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rural electrification
 

rural electrification

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this is a presentation done to give awareness about power generation and generation using renewable energy sources to children s .In this presentation a new approach of using renewable is give that is ...

this is a presentation done to give awareness about power generation and generation using renewable energy sources to children s .In this presentation a new approach of using renewable is give that is "INTEGRATION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES"

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rural electrification rural electrification Presentation Transcript

  • Rural Electrification
    Empowering rural INDIA
    • At the rate of 48 per day
    • More than 1650 per year
    • At least 10,500 from 1996-2007
  • Farmers who committed suicide
  • Reasons
    Climatic conditions
    Politics
    Lack of energy
  • energy
  • Law of conservation of energy :
    “Energycan neither be creatednor destroyedbut it can be converted from one form to another form”
  • Energy
    Electrical Energy
  • HISTORY OF ELECTRICITY
    Many people think Benjamin Franklin discovered Electricity with his famous kite-flying experiments in1752
    But electricity was not discovered all at once
  • THE BATTERY
    In 1800, Alessandro Volta , an Italian scientist, made a great discovery.
    He soaked paper in salt water, placed zinc and copper on opposite sides of the paper, and watched the chemical reaction produce an electric current.
  • Volta had created the first electric cell.
    By connecting many of these cells together, Volta was able to “string a current” and create a battery.
    It is in honor of Volta that we measure battery power in volts.
  • A CURRENT BEGAN
    An English scientist, MichaelFaraday, was the first one to realize that an electric current could be produced by passing a magnet through a copper wire.
    Almost all the Electricity we use today is made with magnets and coils of copper wire in giant power plants.
  • Types of energy sources
    • Renewable
    • Non renewable
  • Types of non renewable energy resources
    • Coal
    • Petrol
    • diesel
    • Natural gas
  • Disfavors!!!
    • extinction of resources
    • Increasing demand
    • pollution
  • RENEWABLE
    TYPES OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES
    • Solar energy
    • Wind energy
    • Tidal energy
    • Geo thermal energy
    • Bio mass
  • here comes the SUN
    Solar energy is the radiant light and heat from the sun
  • The total solar energy available to earth is approximately 3850 ZETA joules per year
  • Electricity
    Light
    Solar Cell (PV)
    Solar Cell(Photovoltaics)
  • Polysilicon
    Wafer
    Solar Cell
    Solar Module
    Systems
    Chemical Process
    (purification)
    Casting
    Cutting
    Surface Treatment
    Installation
    Operation
    Assembly
    The PV Value Chain (multi-crystalline)
  • Developments in solar cells
    • First generation – pure silicon,33%efficiency,
    more expensive
    • Second generation -- thin film solar cells low cost low efficiency, CdTe , selenium , amorphous silicon
    • Third generation– low cost high efficiency
    multi junction, tandem cells nano structured
  • Applications …
    • domestic lighting
    • street lighting
    • village electrification
    • water pumping
    • Solar satellites
    • powering of remote telecommunication repeater stations and
    • railway signals.
    • Solar vehicles
  • Latest advancements….
    • Nano powered (DSSC)
    • Solar concentrators
    • Paint solar cells
    • Spherical solar cells
    • Reflective dishes
  • MNES
    Street Light
    Traffic Signal
    Garden Lights
    Blinker
  • MNES
    BiPV System
    Traffic Signals
    Road Studs
    Garden Lights
    Power Pack
    Blinkers
  • 10 kW roof integrated photovoltaic's
    at CSE canteen, Delhi
  • Indian Oil Corporation Building, Delhi
    (14 kW BiPV and 4000 lpd SWHS)
  • Solar thermal collectors
  • Solar tower
    heated air-->rises up-->gains momentum-->
    flows through chimney-->rotates turbine....
  • Solar Home Systems
    Space
    Water Pumping
    Telecom
    Main Application Areas – Off-grid
  • Challenges……..
    • High capital
    • Land scarcity
    • Slow progress
    • Climatic conditions
  • Wind energy
  • Orientation
    Turbines can be categorized into two overarching classes based on the orientation of the rotor
    Vertical AxisHorizontal Axis
  • 44
    Pros
    Small project size
    Short/flexible development time
    Dispatch ability
    Cons
    Generally remote location
    Grid connectivity -- lack of transmission capability
    Intermittent output
    Only When the wind blows (night? Day?)
    Low capacity factor
    Predicting the wind -- we’re getting better
  • Integrated energy systems
  • Cascaded solar energy systems
  • A Scheme to Integrate Solar Radiation and Wind Energy as Potential Energy
  • Integration of Solar Radiation and Wind Energy as Low-Grade Thermal Energy
  • Integration of Solar Radiation and Wind Energy in Electrochemical Form
  • Overall Schematics of an Integrated Renewable Energy System
  • Solar PV
    L.C.C per KW for 25 years-Rs.2062233
  • Solar Thermal Plant
    L.C.C per KW for 20 years-Rs.57990.055
  • Micro Hydro Unit
    L.C.C for 20 years –Rs.332919
  • Biomass Plant
    L.C.C cost for 20 years-Rs.358803.8
  • Wind Energy System
    L.C.C per KW for 20 years –Rs.57269.8
  • L.C.C – Life Cycle Cost
    L.C.C = Capital + R.P + M.P + Energy Cost – Salvage
    Where,
    R.P=Replacement Cost.
    M.P=Maintenance Cost.
    Cost per KWh=L.C.C/(N*E)
    Where,
    N=Life Period.
    E=Energy used.
  • Comparison of Renewable and Non Renewable Energy Sources