contohnya hal. 181 di handout.
  • 73.
    • By reversing the definition, Sundusky not eliminated the problem without damaging the tradition and without shifting the risk to insurance companies or other community groups; it added a new dimension that allowed at least some people to enjoy the event more than ever.
  • 74.
    • Anda anak tunggal yang sedang menghadapi UAS, and harus belajar untuk mencapai goal anda. Tapi pada saat yang sama ibu di rawat di rumah sakit dan minta ada yang menemani. Ayah sedang tugas luar kota, Bgm solusinya? Cari sebanyak mungkin.
    • Dengan susah payah tuan A pergi ke kantor menggu nakan mobil yang selalu “ngadat”. Tuan A tidak pu nya waktu untuk ke bengkel, danbulan itu tidak ada anggaran untuk perbaikan mobilnya; bagaimana solusinya? Cari sebanyak mungkin.
  • 75.
    • The purpose of Techniques for improving problem definition – make the strange familiar and make familiar strange, elaborate on the definition, reverse the definition – is not to help you generate alternative definitions, just for sake the alternatives but to broaden your perspectives, to help you overcome conceptual blocks, and to produce more elegant solutions.
  • 76. Ways to generate more alternatives.
    • Most of us consider a minimal number and narrow range of alternatives in problem solving.
    • Creative problem solver are:
    • Fluency : the number of ideas or concepts produced in a given length of time.
    • Flexibility of thought : diversity of ideas or concepts generated.
  • 77.
    • Techniques for Generating More Alternatives:
    • 1. defer judgment;
    • 2. Expand current alternatives;
    • 3. Combine unrelated attributes.
  • 78.
    • Defer Judgment is the common method of generating alternatives.
    • Is the techniques of brainstorming .
    • Is designed to help people generate alternatives for problem solving without prematurely evaluating alternatives, and hence discarding, them
  • 79.
    • Rules for govern brainstorming:
    • 1. No evaluation of any kind permitted; individual
    • energy is spent on generating ideas.
    • 2. The wildest and most divergent ideas are encora
    • ged;
    • 3. The quantity of ideas takes precedence over the
    • quality;
    • 4. Participant should build on or modify the ideas of
    • others.
  • 80.
    • Expand current alternatives is subdivision, or dividing a problem into smaller parts.
    • For example: how many uses can you list for a ping pong ball?
    • Ping pong ball : shape; weight, texture, strength, hardness, chemical properties, color.
  • 81.
    • By dividing an object mentally into more specific attributes; you can arrive at many more alternatives uses.
    • Contoh: ada kue yang tinggal ¾ bagian, bagaimana saudara membagi kue tersebut untuk 4 anak anda dalam ukuran dan bentuk yang sama?
  • 82.  
  • 83.
    • Combine Unrelated Attributes
    • Forcing the integration of seemingly unrelated elements.
    • An ability to see common relationships among disparate factors is major factors differentiating creative from noncreative individuals.
  • 84.
    • Morphological synthesis :
    • First – right down the problem;
    • Second – listed attribute of the problem;
    • Third - Listed alternatives of each
    • attribute;
    • Fourth – combined different alternatives
  • 85.
    • The relational algorithm
    • Involves applying connecting words that force a relationship between two elements in a problem.
    • A list of some relational words:
    • about against after out among and
    • before from near where between under
    • while with trough because but for then
  • 86.
    • Our customers are dissatisfied with our service.
    • Customers and service
    • Dissatisfied with
    • Alternatives:
    • - customer among services
    • - customers as service
    • - service before customers
    • - service trough customers
    • - customer for service
  • 87.
    • Reading about techniques or having a desire to be creative is not, by itself, enough to make you skillful creative problem solver. They depend on application and practices as well as an environment that conducive to creativity.
  • 88.  

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